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I L i B R a'r'y 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF A( ^RI(ftjE'ftjiE ^ ^ ^ 
BUKEAF OP BIOLOGICAL SURVEY ^ NOV 3 0 ^229 if 

mnm American toinT" 



ISTo. 52 

[November, 1929] 




KEYISION OF THE AMEEICAN CHIPMUNKS 

(Genera TAMIAS and EUTAMIAS) 



BY 

ARTHUR H. HOWELL 

BBNIOB BIOLOGIST, DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS 
BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 




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Price 35 cents 



THE NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



Copies of (he North American Fauna not out of print are for sale, at the prices 
named, by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. Numbers marked with an asterisk [*] are out of print. 

*No. 1. Revision of the North American Pocket Mice. By C. Hart Mcrriam. 

Pp. 36, pis. 4. 18S9. 
*No. 2. Descriptions of Fourteen New Species and One New Genus of North 

American Mammals. By C. Hart Merriam. Pp. 52, pis. 8, figs. 7. 1889. 
*No. 3. Results of a Biological Survey of the San Francisco Mountain Region 

and Desert of the Little Colorado, Arizona. By C. Hart Merriam and 

Leonhard Stejneger. Pp. 136, pis. 14, maps 5 (colored), figs. 2. 1890. 
*No. 4. Descriptions of Twenty-six New Species of North American Mammals. 

By C. Hart Merriam. Pp. 60, pis. 3, figs. 3. 1890. 
*No. 5. Results of a Biological Reconnoissance of South-Central Idaho. By 

C. Hart Merriam and Leonhard Stejneger. Descriptions of a New Genus 

and Two New Species of North American Mammals. By C. Hart Merriam. 

Pp. 132, pis. 4 (1 colored), figs. 4. 1891. 
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*No. 7. The Death Valley Expedition: A Biological Survey of Parts of Cali- 
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6. Desert Trees and Shrubs, by C. Hart Merriam. 7. Desert Cactuses and 
Yuccas, by C. Hart Merriam. 8. List of Localities, by T. S. Palmer. Pp. 402, 
pis. 15, maps 5, figs. 2. 1893. * 

*No. 8. Monographic Revision of the Pocket Gophers, Family Geomyidse (exclu- 
sive of the species of Thomomys). By C. Hart Merriam. Pp. 258, pis. 20, 
figs. 71, maps 4 (colored). 1895. 
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*No. 10. Revision of the Shrews of the American Genera Blarina and Notioso- 
rex. By C. Hart INIerriam. The Long-tailed Shrews of the Eastern United 
States. By Gerrit S. MiUer, jr. Synopsis of the American Shrews of the 
Genus Sorex. By C. Hart Merriam. Pp. 124, pis. 12, figs. 3. 1895. 

*No. 11. Synopsis of the Weasels of North America. By C. Hart Merriam. 
Pp. 44, pis. 6, figs. 16. 1896. 

*No. 12. The Genera and Subgenera of Voles and Lemmings. By Gerrit S. 
MiUer, jr. Pp. 84, pis. 3, figs. 40. 1896. 

*No. 13. Revision of the North American Bats of the Family Vespertilionidas. 
By Gerrit S. MiUer, jr. Pp. 140, pis. 3, figs. 40. 1897. 

*No. 14. Natural History of the Tres Marias Islands, Mexico. General Account 
of the Islands, with Reports on Mammals and Birds, by E. W. Nelson. 
Reptiles, by Leonhard Stejneger. Notes on Crustacea, by Mary J. Rath- 
bun. Plants, by J. N. Rose. Bibliography, by E. W. Nelson. Pp. 97, pi. * 
(map), figs. 2. 1899. 

*No. 15. Revision of the Jumping Mice of the Genus Zapus. By Edward A. 
Preble. Pp. 42, pi., figs. 4. 1890. 

*No. 16. Results of a Biological Survey of Mount Shasta, California. By C. 
Hart Merriam. Pp. 179, pis. 5, figs. 46. 1899. 

*No. 17. Revision of American Voles of the Genus Microtus. By Vernon Bailey. 
Pp. 88, pis. 5, figs. 17. 1900. 

*No. 18. Revision of the Pocket Mice of the Genus Perognathus. By Wilfred H. 
Osgood. Pp. 72, pis. 4 (incl. 2 maps), figs. 15. 1900. 

*No. 19. Results of a Biological Reconnoissance of the Yukon Region: General 
Account of the Region. Annotated List of Mammals, by Wilfred H. Os- 
good. Annotated List of Birds, by Louis B. Bishop. Pp. 100, pis. 7 (incl. 
1 map). 1900. 

*No. 20. Revision of the Skunks of the Genus Chincha [Mephitis]. By Arthur 

H. HoweU. Pp. 62, pis. 8. 1901. 
*No. 21. Natural History of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia; 

and Natural History of the Cook Inlet Region, Alaska. By Wilfred H. 

Osgood. Pp. 87, pis. 7 (incl. 1 map), fig. (map). 1901. 
*No. 22. A Biological Investigation of the Hudson Bay Region. By Edward A. 

Preble. Pp. 140, pis. 14 (incl. 1 map). 1902. 
*No. 23. Index Generum Mammalium: A List of the Genera and Families of 

Mammals. By T. S. Palmer. Pp. 984. 1904. 
*No. 24. A Biological Reconnaissance of the Base of the Alaska Peninsula. By 

Wilfred H. Osgood. Pp. 86, pis. 7 (incl. 2 maps). 1904. 

^Continued on page 3 ot wiver) 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



Plate i 




B23233 B2816M 

Eastern Chipmunks 



A, firay chipmunk {Tamias striatus gnseus), Basswood Lake, Wis. Photo by Vernon Bailey; 
B, Northeastern chipmunk (7'. s. lysleri), Indian Lake, N. Y. Photo by Francis Harper 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 





Issued 
November, 1929 



No. 52 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 
WASHINGTON. D. C. 




REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 

(Geneka TAMIAS and EUTAMIAS) 
By Arthur H. Howell 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Introduction 1 

Geographic distribution 2 

Life history 2 

Key to genera and subgenera.- 11 

Genus Tamias Illiger 11 

History and nomenclature 11 

Generic characters 12 

External characters _ 12 

List of species and subspecies of Tamias 

with type localities 13 

Key to subspecies of Tamias striatm 14 



Page 



Genus Eutamias Trouessart- 23 

History and nomenclature.. 23 

Generic characters _ 26 

External characters 27 

List of species and subspecies of Eutamias 

with type localities 29 

Key to species and subspecies of Eutamias. 30 

Bibliography 138 

Index 155 



INTRODUCTION 



The American chipmunks comprise two distinct groups — the 
eastern chipmunks of the genus Tamias and the western chipmunks of 
the genus Eutamias.' Tamias is a compact group comprising but 
one species with five geographic races; Eutamias is represented iu 
North America by five distinct groups comprising 16 species and a 
total of 60 vahd forms. (Howell, 1922, p. 183-185.) ^ 

The eastern chipmunks have not been revised since 1886, when 
Merriam (1886b) divided the species into two races, nor the western 
chipmunks since 1890, when only 23 forms were recognized by Allen. 
In the western chipmunks (Eutamias) many of the forms bear close 
external resemblance to other foiTns belonging to quite distinct 
groups, and in the absence of a critical revision of the entire genus, 
based on adequate material, it was inevitable that much confusion 
should arise as to the proper identification and allocation of certain 
forms. 

_ In the present revision the author has had at his disposal prac- 
tically all the material in the principal museums and private collec- 
tions in North America, numbering 1,349 specimens of Tamias 

' The ground squiirels of the genus Oallospermophilus are sometimes locally known as chipmunks, but 
these are not treated in this revision. 
' Literature citations in parentheses refer to the bibliography, p. 138. 

40279°— 29 1 



2 



NORTII MIERICA.N FAUNAl 



[No. 52 



and 13,205 of Eiitamias.^ All measurements given are in milli- 
metei-s. The names of colors used in descriptions are mainly those of 
Ridgway.^ Specimens listed, xmless otherwise indicated, arc in the 
United States National Museum collection. 

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION 

The eastern chipmunks (Tamias) occupy the greater part of 
eastern United States and southern Canada east of the Great Plains, 
from James Bay, Ontario, and Shoal Lake, Manitoba, soiith to Louis- 
iana, southern Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia; east to southern 
Quebec (Matamek River), and the Atlantic seaboard from Gasp6 
Peniasula and Nova Scotia south to Virginia and the highlands of 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; west to Turtle Moun- 
tains, N. Dak., and eastern parts of South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, 
and Oklahoma. (Fig. 1.) 

The western chipmunks (Eutamias) occupy practically all of 
western North America west of the Plains, from central Yukon and 
southern Mackenzie south to south-central Lower California (lat. 
25° 30') and northwestern Durango; west to the Pacific coast of 
United States; east to eastern Ontario, Wisconsin, North Dakota, 
South Dakota, eastern Colorado, New Mexico, extreme western 
Texas, and the northwestern corner of Oklahoma. (Fig. L) 

The ranges of the two groups overlap in southern Ontario and 
northern North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan.^ 

LIFE HISTORY 

HABITAT 

The eastern cliipmunks (Tamias) are largely ground dwellers, and 
although they can climb trees they rarely do so. Indeed, in many 
localities, they are cormnonJy called "ground squirrels." Their 
favorite habitats are wooded hillsides or mountain slopes, especially 
about bluffs or ravines where rocks abound; they are partial also to 
stone walls and rail fences but rarely leave their protecting shelter 
for any distance to enter adjacent fields. Though usually preferring 
dry upland timber, they are occasionally found in moist bottom-land 
woods. Probably food and shelter are the most important factors in 
their choice of a habitat. Community life is not strongly developed 
in the chipmirnks as it is in the prairie dogs or the true groimd squir- 
rels, but the animals often associate in family groups, and in winter 

2 For the loan of material used in this study the author desires to extend thanks to the owners and cus- 
todians, as follows: H. K. Anthony, of the American Museum of Natural History; Witmer Stone, of the 
Academy of Natural Scienr;es of Philadelphia; Samuel Uenshaw, formerly of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, Harvard University; Joseph Orinnell, of the Museum of Vertehrate Zoology, University of Cali- 
fornia; W. H. OsKOod, of the Field Museum of Natural History; W. E. Clyde Todd, of the Carnegie Mu- 
seum; J. D. Figgins, of the Colorado Museum of Natural History; W. L, Burnett, of the Colorado Agri- 
cultural College; C. D. Bunker, of the Kansas University Museum; Dayton Stoner, formerly of the 
University of Iowa; Myron H. Sv/enk, of the University of Nebraska; Lee H. Dice, of the University of 
Michigan; George Wagner, of the University of Wisconsin; M. H. Spauldiiig, of the Montana State College; 
Albert H. Wright, of Cornell University; R. M. Anderson, of the National Museum of Canada; F. Ker- 
niode, of the Provincial Museum of British Columbia; Elon H. Eaton, of Geneva, N. Y.; Morris M. 
Green, of Ardmore, Pa.; Miss Edith Hardin, of Pullman, Wash.; Arthur H. Helrae, of Miller Place, 
N. Y.; A. Brazier Ilov/ell, of Baltimore, Md. (who.se collection has now become the property of Donald R. 
Dickey, of Pasadena, Calif.); John C. Phillips, of Wonham, Mass.; Kenneth Kacey, of Vancouver, British 
Columbia; W. E. Saunders, of London, Ontario; E. T. Seton, of Greenwich, Conn.; J. Dewey Sopcr, of 
Edmonton, Alberta; R. C. Tate, of Kenton, Okla.; and Edward R. Warren, of Colorado Springs, Colo. 

* RinOWAY, It. COLOK .STANDAHD.S AND COLOIl NOM ICNCI, '.TUKE, lfll2. 

' The genus Eutamias occurs al.so in Asia, but by reason of the lack of adequate material available for 
study, the Old-World .species are not considered in this report; none of them bears close resemblance to any 
American species. 



1929) 



REVISION OF THE AMEHICiN CHIPMUNKS 



3 



several individuals may be found occupying the same den and sub- 
sisting on a common store of provisions. 

Although less sprightly and agile than many of the western chip- 
mimks (Eutamias), the eastern chipmunks at times display marked 
vivacity and when frightened can cover the ground at a lively pace. 
As a rule they are rat|ier shy and secretive in their habits, and when 
frightened are apt to seek shelter in a burrow or the crevices of a 
stone wall. 

The western chipmunks (Eutamias) vary considerably in habits 
and habitat, but in general they are more agile and sprightly than 




Figure 1. — Distribution of the genera Tamias and Eutamias in North America 



the eastern chipmunks (Tamias) and most species are decidedly more 
arboreal. They are also less shy and more often seen abroad. 

No chipmunks are found in the more arid deserts of the Southwest, 
with the exception of Eutamias merriami meridionalis, found in the 
deserts of Lower California, but practically every "niche" in the 
vast area from the Rocky Mountains and the plains of western North 
Dakota to the Pacific coast is filled by one or more species. Some 
occupy the sage-covered plains; others live in the chaparra,l or brush- 
covered slopes of mountains and foothills; some prefer the open 
yellow-pine forests, others the heavy, dark, moist timber of the 
Pacific coast belt; rocky hillsides or canyons overgrown with berry- 



4 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



(No. 52 



beanng bushes are favorite resorts for many species; while a few 
species hve at tmiberHne and above, apparently with as much success 
as those that occupy more salubrious regions. 

Although never so completely arboreal as the tree squirrels 
(Sciurus), many species of Eutamias climb trees easily and frequently. 
The membei-s of the quadrimttatus group are perfeaps the best climbere, 
and individuals of this gi-oup often ascend large trees to a height of 
40 or 50 feet and gather cones or fruits from the branches. 

The members of the toumsendii group are also semi-arboreal, 
cHmbmg with great facihty through underbrush and often ascending 
trees to a considerable height. Membei-s of the other groups 
{minimus, amoenus, and alpinus) are in general more strictly terres- 
trial, but all on occasion may be seen in trees. 

BURROWS AND NESTS 

The eastern chipmunks spend a large part of their lives in burrows, 
which they dig for themselves, often beneath a rock, a stone wall, 
the roots of a tree, or a building. The entrance holes are small and 
inconspicuous, and there is rarely any earth thrown out about the 
used doorw^ays. This is accomplished, apparently, by digging the 
burrow in some thicket or sheltered place and, after it is completed, 
closing up the original opening and maldng another entrance at the 
other end where it reaches the surface. Vernon Bailey excavated a 
chipmunlv burrow at Elk River, Minn., July 4, 1920, which he found 
to be about 20 feet in length and from 1 to 3 feet below the surface. 
It had several branches and openings and^our or five storage and 
nest cavities. A large old nest about 18' feet from the entrance, 
composed mainly of oak leaves, rested on a foundation of stored 
food suppHes, consisting of about 8 quarts of the previous year's 
acorns, a pint of old moldy com, and a handful of the previous year's 
hazekiuts. This cavity would have held about a bushel. A smaller 
storage chamber at one side of the burrow contained a handful of 
freshly stored com and about a pint of the previous year's acorns. 
At one side and about a foot below the nest cavity was a much-used 
toilet; the nest and storage chambers were clean and sweet. 

All species of Eutamias, so far as known, dig burrows either in the 
ground or in old logs, but little is known of the details of their con- 
struction. Meams states (1907, p. 286) that the young [of cinerei- 
coUts] are brought forth in nests of dry grass and similar material 
placed at the end of their burrows and mentions seeing the chip- 
munics early in June carrying immense loads of diy grass into the 
burrows. 

MUler (1897, p. 31) describes a burrow of E. minimus borealis 
that he examined at Peninsula Harbor, Ontario, as follows: 

On October 23, I found an adult female in a nest built of feathers and soft 
vegetable fibers at the end of a tunnel under a clump of bearberry. The tunnel 
was about 2 feet long and terminated a foot or more beneath the surface in a 
chamber about the size of a cocoanut. This chamber was completely filled by the 
nest, which contained, in addition to its occupant, a small store of seeds of various 
weeds and wild fruits. 

STORAGE OF FOOD 

All through the summer and especially eariy in the fall the eastern 
chipmunks are busy gathering food materials, which they carry to 
their dens in their capacious cheek pouches. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



5 



Audubon and Bachman (1846, vol. 1, p. 69) record a specimen taken 
in Louisiana that had 16 chinquapins in its pouches and another 
that held about Iji tablespoonfiils of bush-trefoil seeds. 

Vernon BaUey has found 25 kernels of com in the pouches of one 
individual and also reports instances of finding 17 hazelnuts in the 
pouches of one and 7 large jack-oak acorns in another. Hahn 
(1909, p. 473) records finding 145 grains of wheat in the pouches of a 
chipmunk of this genus (Tamias). 

A specimen taken in North Dakota and examined in the Bureau of 
Biological Survey contained 96 fruits of the basswood (Tilia ameri- 
cana) besides a quantity of seeds of wheatgrass (Triticum) and wild 
oats (A vena). Two specimens taken in Faii-fax County, Va., con- 
tained, respectively, 47 and 48 snaUs (Pomatiopsis lapidara). 

Kennicott (1857, p. 72) found over half a bushel of hickory nuts 
and acorns in a burrow that he opened in November; Bachman 
opened one in January and found "about a giU of wheat and buck- 
wheat in the nest; but in the galleries we afterward dug out, we 
obtained about a quart of the beaked hazelnuts {Corylus rostrata), 
nearly a peck of acorns, some grains of Indian corn, about 2 quarts of 
buckwheat, and a very small quantity of grass seeds" (Audubon 
and Bachman, 1846, vol. 1, p. 70). Rowley (1902, p. 39) records a 
burrow examined in May that contained about a peck of chestnuts, 
cherry pits, and dogwood berries. Vernon BaUey dug out a burrow 
in Herkimer County, N. Y., September 23, 1921, in which he found 
about a peck of stored food, chiefly ripe berries and seeds of arrow- 
wood (Viburnum derdatum) with smaller quantities of cherry pits, 
bunchberries (Corriu^ canadensis), and bellwort (Uvidaria) seeds. 
The nest cavity, which was about 3 feet below the surface and 7 feet 
from the entrance, was about the size of a half-bushel measure. 
The nest was a large baU of soft, dry leaves in the center of the 
cavity, and around and under the nest was packed the store of berries 
and seeds. 

The western chipmunks (Eutamias) apparently store food for winter 
in much the same manner as the eastern chipmunks (Tamias), but 
very little is known about the construction of their storage chambers 
or the quantity of food stored. Some species — perhaps aU — store 
food in smaU caches beneath old logs, in rock piles or crevices of 
cUffs, or in sand at the base of a shrub. Swarth states (1919, p. 408) 
that Eutamias alpinus in making these caches digs a hole and after 
putting in the food replaces the dirt dug out. The capacity of 
these chipmunks for transporting food is indicated by many records 
of the contents of their cheek pouches, some of which are as foUows: 
264 seeds of buckbrush (Ceanothus); 112 cherry pits (Prunus emargin- 
atus); 92 seeds of buffalo berry (Lepargyrea canadensis); 162 cactys 
seeds; 290 currant seeds; 710 seeds of a sedge (Carex); 1,150 of a 
grass (Stipa); 1,440 of cinquefoil (PotentiUa); 1,650 of cranberry 
(Oxycoccus); and 2,100 of speedwell (Veronica). 

HIBERNATION 

The extensive storing of food by the eastern chipmunks in their 
dens and the fact that they do not become noticeably fat in autumn 
point to the conclusion that they remain more or less active during 
the winter, and the rather scanty recorded observations mainly bear 



6 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[N0.C2 



out this conclusion. Bachman, describing chipmunks taken from a 
den that he opened in January under 5 inches of snow, says: 

They were not dormant, and seemed ready to bite when taken in the hand; 
but they were not very active, and appeared somewhat sluggish and benumbed, 
which we conjectured was owing to their being exposed to sudden cold from our 
having opened their burrow. (Audubon and Bachman, 1846, vol. 1, p. 70.) 

Kennicott (1857, p. 72) also opened a chipmunk's burrow in Illinois 
in November and foimd the single occupant active. C. C. Abbott 
dug out a nest of this species in New Jersey on November 3 and 

found four chipmunks very cozily fixed for winter, in a roomy compartment, 
and all of them thoroughly wide awake. Their store of provisions was in a 
smaller room or storehouse immediately adjoining, and consisted wholly of 
chestnuts and acorns; and the shells of such of these nuts as had been eaten 
were all pushed into one of the passages, so that there might be no litter mingled 
with the soft materials that lined the nest. (Abbott, 1884, p. 62.) 

On another occasion, however. Doctor Abbott found two chip- 
munks actually dormant. Of these, he says (1884, p. 59) : 

A pair that I dug out in March, having two days before reentered their winter 
quarters and become quite torpid, were appaj'ently lifeless when first taken up 
in the hands, and it was not until after several hours' warming that they became 
. lively and altogether Uke themselves. 

A note by Wirt Robinson confirms this observation of Doctor 
Abbott and proves conclusively that the eastern chipmunk sometunes 
becomes wholly dormant in winter. Doctor Robinson says (1923, 
p. 257): 

At this place, West Point, N. Y., on March 15, 1907, the weather very cold 
and the Hudson River still frozen over, on my way to my office, I passed some 
worlanen who were moving a large bowlder which was threatening to slide 
down into the roadway. As they rolled it over, I saw underneath it the galleries 
of some small animal and, in one corner, a ball of dried leaves. On opening this, 
I found inside a chipmunk, tightly coiled up, eyes closed, cold to the touch and 
stiff and rigid. I moved it to another spot, placed it where the sun would strike 
it, and covered it with some dry leaves. Two hours later I returned and found 
it with its eyes open, but still stiff and unable to move. I put it in my overcoat 
pocket which I hung up in the warm building for an hour or so and forgot about 
the chipmunk. In putting on the coat later, I slipped my hand into my pocket 
and the chipmunk promptly bit me severely, its incisors passing through my 
finger nail. When I reached a suitable spot, I released it and it scampered off, 
now perfectly alert. 

Seton states (1909, p. 363) that a specimen kept in captivity at 
Toronto was active ail winter while in a warm room, "but as soon as 
exposed to a temperature near freezing point, he curled up in his 
sleeping place and took -no further interest in the affairs of life." 

The date in fall when the chipmunks retu'C permanently into their 
burrows varies with the latitude and with the weather. At Cayuga 
Lake, N. Y., the last one seen in fall was on November 26 (1906) 
and the first in spring on February 26 (1905) (Reed and Wright, 1909, 
p. 454). At Lake Maxinkuckee, Ind., Evermann and Clark (1911, 
p. 8) observed a chipmunk that had its burrow beneath their cottage, 
and noted its disappearance on November 27, 1900, and its reappear- 
ance (the same individual) on March 20, 1901. 

In the Southern States, the chipmunks apparently are more or less 
active above ground all winter. Specimens have been taken in Pike 
County, Ark., December 17 and 23 and January 28 and 31, and at 
Washington, D. C, individuals are occasionally seen abroad during 
warm spells throughout the winter. They sometimes emerge from 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMEBIC A.N CHIPMUNKS 



7 



their burrows in winter, even in the North, but these appearances 
are rare, and the animals soon retire agaia to await the coming of 
spring. Mearns states that he shot a chipmunk on the snow in 
Lewis County, N. Y., in January, 1878, and another at Circleville, 
Ohio, December 4, 1880, during very cold weather, with snow on the 
ground. (Meams, 1898, p. 339.) Vernon Bailey saw one out on 
the snow at White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., on January 24, 1897. 

As with the eastern chipmunk, very little is on record concerning 
the hibernating habits of the various species of Eutamias. In the 
North, the chipmunlcs disappear during the colder months and hiber- 
nation is probably complete in regions where snow hes all winter. 
In the South, however, and in some places on the Pacific coast, they 
are active all winter. AE the species are hardy and do not retire to 
their winter quarters imtil late in fall, after snow and freezing weather 
have set in. 

In the Bitterroot Valley, Mont., Bernard Bailey reports the chip- 
munlis as disappearing about the last week in November and coming 
out in spring between the 10th and 20th of March. In the Yellow- 
stone Park, M. P. Skinner saw the first (Juteiventris) in spring on 
March 22 and the last in faU on November 3. E. A. Preble reports a 
chipmunk seen on the snow near the mouth of Liard River, Mackenzie, 
October 25, 1903, and G. G. CantweU reports Eutamias affinis active on 
November 9 at Repubhc, Wash., after the ground was well frozen. J.B. 
Flett reports seeing a chipmunlc (caurinus) at Longmire, Mount Rainier, 
Wash., on February 14, 1920, and another (cooperi) two days later. 

With the return of cold weather, about a week later, both disappeared and 
neither was seen until March 31, when the little caurinus appeared in the worst 
storm of the season. This individual ate until his cheeks were puffed out, then 
went back to sleep, and came out the third time on April 13. 

Nelson and Palmer found E. palmeri active the middle of February 
at an altitude of 8,000 feet on Charleston Peak, Nev., while snow lay a 
foot deep in the canyons. At Twining, N. Mex., E. quadrivittatus 
disappeared early in December, but at Cienequilla, N. Mex., the 
species was seen throughout the winter. At Kenton, Okla., according 
to R. C. Tate, chipmunks usually disappear between October 15 and 
November 1. 

Records of finding these chipmunks in a dormant condition are 
very few. C. "P. Streator, while at Agassiz, British Columbia, was in- 
formed by a man employed on the Dominion Experimental Farm that 
about November 20, 1895, while leveHng some knolls with a scraper, a 
chipmimi (probably Eutamias felix) was unearthed with its nest and 
winter store, consisting of about a pint of hazelnuts. The animal 
would move about a little when teased, but when let alone would He 
down and curl up. 

Alexander Walker (1923, p. 257) gives an account of finding one of the 
western chipmunks in a torpid condition in its nest. Mr. Walker says : 

On January 2, 1920, while removing a very large decayed spruce stump from 
a beach lot at Netarts, Tillamook County, Oreg., I examined the winter quarters 
of an Oregon chipmunk (Euta7nias townsendii) . The nest chamber, situated 
about 5 feet above the ground and 1 foot from the outside of the stump, was 
well filled with dry grasses and moss. No supply of food was found in the 
vicinity of this nest. The occupant of the nest v/as dormant and lay curled up 
so cold and stiff that it could hardly be straightened. It was carried several 
miles in a box, but did not become active until, some hours after being removed 
from the nest, it was placed in a warm room. Later in the day it escaped. 



8 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



(No. 52 



A rancliman living near Sundance, W3^o., reported to Vernon Bailey 
that he had several times found chipmunks in haystacks in winter, 
curled up and apparently dead; and loggers at Shelton, Oreg., report 
finding them m winter asleep in logs and dead trees. 

A. W. Anthonj' (1924, p. 76) describes his discovery of several 
dormant Townsend's chipmunks late in winter near Portland, Oreg., 
as follows: 

The animals had selected a sloping hillside and were deep under large fir 
stumps. Each nest was a small bunch of shredded vegetable iiber, in the center 
of which the chipmunk was curled, the tail covering the head and as far along the 
spine as it might reach. Hibernation was complete, the animal being stiff and 
cold, the flesh almost as if it might be frozen. There was no food either in the 
nest or in the earth under the stump, so far as could be discovered by human 
hands. The entire stump was uprooted before we finished the job. No two 
chipmunks were found under the same stump, nor, as I recall, near enough to be 
considered "neighborly," though all were on the same hillside and under similar 
conditions. 

W. P. Taylor reports an instance of the effect of cold on a chipmunk 
that was captured ahve at Owyhigh Lakes, Mount Rainier National 
Park, Wash., on August 9, 1919. When brought into camp the chip- 
munk was placed in a box for safe-keeping. The next morning it was 
curled up in the form of a sphere, its respiration was very slow, and its 
body was stiff and cold. On being placed where it could warm up 
slowly, it partially came out of its torpor, its respu'ation increasing in 
speed and its circulation being somewhat restored. During the 
awakening process its v/hiskers vibrated and it trembled all over. 

BREEDING 

The mating period of the ea^stem chipmunk is not definitely Imown 
but doubtless extends over a considerable period, beginning early in 
spring. A female specimen taken by Vernon Bailey in Marquette 
County, Mich., on March 30, 1907 (the first individual seen that 
season), contamed small embryos; in V/estchester County, N. Y., 
Rowley opened a burrow on May 10 and found five young chipmunks 
more than half grown. (Rowley, 1902, p. 39.) Half-grown young, 
accompanying their parents, may also be seen throughout the siunmer 
and until the middle of October. 

In the Bitterroot Valley, Mont., females (of Eutamias) carr3dng 
large embryos were taken on April 12 and young were seen abroad on 
April 17. In the Panamint Mountains, Calif., pregnant specimens 
were obtained on AprU 3, 18, and 19; at Shelton, Wash., females 
containing embryos were collected on April 15 and 18. At Canyon 
Citv, Colo., a specimen contaiuiag six embryos was taken on June 
14, "1893. 

The young in both genera vary from four to six in number and the 
females have four parrs of maromae, arranged as foUows: Pectoral, 
x; abdominal, -|; inguinal, |. 

VOICE 

The common note of the eastern chipmunk is a rather low-pitched 
clvxik or chvLck, which at times is repeated rapidly and gives the 
suggestion of a song. Seton (1909, p. 46) describes an instance of a 
chipmunk repeating these notes without ceasing for a period of 11 
minutes at the rate of 130 chirps to the minute. Another note is a 
higher-pitched chip, which much resembles the alarm note of the 
hooded warbler (Wilsonm citrina). When frightened and about to 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAI^ CHIPMUNKS 



9 



dive into its burrow the chipmunk utters a rapidly trilled whistle 
accompanied by a nervous twitching of the tail. 

The notes of the western chipmunks are similar in general to those 
of the eastern chipmunk but vary considerably among themselves. 
The common alarm note is a sharp chipper varying in pitch and 
intensity in different species; the other common note is a low clucking, 
which in some species is described as a "hollow barking note' 
(Swarth). HoUister compared the notes of Eutamias sonomse with 
those of the brown towhee {Pipilo fuscus), and Townsend, the dis- 
coverer of the species bearing his name, says the cluckiag note of 
that species resembles a note of the dusky grouse (Bendragapus 
ohscurus ) so closely that he had more than once been deceived by it. 

FOOD 

The food of the eastern chipmunk comprises a considerable variety 
of. nuts, fruits, grains, and other vegetable matter, with a small 
percentage of animal matter. The various nuts are probably most 
frequently eaten, these including acorns, hazelnuts, beechnuts, 
hickory nuts, chestnuts, and chinquapins. Corn is consumed in 
some quantities and wheat and oats less frequently. Wild fruits and 
berries furnish a considerable part of the chipmunk's diet; those 
commonly eaten include strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, goose- 
berries, wild cherries, and the fruit of the Virginia creeper (Partheno- 
cissus), arrowwood (Viburnum), dogwood (Cornus), basswood 
(Tilia), sweet gmn (Liquidambar), prickly-ash (Xanthoxylum), and 
red maple {Acer ruhrum). Seeds of various weeds and grasses are 
frequently eaten, and wintergreen berries, according to C. E. Brown 
(1913, p. 18), furnish a favorite food early in spring in Massachusetts. 
Mushrooms are mentioned by Meams as one of the chipmunk's 
food items. 

Animal matter apparently forms a very small percentage of the 
total food. Land snaUs and insect larvae and pupse are eaten not 
infrequently, and solitary instances are reported of a chipmunk 
eating a salamander, a frog, and a snake. Attacks upon birds or 
their eggs apparently are rare, but a few cases are recorded of this 
objectionable habit. Bachman narrates an instance of a chipmunk 
devouring young robins in the nest (Audubon and Bachman, 1846, 
vol. 1, p. 69), and Forbush (1904, p. 505) reports another instance 
of a chipmunk observed in the act of destroying young birds in the 
nest. William Brewster once saw a chipmunk pursue and kill a 
wounded wood thrush (EylocicJila musteUna) and greedily eat its 
brains. (Seton, 1909, vol. 1, p. 355.) 

The food habits of Eutamias are similar to those of the eastern 
chipmunlis (Tamias), but since many of the species live in more 
or less open country where nuts are not obtainable, they take a larger 
percentage of wild berries and seeds. Wherever nuts are available, 
however, they form an acceptable food supply. Acorns, hazel- 
nuts, chinquapins, and walnuts are frequently found in the pouches of 
specimens collected; pinyon nuts are a favorite food, as are the seeds 
of most of the conifers — pines, spruces, firs, tamarack, and hemlock. 
Merriam (1891, p. 44) mentions finding 332 seeds of the lodgepole pine 
(Pinus murrayana) in the pouches of a specimen of Eutamias amoenus 
taken in Idaho. 



10 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



Wild fruits of many lands are eaten by these cliipmunks and form 
one of the most important items in their food supply. The kinds most 
frequently taken are currants, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries, 
huckleberries, buffalo berries (Lepargyi-ea), wild cherries, manzanita 
berries (Arctostaphylos), ser\nce berries (Amelanchier), elderberries, 
dog\vood berries (Corn us), hackberries (Celtis), and juniper berries. 
Cactus fruit is eaten when available, and E. A. Goldman records a 
specimen taken at Redrock, N. Mex., the stomach of which was filled 
with the soft red pulp of tliis fruit. Whenever fleshy fruits are eaten, 
the seeds are apparently removed and carried in the pouches to the 
storage chamber. 

The foUage and flowers of certain plants are sometimes eaten, such 
as dandelion blossoms, willow buds, and the flowers and tender 
tips of sagebrush and rabbit brush (Chrysothamnus). Mushrooms, 
camas bulbs, and bulbs of Epilobimn and Polygonum, are occasionally 
consumed. 

Follo^^dng is a partial list of the varieties of seeds stored and eaten 
by chipmunks, identified by members of the Biu-eau of Biological 
Siirvey staff from cheek pouches examined either in the field or 
laboratory: Blueberry (Vaccinium), western cranberry (Oxycoccus), 
raspberry, manzanita (Arctostaphylos), currant (Ribes), chinaberry 
(Alelia), sumac (Rhus), honeysuckle (Lonicera), maple (Acer), rose, 
wild crab apple, chokecherry, wild red cherry {Prunus pennsylvanica) , 
buck brush (Ceanothus), mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus), Purshia, 
mesquite (Prosopis), cactus, sagebrush (Artemisia), lupine, violet, 
thistle, aster, sunflower, plantain, ragweed (Ambrosia), bindweed 
(Polygonum), dock (Rumex), beardtongue (Pentstemon), geranium, 
dayflower (Commelina), speedwell (Yeronica), Potentilla, grease- 
wood (Sarcobatus), and a nimiber of species of wild grasses. 

Insects are frequently eaten by these chipmunks, but apparently 
they are never placed in the cheek pouches; the few stomachs ex- 
amined showed a considerable percentage of insect remaias, some 
containing no vegetable food at all. The insects identified were 
beetles, grasshoppers, and caterpillars. 

At Halleck, Nev., in June, 1893, Vernon Bailey found the sage 
chipmunk (Eutamias m. pidus) feeding extensively on the larvae and 
pupae of a web worm that was stripping the sagebushes. Several 
stomachs examined contained Httle else but these insects, and Mr. 
BaUey estimated that the caterpiUars formed about 60 per cent of the 
chipmunk food at that time. 

Attacks by these chipmunks on birds or their nests have rarely 
been recorded. Grinnell (1908, p. 139) mentions an instance of 
E. speciosus seen destroying the eggs in the nest of a wood pewee 
(Myiochanes richardsoni) placed 10 feet up in a pine tree and 6 feet 
out from the trunk on a limb. A few other similar instances are on 
record. 

ECONOMIC STATUS 

The eastern chipmunks occasionally damage grain in the fields and 
dig up and eat com and other planted seeds, but in the main their hab- 
its in relation to agriculture are neutral. The western chipmunks, hv- 
ing as they do largely in mountains and the wilderness, remote from 
agricultural sections, also are mainly neutral in their relation to man's 
interests. Occasionally, however, where their habitat borders on 
cultivated fields, they do some damage locally to crops. In some 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AJMERICAJST CHIPMUNKS 



11 



localities they are reported to be destructive to grain, especially 
oats, in the shock. Standing wheat is sometimes injured, the stems 
being bent down and the heads cut to be eaten or carried by the chip- 
mimks to their storehouses. They sometimes prove troublesome on 
areas that have been planted for reforestation by eating the tree seeds. 
If chipmunks are abundant in regions where forest planting is being 
carried on they frequently eat or carry off a good share of the planted 
seeds and it has been found necessary, in order to insure a successful 
stand, first to reduce the numbers of chipmunks by trapping or 
poisoning. Under natural conditions they apparently have no 
harmful effect on forest growth. 

In the coast region of Oregon, the fondness of the large chipmunks 
{E. townsendii) for plums and prunes has compelled the ranchers to 
adopt measures to keep the animals from climbing the trees. 

KEY TO GENERA AND SUBGENERA 

a.' Upper premolars 2; dorsal stripes unequally spaced (median 
stripe bordered on either side with a much broader band) 

Genus Tamias (p. 11). 

a? Upper premolars 4; dorsal stripes equally spaced (all of approx- 
imately equal width) Genus Eutamias (p. 23). 

6.1 Antorbital foramen suborbicular; postorbital processes broad 

at base Subgenus Eutamias (p. 26). 

h? Antorbital foramen narrowly oval; postorbital processes 

narrow at base Subgenus Neotamias (p. 26). 

Genus TAMIAS Illiger 

Sciurus Linnseus, Syst. Nat. 1: 63-64, ed. 10, 1758 (part).^ 
Tamias Illiger, Prod. Syst. Mamm. et Avium, p. 83, 1811. 

HISTORY AND NOMENCLATURE 

The eastern chipmunk was mentioned by several of the early 
writers, even in the seventeenth century, but was first accurately 
described and figured by Catesby, in his History of Carolina (1743, 
p. 75) under the name Sciurus striatus. Linnseus, in 1754 (p. 8), 
and again in 1758 (p. 64) adopted this name, basing his description 
on a specimen in the collection of King Frederic Adolphus of Sweden 
and on the accounts of Catesby, Edwards, and Kalm, all of which 
refer exclusively to the American chipmimk. In his twelfth edition 
(1766) he included Siberia in its range, confusing (as did several later 
writers) the very distinct Siberian chipmunk, which belongs to the 
genus Eutamias, with the North American Tamias. 

Schreber (1785, vol. 4, p. 791) divided the species (as then under- 
stood) into two varieties, "Das asiatisclie" and "Das americaniscJie," 
citing the Old World references under the former and the New World 
references under the latter. 

Gmelin (1788, vol. 1, p. 150) adopted Schreber's classification, and 
bestowed the name americanus on the American form. This name 
was used by numerous writers during the first half of the nineteenth 
century, while others continued to use striatus. It is, of course, a 
pure synonym of striatus, having exactly the same basis. 

Illiger (1811, p. 83) first proposed the generic name Tamias for the 
American chipmunk, thus definitely separating it from the arboreal 
squirrels. 



12 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



Richardson (1829, vol. 1, p. 181) proposed a new name, Sciurus 
(Tamias) lysteri, for the northern form of the animal, and this name 
was used by numerous later authors for the species as a whole until 
Baird (1857b, p. 295) pointed out that striatus of Linnseus, having been 
based wholly on a specimen of the eastern chipmunk, was the proper 
name of the species. 

The species was undivided untU 1886, when Merriam (l886b, 
p. 242) pointed out the characters distinguishing the northern race, 
and revived Richardson's name lysteri for it. The northwestern race 
igriseus) was described by Mearns (1891, p. 231) and the south- 
western race by Bangs (1896, p. 137). Another eastern race (Jisheri) 
has recently been described (Howell, 1925, p. 51). 

GENERIC CHARACTERS 

Skull relatively long and narrow; brain case slightly flattened 
(less inflated than in most American species of Eutamias and much 
shallower than in Ammospermophilus) ; lambdoidal crest well de- 
veloped; frontoparietal region relatively broad; interorbital constric- 
tion narrow; postorbital processes broad at base and rather short; 
temporal region shghtly convex (not flattened); rostrum broad at 
base and narro'wing evenly from base to tip, its dorsal sm'face evenly 
convex (not flattened), zygomata rather weak, evenly curved and not 
widely expanded ; notch in posterior edge of zygomatic plate of maxil- 
lary opposite pm * or anterior edge of ; palate relatively long, ending 
considerably behind plane of last molars; incisive foramina small and 
narrow; antorbital foramen large, suborbicular, piercing the zygo- 
matic plate of the maxillary; audita! bullse relatively small; upper 
incisors with shallow and indistinct striations or with none; upper 
tooth rows shghtly convergent posteriorly; molars rather weak, with 
very low crowns, the cusps on outer border widely spaced ; metaconules 
usually undeveloped or very small, on both upper and lower molars; 
last lower molar about same size as m2; transverse enamel folds 
on m} and usually continuous (without sulcus); dentition: 
i, -|; pm, f ; m, f = 20. 

The skull of Tamias shows resemblances to both the Asiatic and 
American members of Eutamias. It has heavier postorbital processes 
than Neotamias — more nearly like those of typical Eutamias asiaticus 
but longer; it agrees also with the latter in having large suborbicular 
antorbital foramina and a well-developed lambdoidal crest, but differs 
from it in having a much longer palate — longer than in Neotamias. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS 

Form sciurine, the body rather stout; ears prominent, rounded at 
the simimit; taU shghtly more than one-third the total length, some- 
what flattened, weU haired but not bushy; front feet with five toes, 
the first rudimentary, covered with a broad, flattened nail, the 
others furnished with sharp recurved claws; third and fourth toes 
longest, nearly equal, the second and fifth shorter; palms naked, 
with five tubercles — three at the bases of the toes and two larger 
ones on the posterior palm; hind feet with five toes, the three middle 
ones longest and nearly equal, the fifth considerably shorter and the 
first stiii shorter, but fuUy developed and functional; soles hairy 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



13 



nearly to the bases of the toes; with four tubercles on the end of 
the metatarsus, between the bases of the toes; cheek pouches large, 
opening inside the mouth anterior to the molars and extending back to 
the posterior base of the ears. Weight varying from 65 to 107 grams. 

The baculum of Tamias striatus is a slender bone 4.5-5 milli- 
meters in length, nearly straight, but upturned at the tip and shghtly 
expanded into the shape of a narrow spoon or scoop, with a sUght 
median ridge on the mider siirface. 

COLOR PATTERN 

The dorsal surface in Tamias is marked by five blackish and two 
whitish longitudinal stripes; a median blacMsh stripe extends from 
the occiput to the posterior back or to the rump, this bordered on 
either side with a band of gray or tawny about twice the width of 
the median stripe; on either side of these dorsal bands are a pair 
of shorter blackish stripes with a whitish stripe between them. 

PELAGE AND MOLT 

The pelage in the eastern chipmunks is of moderate length, and of 
a soft texture; the bases of the hairs are plumbeous (this color whoUy 
concealed by the tips unless in much worn pelage) except on the 
ventral sm-face, where the hairs are unicolor to the base — white or 
buflfy white. One complete albino has been examined from Say- 
lorsburg. Pa. 

Apparently there is but one annual molt, which occurs usually in 
Jime or July. Very few molting specimens have been found in the 
material examined, but these indicate that the new hair appears in 
irregular patches over the whole dorsal surface. A specimen from 
Lake George, N. Y., June 28, 1894, shows patches of the new pelage 
on the crown, sides of face and neck, and sides of body in front of the 
hips. Another from the same locahty, July 2, 1892, shows a similar 
condition, except that the new pelage is coming in irregularly along 
the entire sides. 

A specimen from Milton, Wis., July 26, 1907, is in fresh summer 
pelage; another, same date, is still in worn winter pelage, new hair 
coming in on the anterior part of belly and throat and on the cheeks 
and forehead. The winter pelage apparently is the same pelage worn 
in summer, but somewhat paler as a result of fading and wear. This 
effect is usually rather pronounced by March or April and often 
excessive by June. Occasional specimens taken in April, however, 
show httle wear and are only slightly paler on the sides than specimens 
of the same race in fuU summer pelage. 

LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF TAMIAS WITH TYPE 

LOCALITIES 



Tamias striatus striatus (Linnseus) 
striatus fisheri Howell 

striatus lysteri (Richardson) _ . 

striatus griseus Mearns 

striatum venustus Bangs 



Upper Savannah River, S. C. (p. 14). 
Merritts Corners, near Ossining, N, 

Y. (p. 16). 
Penetanguishene, Ontario (p. 18). 
Fort Snelling, Minn. (p. 20). 
Stilwell, Adair County, Okla. (p. 21). 



14 



NORTH 4.MERIC^ F.^UNA. 



[No. 62 



KEY TO SUBSPECIES OF TAMIAS STRIATUS 

a.i Cheeks ver.v dark (ochraceous tawnj') ; light dorsal stripes 

strongly tinged with bufT siriatus (p. 14). 

0.2 Cheeks paler (cinnamon buff) ; light dorsal stripes not strongly 
tinged with buff (usually whitish), 
fe.' Size larger (greatest length of skull, 40 to 44 mm.). 

c' Tawny color of rump deeper, extending to hinder back, venustus (p. 21). 
C.2 Tawny color of rump paler, not extending to hinder back 

griseus (p. 20). 

b.^ Size smaller (greatest length of skull 38 to 41 mm.). 

Colors paler (especially the rump and grayish dorsal bands) 

lysteri (p. 18). 

Colors darker fisheri (p. 16). 



TAMIAS STRIATUS STRIATUS (LiNNiEus) « 
Southeastern Chipmunk 



(Pls. 3, a; 7, a) 

[Sciurus] striaius Linnseus, Syst. Nat. 1: 64, ed. 10, 1758. 
Myoxus striatiLS Boddaert, Elenchus Animal. 1: 122, 1784. 
[Sciurus siriatus] americanus Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 1: 150, 1788. 
Tamias americana Kuhl, Beitrage zur Zoologie, p. 69, 1820. 
Sciurus americanus Fischer, Synopsis, p. 349, 1829. 

Tamias striaius Baird, 11th Ann. Rept. Smithsonian Inst., 1856 [1857], p. 56; 
Mamm. North Amer. (Pacific R. R. Reports, vol. 8), p. 292, 1857. 

Type. — None designated; type locality, upper Savannah River, 
S. C.^ 

Geographic distribution. — Southeastern United States, from high- 
lands of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and central 
Alabama west to the Mississippi River in Kentucky and Tennessee; 
north to the Ohio Valley in Kentucky. (Fig. 2.) 

Characters.— Size medium (for the species); colors dark, the head and rump 
very dark (auburn or bay); sides of body and face deep cinnamon-buff, and 
white dorsal stripes usually washed with buff. 

Color. — Winter pelage (western North Carolina, February to May) : Top of 
head russet or bay; a narrow stripe from nose, above the eye, nearly to the ear, 
and a somewhat wider stripe from beneath the eye to the ear, cinnamon buff or 
pinkish buff; broad stripe from eye to ear russet or mars brown often becoming 
blackish just behind the eye; another broader band of russet extends on the lower 
face from the nose to base of ear or slightly beyond; borders of lips, lower cheeks, 
' and sides of neck to shoulders, deep cinnamon buff to ochraceous tawny; ears 
russet or tawny anteriorly, shaded posteriorly with hair brown or drab and 
edged with duU buffy white; median dorsal bands mixed grayish white and 
ochraceous buff narrowly bordered on each side with auburn and more or less 
sprinkled with the same, shading posteriorly into the color of the rump, which is 
solid auburn or bay; dark dorsal stripes black, the median one becoming auburn 
anteriorly; light dorsal stripes (one pair) buffy wliite to cinnamon buff; sides of 
body light clay color; front feet cinnamon; hind feet tawny or ochraceous tawny, 
shading on thighs to russet; tail above, fuscous black, sprinlded with pale smoke 
gray; tail beneath, hazel or tawny, bordered with fuscous black and tipped with 
pale smoke gray or pale buff ; undcrparts creamy white, more or less washed with 
pale naples yellow. Summer pelage (northern Georgia, September 21) : Similar 
to the winter pelage but averaging slightly darker on dorsal region. 

Skull. — Size medium (larger than lysteri, smaller than venustus) . 

Measurements. — Average of eight adults from western North Carolina: * 
Total length, 225 (215-230) ; taU vertebrte, 86.4 (78-96); hind foot, 34.2 (32-36.5); 



• The characters of the single species in the penus are given under the diagnosis of the genus (p. 12). 

' Here restricted, as based primarily on Catesby's account. Merriam (Amer. Nat. 20: 238, 1886) states 
that a specimen in his collection frora Sylva, N. C, "may be regarded as the type of striatus, " but it is 
obviously impossible to fii the type locality at a point outside the region where Catesby is known to have 
traveled. 

* External measurements taken in part from dry skins. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



15 



ear from notch, 14.8 (14-16). Skull: Average of 11 adults from -western North 
Carolina: Greatest length, 41.1 (39.8-42.6); zygomatic breadth 22.9 (22.1-23.5); 
breadth of cranium, 17 (16.5-17.6) ; interorbital breadth, 11 (9.8-12.6) ; postorbital 
breadth, 11.4 (10.5-12.4) ; length of nasals, 14.4 (13.7-16.2). 

Remarks. — The southeastern chipmunk is the darkest of all the 
races. It reaches its strongest development in the Carolina moun- 
tains but ranges in nearly typical form over most of the lowlands of the 




Figure 2.— Distribution of the subspecies of Tamias striatus: 1, T. striatus gnseus; 2, T. sUiatiis 
lysteri; 3, T . striatvs fisheri; i, T. striatus striatus; 5, T. striatus venustus 



southern States east of the Mississippi River. Its absence from the 
lowlands of the CaroUnas and Georgia is difficult to explain.^ 

In the writer's report on the mammals of Alabama (Howell, 1921, 
p. 63), the chipmunks of that State were referred to venustus, with 
the statement that they are intermediate between that race and 
striatus. More critical study of the whole group shows the necessity 
of referring the series from Greensboro, Ala., to striatus, since they 
agree closely in color with typical specimens of that form, the skulls, 
however, being larger. The chipmunks from the highlands of 



» Merriam has recorded a specimen from Charleston, S. C. (Amer. Nat. 20 : 238, 1886), but this specimen 
has not been seen by the writer, and some doubt attaches to the correctness of the assigned locality. 



16 



NORTH AMERICAN FA.UNA 



[No. 62 



Alabama are referred to venustus, but additional material is needed 
from southern Alabama and Mississippi before the relationships of 
the forms can be satisfactorily determined. 

The occurrence of nearly typical striatus in northwestern Indiana 
(Hebron and Mount Ayr) is rather surprising, since lysteri is found in 
southern Michigan and northwestern Ohio. 

Two immatm-e individuals from southern Illinois (Olney and Wolf 
Lake) are provisionally referred to this race. Chipmunks are scarce 
in that region and are probably absent from most of the prairie 
sections of the State. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 103, as follows: 

Alabama: Greensboro, 6. 
Georgia: Young Harris, 3. 
Illinois: Olney, 1; Wolf Lake, 1. 

Indiana: Bascom, 1; Hebron, 1; Lake Maxinkuckee, 1; La Porte, 1"; 
Miami County, 2 Mount Ayr, 1; Wayne County, 1. 

Kentucky: Eubanks, 16; Hickman, 6; Lexington, 5; Mammoth Cave, 1. 

North Carolina: Buncombe County, 3 Chapel Hill, 5; Craggy Mountain, 
3 Cranberry, 2 '2; Highlands, 5; Mount Mitchell Road (5,000 feet 
alt.), 1; Roan Mountain, 12; Sylva, 1; Weaverville, 14. 

South Carolina: Caesars Head, GreenviUe County, 1 1^; Greenville, 1. 

Tennessee: Clarksville, 6; Hickman County, 2. 

TAMIAS STRIATUS FISHERI Howell 
Fishee's Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, e; 7, e) 

Tamias striatus fisheri HoweU, Journ. Mamm. 6: 51, February 15, 1925. 

Type. — Collected at Merritts Corners, 4 miles east of Ossining 
(Sing Sing), N. Y., August 23, 1884, by A. K. Fisher; ? subadult, skin 
and skull; No. 193370, U. S. Nat. Mus. (No. Merriam collection). 

GeograpJiic distribution. — Middle Atlantic States, from the lower 
Hudson River Valley, N. Y., south to Virginia, West Virginia, and 
extreme eastern Kentucky; west to Ohio. (Fig. 2.) 

Characters. — Similar to Tamias s. striatus but coloration paler, especially the 
rump, feet, and sides of head and body; dorsal area much more grayish (less 
ochraceous or tawny) ; light dorsal stripes clearer white (less shaded with ochra- 
ceous); head and underside of tail averaging paler. Compared with T. striatus 
griseus: Size smaller; sides of head and body averaging darker; gray of upper 
parts less extensive and slightly darker (especially in winter pelage) ; underside 
of taU slightly darker. 

Color. — Summer pelage (type, August 23) : Top of head russet, shaded with 
cinnamon; facial stripes cartridge bufif; a blackish patch behind the eye; sides of 
face and neck with a broad, irregular stripe of russet, bordered beneath with 
cinnamon buff; ears hair brown, shaded on anterior margin with mikado brown 
and on posterior margin with dull buffy white; median dorsal bands smoke gray, 
narrowly margined on each side with hazel; median dorsal stripe, extending 
from a point between the ears nearly to the rump, black; two outer pairs of dark 
stripes of same color but much shorter; light dorsal stripes creamy white; rump 
and hinder back hazel; thighs ochraceous tawny; hind feet sayal brown; front feet 
pinkish cinnamon; sides of head and body cinnamon buff; tail above fuscous 
black, overlaid with smoke gray; tail beneath, between tawny and russet, bor- 
dered with fuscous black and edged with smoke gray; underparts creamy white, 
washed with pale pinkish buff. Winter pelage (March): Very similar to the 
eummer pelage, but rump slightly paler; gray of back more prominent and under 
Bide of tail slightly paler. 

Skull. — Verv similar to that of Tamias s. striatus but averaging smaller. 

Measurements. — Type ( 9 adult) : Total length, 257; tail vertebrae, 88 (measured 
dry); hind foot, 35 (relaxed); ear from notch, 14; average of 10 adults from 



i» Field Mus. Nat. Hist. " Mus. Comp. Zool. " Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMEEICAN CHIPMUNKS 



17 



Highland Falls, N. Y.: Total length, 245 (230-283); tail vertebras, 91.6 (83-97); 
hind foot, 34.2 (33-35); ear from notch, 15.2 (14-16.5). Skull: Average of 10 
adults from type locality: Greatest .length, 40.1 (38.8-41) ; zygomatic breadth, 
22 (21.4-22.8); cranial breadth, 16.5 (16-17.3); interorbital breadth, 9.9 (9.4- 
10.4); postorbital breadth, 11.1 (10.2-11.7); length of nasals, 13.5 (12.6-14.3). 
Weight: Average of 16 specimens from Ossining, N. Y., 90.3 grams (65-107). 

Remarks. — This race is, of course, iatermediate in characters 
between striatus and lysteri, but since the characters are well marked 
and the form has a considerable range, it seems best to separate it as 
a subspecies. Specimens from as far south as Washington, D. C, and 
Franldin, W. Va., are practically typical fisheri, while those from 
Redbird, W. Va., show approach to striatus. 

Specimens from extreme southern New England (Providence, R. I., 
and Guilford and Plainfield, Conn.), intermediate between j^s^en and 
lysteri, are referred to the present form. In Pennsylvania and western 
New York, Jisheri and lysteri both occur, the former in the lowlands, 
the latter on the mountains, and, of course, many specimens are inter- 
mediate in characters. 

A series from Garrettsville and Ravenna, Ohio, are typical j^s^en, 
as is also a single specimen from Avondafe, near Cincinnati, but 
additional material from western Ohio may throw new Kght on the 
distribution of the species in that region. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 322, as follows : 

Connecticut: Guilford, 1; Plainfield, 3; Stonington, 4. 
District of Columbia: Washington, 28. 
Kentucky: Clover Fork, Harlan County, 1. 

Maryland: Chevy Chase, 2; FaUston, 3; Laurel, 5; Linden, 1; Long Corner, 
Howard County, 2; RocJiville, 3; Washington Grove, 2. 

New Jersey: Newton, Sussex County, 5; ^* Pleasant VaUey, 1; Tuckerton, 
2; West Orange, l.is 

New York: Cornwall, 2; Cold Spring, Dutchess County, 1;^^ Dobbs 
Ferry, 1; Eastport, 1; Hastings, 6;'^ Hertsdale, 1; Highland Falls, 
22; Kiskatom, Greene County, 2;" Lake Grove, 1; Lanesville, Greene 
County, 2; Miller Place, 1; "J. P. Morgan's Pond, Orange County, 1; 
Mount Kisco, 1; is Mount Sinai, 1; Nyack, 1; Oyster Bay, 1; Rock- 
away, 1; Ossining (Sing Sing), 35; South Yonkers, 1; Sufifolk County, 
1; IS West Pomt, 11; White Plains, 1; Yonkers, l.i* 

Ohio: Avondale, 1; Garrettsville, 3; Ravenna, 6." 

Pennsylvania: Allegheny County, 1; Blairsville Intersection, Westmoreland 
County, 1;!' Bushkill Creek, 7 miles east of Cresco, 1;^^ Carlisle, 2; 
Carnot, 1; Chester County, 2; Cresson, 1; " Erie, 4; Flowing Spring, 
Blair County, 1; Greensburg, 4; Harveys Lake, Luzerne County, 3; i* 
Holmesburg, 5; Hustontown, 1;" Kennett Square, 1; Krings 
Station, Cambria County, 4; Laughlintown, 7; " LeasuresviUe, 9; " 
Lehigh Gap, Lehigh County, 7; Nazareth, 1; New Paris, 2; Paradise, 
Lancaster County, 1; is Pittsburgh, 1; is Riddlesburg, 1;" Saylors- 
burg, Monroe County, 1; Spruce Creek, 1; " Summit MUls, 4; is Swarth- 
more, 2; is Tyrone, 3; is Tuscarora, 9; 's Waynesburg, 4.is 

Rhode Island: Providence, 2; is Providence County, 2. 

Virginia: Bluemont, 1; Falls Church, 5; Fauquier County, 1; Gainesville, 1; 
Great Falls, 2; Hampstead, 1; Hanover County, 1; Henrico County, 1; 
Hot Springs, 3; McLean, 1; Mountain Lake, Giles County, 5; Peaks of 
Otter, 4; Potomac River (opposite Cabin John, Md.), 1; Stony Man 
Mountain, 1; Suffolk, l;is Washington, 4. 

West Virginia: Berkeley Springs, 2; Cold Knob Mountain, l;i9 Elkins, 1; 
Franklin, 9; Jobs Knob, 2; " Redbird, 2; Travellers Repose, 2; White 
Sulphur Springs, 11.2" 



" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. t' Carnegie Mus. 

» Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. i» Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

IS Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. " Mus. Comp. Zool. 

i« Nat. Mus. Canada. m Mus. Comp. Zool., 8. 

40279°— 29 2 



18 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 62 



TAMIAS STRIATUS LYSTERI (Richardson) 

Northeastern Chipmunk 

(Pls. 1, b; 3, b; 7, b) 

Sciurus (Tamias) lysteri Richardson, Fauna Boreali- Americana 1: 181, pi. 15, 
1829. 

T. [amias\ lysteri Wagner, Suppl. Schreber's Saugeth. 3: 232, 1843; Audubon and 

Bachman, Quad. North Amer. 1: 65, pi. 8, 1846. 
Tamias slriaius lysteri Merriam, Amer. Nat. 20: 242, March, 1886. 

Type. — Not designated by number; specimen collected at Pene- 
tanguishene, Ontario, in April, 1825. 

Geographic distribution.— Southern Ontario, southern Quebec, the 
Maritime Provinces, New England, New York (except southeastern 
part), and most of Michigan; south to Ann Arbor, Mich., and in the 
higher AUeghenies to western Maryland; west to extreme northern 
Wisconsin (Bayfield County); north to the Ottawa Valley and the 
Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. (Fig. 2.) 

Characters. — Similar to Tamias striatus fisheri but upper parts paler, especially 
the rump and the median grayish bands. 

Color. — Summer pelage (Mount Forest, Ontario, July) : Top of head between 
saj'al brown and cinnamon; facial stripes rather indistinct, dull whitish, washed 
vnth light ochraceous buff; dark facial stripes mikado brown; a blackish patch 
behind the eye; lower cheeks and sides of neck cinnamon buff; median dorsal 
bands pale smoke gray, narrowly margined with mikado brown; dark dorsal 
stripes black; light dorsal stripes creamy white, faintly tinged with buff; sides 
pinkish buff; rump and thighs light ochraceous tawny, shaded in center with 
mikado brown; hind feet cinnamon or cinnamon buff; front feet pinkish buff; 
tail above, fuscous black overlaid with pale smoke gray; tail beneath, mikado 
brown or pale ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black and edged with 
pale smoke gray; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (April): Not 
appreciably different from the summer pelage. 

Skull. — Similar to that of T. striatus fisheri but averaging smaller, with rela- 
tively longer nasals. 

Measurements. — Average of 5 adults from Mount Forest, Ontario: Total 
length, 245.3 (228.6-257); tail vertebra, 93.8 (84-103); hind foot, 35 (34-36); 
ear from notch, 15.1 (14—16.5). Average of 10 adults from Mount Mansfield, 
Vermont: 246.4; 95.6; 35; 14.2. Skull: Average of 7 adults from Mount Forest 
and Emsdale, Ontario: Greatest length, 39.4 (38-40.7); zygomatic breadth, 
21.7 (21-22); cranial breadth, 16.7 (16.2-17) ; interorbital breadth, 10.5 (9.9-11.1); 
postorbital breadth, 11.4 (10.6-12.2); length of nasals, 14 (13.2-14.4). Weight: 
Average of 10 specimens from Ticonderoga, N. Y., 78.2 grams (65-100). 

RemarTcs. — The northeastern chipmunk is the smallest and palest 
member of the group. It has an extensive range but shows httle 
variation throughout. Intergradation with fisheri takes place in 
extreme southern New England and at many places in New York 
and Pennsylvania, where the ranges of the two forms inosculate, 
lysteri occupying the more elevated regions and fisheri the lowlands. 
Specimens from Round Island, Chnton County, Eaglesmere, Sullivan 
County, and from Mount Pocono are referred to lysteri, though not 
typical; some individuals in the series might as well be ca^ed fisheri. 
The present form doubtless intergrades also with griseus wherever 
their ranges meet; intermediate examples have been examined from 
Burbridge, Quebec, and from near Ishpeming, Mich. In southern 
Michigan and northwestern Ohio the range of lysteri nearly meets the 



11 One example from there is typical lysteri, but another closely resembles griaeus. 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AMBEICA.N CHIPMUNKS , 19 



range of striatus, which occupies northern Indiana, but no evidence 
of intergradation between these forms has been discovered. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 568, as follows: 
Connecticut: Liberty Hill, 1; 22 Portland, 2. 

Maine: Dickey, 2; Eliot, 1; Greenville, 2; 22 Kennebago Lake, 2; Penobscot 
River (east branch), 1; Sebec Lake, 1; South Twin Lake, Penobscot 
County, 6; ^ Umbagog Lake, 2. 

Maryland: Accident, 1 ; 2* Bittinger, 1; Dans Mountain (4 miles northwest 
of Rawlings), 1; Finzel, 4; Grantsville, 1. 

Massachusetts: Burlington, 3; Easthampton, 2; Essex County, 2; Harvard, 
2; Lunenburg, 6; Mount Wachusett, 2; Newton, 2; 23 Rehoboth, 1;23 
Sheffield, 2;23 Southville, 1; Wareham, 7;22 WeUesley, 1; Wihnington, 
10; Woods Hole, 1. 

Michigan: Alger County, 2; 2= Ann Arbor, 18; 2« Brown Lake, 5; 2' Chip- 
pewa County, 4; 25 Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, 6; 2' Escanaba, 1; 
Fishhawk Lake, Gogebic County, 2; 25 Floodwood, Schoolcraft County, 
2; 25 Gogebic Lake, Ontonagon County, 4; Groveland Township, 
Oakland County, 1;28 Huron Mountains, 1;25 Iosco, Livingstone 
County, 2; 25 Ironwood, Gogebic County (12 miles north), 1; 25 Le Roy, 
Osceola County, 2; 25 Little Girls Point, Gogebic County, 3; 25 Luzerne, 
Michigamme, 1; Murphy Lake, 1;28 Parks Siding, Iron County, 
2 - 28 Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County, 7; 25 Rush Lake, Huron 
County, 3; 25 Sand Point, Huron County, 3; 25 Seney, 1; 22 Silver Lake 
(18 miles north of Ishpeming), 1; Warren Woods, Berrien County, 1; 25 
Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, 1; 25 Ypsilanti, I.25 

New Brunswick: Bathurst, 6; 2* Scotch Lake, York County, 1;29 Tobique 
Point, Victoria County, 1;23 Trousers Lake, 2; 23 YoughaU, 9.2< 

New Hampshire: Antrim, 1; Charlestown, 9; Dublin, 1;22 Ossipee, 12; 
Webster, 3.22 

New York: Alder Creek, 3; Ausable Lake, Essex County, l;'" Catskill 
Mountains, 38; Chittinango Falls, 1; 22 Elizabethtown, 7; Essex County, 
1; KaaterskUl Junction, 2; Lake George, 16; LawyersviUe, 3; 23 Locust 
Grove, 37; Lyons Falls, 2; Owego, 3; Palensville, 1;23 Plattsburg, 1; 
Peterboro, 3; Piseco, 1; Rochester, l;3o Stamford, 8; Syracuse, 8; 
Ticonderoga, 50; Troy, 4; Whitehall, 8. 

Nova Scotia: Digby, 15; 22 Halifax, 2; 22 James River, 8; Kedgemakooge, 1; 
Kings Countv, 1; 24 Newport, I.23 

Ohio: Hicksville,' I.28 

Ontario: Algonquin Park, 4; 24 Branchton, 3; 28 Cobourg, 2; Constant 
Bay, 1; 2* Emsdale, 5; Go Home Bay, Georgian Bay, 2; 2* Gravenhurst, 
12; 28 Guelph, 1;24 Kilmarnook Lock, Rideau River, 1;24 Linwood, 6; 32 
London, 3; 20 Lome Park, 5; 33 Mount Forest, 5; 22 Ottawa, 2; 24 Point 
Pelee, 3;^^ Richmond, 1;24 Toronto, 1;23 Trout Creek, 4; 28 Waterloo 
County, 1; 28 Long Point, Norfolk County, 2.3'' 

Pennsylvania: Clinton County, 1; Eaglesmere, 4; 35 Kane, McKean 
County, 1;35 McKean County, 1; Mount Pocono, Monroe County, 
4; 35 Round Island, 19; 35 Sayre, 1; Summit, Cambria County, 2;3« 
Tamarack Swamp [head of Drury Run, Chnton County], 1; 28 Tyrone, 1.35 

Quebec: Aylmer, 2; 24 Burbridge, 2; 24 Murray Bay, 13; 28 Perc6, Gasp6 
County, 2; 24 Riviere du Loup, 1; 28 St. Rose, 1; St. Thomas, 1.24 

Vermont: Brandon, 2; Castleton, 1; 23 Clarendon, 1; 23 Mount Mansfield, 10; 
North Clarendon, 1; 23 Pico [Peak], 1; 23 Rutland, 2.^ 

Wisconsin: Ellison Bay, 1; Fish Creek, Door County, 2; Herbster, 5; 
Lake St. Germain, Vilas County, 5. 



" Mus. Comp. Zool. ao e. H. Eaton coll. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. ai Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 

2* Nat. Mus. Canada. s! Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 4; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 

" Univ. Mich. i> Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; Nat. Mus. Canada, 3. 

2» Univ. Mich., 12. 34 Royal Ontario Mus. 

2' Univ. Mich., 4; Cornell Univ., 2. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

" Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 36 Carnegie Mus. 

" Univ. Wis. 



20 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



TAMIAS STRIATUS GRISEUS Mearns 
Gray Chipmunk 

(Pls. 1, a; 3, c; 7, c) 
Taviias atriatus griseus Mearns, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3:231, June 5, 1891. 

Type. — Collected at Fort Snelling, Minn., April 2, 1889, by E. A. 
Mearns; 9 adult, skin and skull; No. fHf, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.; 
original number, 791. 

Geographic distribution. — Upper Mississippi Valley region, from 
southeastern Missouri and southern Illinois north to southern 
Manitoba (Shoal Lake); east to Lake Michigan and eastern Indiana 
and in Canada through central Ontario and Quebec to Matamek 
River and the Gaspe Peninsula, Gulf of St. Lawrence; west to Turtle 
Mountains, N. Dak., and Onaga, Kans.; north in Canada to James 
Bay, Ontario, and Mattagami Lake, Quebec. (Fig. 2.) 

Characters. — Similar to Tamias slriatus lysteri but larger; ears shorter; gray of 
dorsal region darker and less mixed with buff; head and rump averaging darker. 
Compared with fisheri: Size larger; sides of head and body paler; gray of upper 
parts more extensive and sliglatly paler; underside of tail paler. 

Color. — Summer pelage (topotype, September 22) : Top of head russet, more 
or less shaded with cinnamon; dark facial stripes russet; light facial stripes 
pinkish bufif; outer surface of ears hair brown, edged anteriorly with russet; inner 
surface mikado brown posteriorly, pinkish buff anteriorly; median 'dorsal bands 
smoke gr&y, more or less shaded on posterior back by tawny; rump hazel, shading 
on tliighs to ochraceous tawny; dark dorsal stripes black, narrowly edged with 
hazel; light dorsal stripes creamy white; hind feet cinnamon; front feet and sides 
of head and body pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous black overlaid with pale smoke 
graj'; tail beneath, cinnamon or ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black 
and edged with pale smoke gray; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (April 
and May) : Similar to the summer pelage but gray of back more extensive and 
rump paler (less brownish) ; sides of body paler buff (near cartridge buff) ; tail 
averaging paler beneath. 

Skull. — Similar to that of T. striaius fisheri but averaging larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from type locality: Total length, 268.4 
(253-299); tail vertebrae, 101.3 (93-110); hind foot, 36.6 (35-38); ear from notch, 
13.7 (12-16.5). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type locahty: Greatest 
length, 41.4 (40-42.3); zygomatic breadth, 22.9 (22.2-24); cranial breadth, 17 
(15.7-18); interorbital breadth, 10.9 (10.2-11.9); postorbital breadth, 11.3 
(10.7-12); length of nasals, 14.5 (14-15). 

RemarJcs. — The gray chipmunk is one of the largest forms in the 
genus; it is closely related to both lysteri and venustus and occupies 
an extensive area in Canada, and middle-western United States. 
Specimens collected by W. E. Clyde Todd at Cochrane and Dane, 
Ontario, and Mattagami Lake and St. Margaret River, Quebec, 
materially extend the known range of this race to the eastward. 
These specimens agree closely in coloration with typical griseus, but 
have smaller skulls — in this respect approaching lysteri. A series 
from the Gasp6 Peninsula, collected by Childs Frick and G. G. 
Goodwin, are also referable to griseus, though showing approach to 
lysteri in smaller size of the skull. 

Intergradation with lysteri is shown also by specimens from 
Ishpeming, Mich., and from Burbridge, Quebec." 

A large series from Burlington, Iowa, in full summer pelage, 
average a little deeper ochraceous on the sides of the head and neck, 
perhaps approaching T. s. striatus. Specimens in spring pelage from 
Boone County, Ind., are nearly typical griseus. 



" See remarkfi under Tamias atriatua lyeteri. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



21 



A small series from eastern Kansas (Douglas and Leavenworth 
Counties) does not differ appreciably in color from typical griseus, but 
shows approach to venustus in the larger size of the skulls. A specimen 
from WilHamsville, Mo., shows approach to venustus in having the 
gray dorsal bands more broadly margined with hazel. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 315, as follows: 

Illinois: Fox Lake, 13; Mount CaiToU, 1; Warsaw, 8. 

Indiana: Boone County, 2; Denver, 2; *° Noblesville, 1; Wheailand, 1. 

Iowa: Ames, 1; Burlington, 29; Cedar Rapids, 1; Charles City, 1; HiUs- 

boro, 2; Wayland, 1." 
Kansas: Douglas County, 2;" Lawrence, 3;*^ Leavenworth County, l;''^ 

Onaga, 1. 

Manitoba: Portage la Prairie, 3; *° Riding Mountain, 1; ^ Shoal Lake (west 

of Erin view), 1;^ Winnipeg, l.^« 
Minnesota: Breckenridge, 1; Brown Valley, 3; Cass Lake, 1; *° Clear Lake 

Portage, Lake County, 1; Elk River, 30; Ely, 1; Fort Snelling, 59; « 

Grant County, 1; ^9 Houston County, 2; -° Isabelle River, Lake County, 

4;" Ortonville, 1; Pine Creek, Fillmore County, 1; Princeton, 1; Root 

River, near Houston, 1; Tower, 4. 
Missouri: Independence, 1; St. Louis, 1; WiUiamsville, 1. 
North Dakota: Fish Lake, Birchwood post office, 5; Grafton, 7; Grand 

Forks, 1; Harwood, 1; Kathryn, 2; Larimore, 6; Lisbon, 1; Manvel, 2; 

Pembina, 3; Portland, 1; Turtle Mountains, 2; so Walhalla, 2. 
Ontario: Cochrane, 2;=! Dane, 1;" Ingolf, 1;*'' James Bay, 1; Kapuskas- 

ing, 5.^ 

Quebec: Godbout, 1; Cascapedia River, 7; Grand Portage, St. Margaret 
River, 1;^' Matamek River (head), 10 miles east of Moise River, 1; 
Mattagami Lake (head), 1;" St. Anne des Monts, 8; St. Margaret 
River, 4 miles above Clark City, 1.^^ 

South Dakota: Fort Sisseton, 4; Lake Traverse, 6. 

Wisconsin: Beaver Dam, 1; Camp Douglas, Juneau County, 3; Crescent 
Lake, Oneida County, 1; Danbury, 2; Delavan, 1; Devils Lake, 1; Echo, 
1 • 63 Fountain City, 1; Friendship, 2; Holcombe, 2; Kelley Lake, Oconto 
County, 2; Long Lake, Washburn County, 6; Mamie Lake, Vilas 
County, 1 ; Mellen (8 miles southwest) , 1 ; Milton, 2 ; Namekagon 
Lake, Bayfield County, 1; Nashotah, 6; Ogema, 1; Racine, 1; Rhine- 
lander, 2; Rib Hill, Marathon County, 3; Solon Springs, 2; St. Croix 
Falls, 2; Trempealeau, 1; Wauzeka, 2; Wild Rose, 2; Withee, 1; Worden 
Township, Clark County, 1.^* 

TAMIAS STRIATUS VENUSTUS Bangs 

SOTTTHWESTERN ChIPMUNK 

(Pls. 3, d; 7, d) 

Tamias striatus venustus Bangs, Proc. Biol. See. Washington 10:137, December 
28, 1896. 

Type. — Collected at Stilwell, Adair County, Okla., August 13, 1896, 
by Thaddeus Surber; <? adult, skin and skull; No. 5478, Mus. Comp. 
Zool. ; original number, 63. 



38 Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 
"> Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Univ. Iowa. 
" Kans. Univ. Mus. 

« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Kans. Univ. Mus., 2. 
" J. H. Fleming coll. 
^6 Nat. Mus. Canada. 
" E. T. Seton coll. 



" Univ. Minn. 

« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 23. 

" Mus. Comp. Zool., 2; Univ. Minn., 1; 

Kans. Univ. Mus., 1. 
"o Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Univ. Mich., 1. 
'1 Carnegie Mus. 
M Colo. Agr. Coll. 
«3 Univ. Wis. 
M Univ. Mich 



22 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



Geographic distrihution. — Eastern Oklahoma, southwestern Missouri 
(Ozark Plateau), Arkansas,^^ eastward to mountains of northern 
Alabama and southward to southwestern Mississippi and southeastern 
Louisiana. (Fig. 2.) 

Characters. — Similar to T. strialus griseus; tail and hind feet slightly shorter; 
coloration richer, especially in winter pelage, the tawny color of rump deeper 
and extending farther forward on the back; dorsal stripes shorter; gray dorsal 
bands more broadly margined with hazel; sides darker in winter pelage; hind 
feet darker; tail slightly darker beneath. Compared with T. s. striaius: Size 
larger (especially the skull); upper parts paler and more grayish; head paler; 
dorsal stripes shorter; the outer pair of light stripes clearer white (less buffy). 
Compared with fisheri: Size larger; head slightly more vinaceous (less tawny); 
sides of head and body paler; rump and hinder back more extensively reddish. 

Color. — Summer pelage (type, August 13) : Top of head russet; ocular and 
submalar stripes pale russet; ears fuscous, margined anteriorly with dark tawny, 
the posterior third tilleul buflf; hind neck, shoulders, and median dorsal bands 
pale smoke gray, sprinkled with russet; the dorsal bands broadly margined on 
each side with hazel; dark dorsal stripes black; light dorsal stripes creamy white; 
rump kaiser brown; thighs and hind feet tawny; sides of head and body pinkish 
buff; tail above fuscous black, overlaid with pale smoke gray; tail beneath, 
tawny, bordered with fuscous black and tipped with pale smoke gray; under- 
parts creamy white. Winter pelage: Closely similar to the summer pelage. 

Skull. — Similar to that of T. striatus griseus but averaging larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from Oklahoma, Arkansas, and south- 
western Missouri: Total length, 258.3 (239-286); tail vertebra;, 96.5 (83-113); 
hind foot, 35.7 (34.3-37); ear from notch, 14.6 (14-16). Skull: Average of 17 
adults from same region: Greatest length, 42.2 (40.5-44.3); zygomatic breadth, 
23.1 (21.9-24.4); cranial breadth, 17.1 (16.4-18.3); interorbital breadth, 11.7 
(10.2-12.3); postorbital breadth, 11.9 (11.3-12.5); length of nasals, 15.1 
(14.2-16.2). 

Remarks. — The southwestern chipmunk is the. largest and most 
brightly colored of all the races of striatus. It intergrades with 
griseus ux southern Missouri and eastern Kansas, and with striatus 
in northern Alabama. It resembles Jisheri rather closely in general 
appearance but is larger and more extensively reddish, and their 
ranges apparently do not meet. 

Three specimens from Adams County, southwestern Mississippi, 
and a considerable series from the moimtains of Alabama are clearly 
intermediate between venustus and striatus and seem best referred to 
the former; they resemble venustus in the color of the head and 
approach it in having the sides of the body paler buff than in striatus; 
the rump, however, is less extensively reddish and the dorsal stripes 
more buffy than in typical venustus; the skulls average large, in this 
respect agreeing with venustus. There is at present a wide gap be- 
tween the loiown ranges of these two races (see map, fig. 2) and 
considerable collecting must be done in eastern Ai'kansas, northern 
Louisiana, and northern Mississippi before their ranges and relation- 
ships can be thoroughly understood. ^^'^ No specimens are available 
from Louisiana, although Audubon, more than 80 years ago (1846, 
vol. 1, p. 69), recorded the species as occurring in that State. The 
writer has been informed by H. H. Kopman that chipmunks are 
known to occur at Wakefield, West Feliciana Parish. Allison (1907, 
p. 13) reports them common in the Tennessee Valley in Tishomkigo 
County, Miss. 



" None recorded from eastern Arkansas. 

«' Stanley C. Arthur has recently made special efforts to find evidence of the presence of chipmunks 
In Bienville Parish, La., but without avail. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



23 



Specimens examined. — Total number, 41, as follows: 

Alabama: Ardell, 1; Bucks Pocket, De Kalb County (2 miles north of 
Grove Oak), 6; Guntersville, 1; Talladega Mountains (east of Rendalia), 
1; Woodville, 3. 

Arkansas: Delight, 12; Pettigrew, 1; Rich Mountain, 1; Van Buren, 2. 

Mississippi: Foster, Adams County, 1; Washington, 2. 

Missouri: Carthage (8 miles south), l;*" Marble Cave, Stone County, 1; 

Noel, 1;" PineviUe, McDonald County, l.^s 
Oklahoma: Red Fork, 2; Stilwell, 4.^9 



Table l.~Cranial measurements, in millimeters, of typical adults of Tamias 

striatus 









Great- 


Zygo- 


Cran- 


Inter- 


Post- 


Length 




Species and locality 


No. 


Sex 


est 


matic 


ial 


orbital 


orbital 


of 


Remarks 






length 


breadth 


breadth i 


breadth 


breadth 


nasals 




Tamias striatus striatus: 




















Highlands, N. C 


193388 


9 


42.6 


23 


17.4 


11.5 


12.4 


15.9 




Craggy Mountain, N. C- 


2 780 


& 


39.8 


22.9 


16.5 


11.2 


11.7 


13.7 




Eoan Mountain, N. C 


50852 


& 


41.8 


23.3 


17.3 


11.2 


10.5 


14 




Tamias striatus flsheri: 




















Ossining, N. Y 


135551 


& 


41 


22.8 


18.8 


10.4 


11 


14 




Do 


193377 


9 


39.4 


21.9 


16 


10 


11.2 


13.4 




Tamias striatus lysteri: 




















Emsdale, Ontario.. 


75856 


9 


40.7 




16.9 


10.4 


10.9 


14.6 




Do 


75859 


9 


38.9 


21.6 


16.5 


10.2 


11.8 


14.4 




Mount Forest, Ontario.. 


2 1778 


& 


39.1 


22.3 


17 


10.7 


11.6 


14.4 




Tamias striatus griseus: 




















Fort Snelling, Minn 


122227 




42.3 


24 


17.1 


11.9 


11.5 


14.3 




Do 


122194 


9 


40.6 


22.6 


16.5 


11.5 


10.9 


14.5 


Old adult. 


Do.-.- — 


125395 


c? 


41.1 


22.6 


16.9 


11 


11.3 


14.3 




Tamias striatus venustus: 














Stilwell, Olda 


2 5478 




43.2 


23.9 


17.4 


12.7 


11.9 


16.2 


Type. 


Do 


87264 


9 


42 


23.5 


17.3 


11.8 


12 


15.4 


Pettigrew, Ark 


169014 


9 


44.3 


24.4 


18.3 


12.3 


11.3 


15.4 





1 Measured directly behind zygomata. = Mus. Comp. Zool. 



Genus EUTAMIAS Trouessart 

Sciurus Pallas, Nov. Spec. Quad., p. 378, 1778 (not Sciurus Linnseus). 

Tamias Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8 : pt. 1, p. 68, 1839 (not 

Tamias Illiger, 1811). 
Eutamias Trouessart, Catal. Mamm. Viv. et Foss., Rodentia, in Bui. Soc. d' Etudes 

Sci. d' Angers 10: 86-87, 1880 (type, Tamias striatus asiaticus Gmelin). 
Neotamias HoweU, postea, p. 26 (type, Eutamias merriami Allen). 

HISTORY AND NOMENCLATURE 

Apparently the first account of any member of this genus is that 
of Pallas (1778, p. 378), wherein, under the name Sciurus striatus, he 
described the Siberian species, erroneously believing it to be the 
same as the American animal previously described under that name 
by linnseus.®" Schreber (1785, vol. 4, p. 790) divided the "species" 
into two varieties, Das asiatische and Das americanische, and gave a 
detailed description of each form. Three years later, in 1788, 
Gmelin gave technical names to these two "varieties," and his 
Sciurus striatus asiaticus thus became the first name to be strictly 
applied to the Siberian chipmunk (now known as Eutamias asiaticus). 



" Univ. Wis. 
»' Mus. Comp. Zool. 
" Kans. Univ. Mus. 
" Mus. Comp. Zool., 2. 

M Linnaeus's species was baaed solely on Catesby's ground squirrel, now known as Tamias striatus. 



24 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



The American members of this genus, confined as they are to the 
portions of the continent more remote from the early settlements, 
natm-ally remained imloiown to science for a much longer period 
than did the eastern chipmunk (Tamias). The fii"st species to be 
discovered was quadrivittatus, named by Say (1823, vol. 2, p. 45) 
from specimens collected by Major Long's expedition in eastern 
Colorado. 

The large Pacific coast species was the next to become known; it 
was first collected by John K. Townsend, probably in 1834 or 1835 
near the mouth of the Columbia River, and named in his honor by 
Bachman (1839, p. 68). In the same paper Bachman named minimus 
from western Wyoming — also collected by Townsend on his historic 
journey across the continent — the earliest recognized member of a 
large group since foimd to range from northern Canada to southern 
New Mexico and Arizona. 

J. E. Gray (1842, p. 264) described a species from the Pacific coast 
as Tamias Mndsii, collected by Surgeon Hinds on the voyage of the 
Sulphur and sent to the British Museum. This specimen was sup- 
posed to have come from California, and the name Mndsii has passed 
current for many years for a species inhabiting the region just north 
of San Francisco Bay. Quite recently, however, careful comparison 
of the type with related forms has shown it to be referable to 
toumsendii.^^ 

In 1855, Baird described two new forms, dorsalis from the copper 
mines of New Mexico and cooperi from the Cascades of Washington, 
the latter named in honor of its collector, J. G. Cooper. 

In Baird's epochal treatise on North American mammals, published 
in 1857, only three species in this genus were recognized, quadrivit- 
tatus, dorsalis, and townsendii — minimus having been placed in 
sjTionymy under quadrivittatus and cooperi imder townsendii. During 
the next 20 years, there was little activit}^ in the study of this group 
and only two new forms v/ere proposed, the very distinct quadrimac- 
ulatus of California by Gray, in 1867, and pallidus, a pale form of 
the minimus group from the plains of the upper Missouri and Yel- 
lov/stone Rivers, by Allen in 1874. 

In 1877 appeared the first revision of the group, by J. A. Allen, 
in his Monographs of the Rodentia, but by reason of the paucity and 
poor quality of the material then existing and the extreme conserva- 
tism of the reviser in the matter of speciation, this monograph, 
although replete in details of nomenclature and geographical dis- 
tribution, reaUy represented a backward step in the understanding 
of the relationships of the species within the group. Thus in place 
of the three species recognized by Baird in 1857, Allen in 1877 reduced 
the group to a single species, asiaticus, with five varieties. 

But one new form, borealis, was proposed and this, very strangely, 
was made to include both the small chipmunk inhabiting the interior 
of Canada and the much larger species of Siberia, the true asiaticus.^^ 

In 1886 Merriam described macrorliabdotes from Cahfornia, which 
later proved to be the same as quadrimaculatus of Gray (Merriam, 
1897, p. 203.) In 1889, Allen described two well-marked new species, 
hulleri from central Mexico and merriami from southern Cahfornia, 



«■ See Howell n922, p. 181). 

«2 Some years later, Doctor Allen, in fixing the typo of borealis, remarked: "In the first use of the name 
torealis it v/as improperly and somewhat inadvertently allowed to cover the Old World T. asiaiicus, as well 
as the form of the American Fur countries. " (Allen, 1890, p. 109.) 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey PLATE 2 




B1887M B2348M 

Western Chipmunks 



A, Larger Colorado chipmunk (Eutamias quadrivillatus quadrivittatas). Trappers Lake, Colo.; B, 
Wasatch chipmunk (E. minimus consobrinus) , Buffalo Pass, Colo. Photos by E. E. Warren 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AMEEICAN CHIPMUNKS 



25 



and in 1890 the same author presented his second revision of the 
group in a paper that marked a notable advance in the conception of 
the relationships of the species and furnished a sound basis for the 
work of later investigators. 

As pointed out by Doctor Allen in the introductory paragraphs 
of this paper, the greatly increased knowledge of the group was due 
mainly to the recent acquisition of more abimdant and more carefully 
prepared material, and much of the credit for this improved status 
is due to C. Hart Merriam, who, about 1885, began to acquire for 
his private collection (and a little later for the Bureau of Biological 
Survey collection) large series of specimens prepared in accordance 
with the greatly improved methods developed by him and by his 
collectors.''^ 

Of the 23 American forms recognized by Allen in his 1890 revision, 
13 were described as new, and of these all but two are to-day con- 
sidered vahd.^* Increased activity in mammal collecting after 1890 
resulted in rapid multiphcation of new species, so that in the period of 
about 40 years between that date and the present the number of de- 
scribed forms has increased from 23 to 69.^^ Of this nimiber, 12 are at 
present placed in synonjfmy.^^ Although Allen's second revision was 
satisfactory as regards the forais admitted and the careful and 
detailed diagnoses, the relationships of the species were not always 
clearly indicated, and in some cases the forms were wrongly associated. 
This is particularly true of the species guadrivitiatus, mder which 
name three distinct species were confused. His typical quadrivittatus 
is in the main the equivalent of operarius, a member of the minimus 
group, to which group, also, his subspecies neglectus and horealis 
belong; his subspecies gracilis is really a synonym of the original 
guadrivitiatus of Say, while his subspecies luteiventris and affinis 
are actually subspecies of amoenus, described in the same paper. 

This confusion, however, is not greatly to be wondered at, consider- 
ing the relatively small amoimt of material then available and the fact 
that Doctor Allen found it "impracticable to make much use of cranial 
characters as a basis for specific distinctions." Had he made the 
same detailed study of the skulls that was his custom in later years, 
some of the confusing problems in this difficult group might have been 
cleared up. 

Shortly after the appearance of this monograph. Doctor Merriam, 
having discovered that there were two species of chipmunks hving 
together in the mountains of Colorado, undertook to determine to 
which one the name guadrivittatus apphed. Accordingly, between 
1890 and 1903 he sent a number of ms collectors at different times 
to the type locahty, near Canyon City, with the result that 70 
specimens were secured, all proving to belong to the larger of the two 
forms, the ranges of which overlap in the moimtains of the State. 
These results were pubhshed in 1905 in connection with a description 
of the small Colorado form under the name of Eutamias amoenus 
operarius. 



" It might be added.falso, that a large share of this credit is due to the energy and skill of Vernon Bailey, 
who, even before he began active collecting for Doctor Merriam in 1887, had developed on his own initiative 
improved methods of trapping and preparing mammal specimens. 

•* Tamias gracilis proves to be a synonym of quadrivittatiLs and T. macrorhabdotes a synonym of quadri- 
maculalus: hindsii and neglectus represented valid forms, vyhich are now recognized under other names. 

" Including two old names, cooperi and pallidus, not recognized by Allen but smce revived. 
See list of recognized forms by the present writer (Howell, 1922, p. 183-186). 



26 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



(No. 62 



Meanwhile Doctor Merriam had been making detailed studies of 
certain of the Pacific coast forms and in 1897 published a synopsis 
of these, with a revision of the tovmsendii and speciosus groups. 
(Merriam, 1897, pp. 189-212.) 

No revision of the Rocky Mountain forms was imdertaken until 
the present \vriter began a study of the group in 1920, so that while 
the correct apphcation of the old name quadrivittatus was known, the 
relationships of most of the forms associated with it were not clearly 
appreciated and in the literature many names were wrongly assigned." 

The first results of the revision undertaken by the writer appeared 
in 1922, when seven new forms were named and a hst presented of 
the described forms arranged in five groups. (Howell, 1922, pp. 
178-185.) 

GENERIC CHARACTERS 

Skull similar in general to that of Tamias, but rostrum shorter and 
more abruptly constricted near base; brain case smoothly rounded, 
shghtly flattened or moderately inflated; palate relatively short, 
terminating on the plane of last molars or but little posterior to it; 
notch in posterior edge of zygomatic plate of maxillary opposite 
middle or hinder part of pm*; audital bullge relatively large; upper 
incisors with numerous longitudinal striations, often well defiiied; 
molariform teeth much as in Tamias but with an additional (minute) 
premolar in the upper tooth row; lower molars with a small cusp 
between the protoconid and hypoconid, not reaching the outer border 
of the tooth row; last lower molar relatively long, often slightly 
longer than dentition: i, |- ; pm, f ; m, f ; equals 22. 

SUBGENUS EUTAMIAS 

Type. — Sciurus striatus asiaticus Gmelin. 

Subgeneric characters. — As given above for the genus; also, in 
comparison with Neotamias: Ears broad, rounded, and of medium 
height (much as in Tamias); interorbital constriction shght (as in 
Tamias); postorbital processes broad at base, tapering to a point 
(much as in Tamias); antorbital foramen large, suborbicular (as in 
Tamias); lambdoidal crest moderately developed; upper molariform 
tooth rows shghtly convergent posteriorly (as in Tamias); palate 
short, ending about on plane of last molars. 

The baculum of Eutamias asiaticus (subsp.) from Japan is quite 
different from that of the American species, being much slenderer and 
more simple. It is 5 millimeters in length and tapers gradually from 
base to tip, the distal portion upturned in an even curve and shghtly 
flattened, but without ridges. ' • 

GeograpTiic distribution. — Northern and eastern Asia (species not 
treated) . 

SUBGENUS NEOTAMIAS nobis 

Type. — Eutamias merriami Allen. 

Subgeneric characters. — Similar to typical Eutamias (of Asia), 
but antorbital foramen narrowly oval; postorbital processes narrower 
at base and much slenderer throughout; interorbital constriction more 
pronoimced; lambdoidal crest less strongly developed; ears relatively 



" For example, affinis, fdix, Ivicwerdris, borealis, and negledm continued to appear in the check lists 
and elsewhere as subsi)ecics of quadriviUatua, the first three really being subspecies of amoenns and the 
last two being subspecies of minimus. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMEEICAN CHIPMUNKS 



27 



longer and niore pointed; upper molariform tooth rows approximately 
parallel; palate ending slightly posterior to plane of last molars. 

Remarks. — Comparison of the characters of the west American chip- 
munks of the genus Eutamias with those of the Asiatic chipmunks and 
with those of the eastern chipmunks (genus Tamias) discloses a 
nimiber of remarkable relationships among these three rather distinct 
groups. Typical Eutamias of Asia resembles Tamias of eastern 
North America and differs from the American Eutamias in a number 
of characters, notably the shape of the antorbital foramen and of the 
postorbital processes, the breadth of the interorbital region, the 
development of the lambdoidal crest, and the shape of the external 
ears. On the other hand, the American Eutamias agTees with the 
Asiatic members of the genus in the shape of the rostrum, the flatten- 
ing of the temporal region, the well-defined striations on the upper 
incisors the presence of the extra pegHke premolar and in the 
pattern of the dorsal stripes. 

The baculum in the subgenus Neotamias differs from that of 
both Tamias and typical Eutamias; spechnens examined of six species 
show essential similarity in the shape of the bone but considerable 
variation in size. 

In Eutamias cinereicollis, the baculum is a slender bone about 
4.5 millimeters in length, thickest at the proximal end, with a bend 
in the middle, the distal portion laterally compressed, and the tip 
abruptly bent upward and flattened into a shape much resembKng a 
human foot, with a prominent narrow ridge in the center of the 
"instep." 

In two specimens of E. townsendii, the bacula are of similar shape, 
but much slenderer, being only 3.5 and 4 millimeters in length, 
while in two specimens of E. amcenus these bones measured but 3 
millimeters. In a specimen of E. dor sails the baculum resembles that 
of E. cinereicollis, but is much slenderer, straighter, and has the 
terminal portion less abruptly bent. In a specianen of E. quad- 
rivittatus f rater the resemblance to a human leg is maintained, but the 
baculum is shorter (4 millimeters) and stouter than in cinereicollis, 
and flattened out on the distal portion just above the bend, where the 
ankle would be on a human foot. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS 

Form more slender than in Tamias; tail relatively longer (about 
42 to 48 per cent of total length); ears longer and somewhat more 
pointed at tip; feet and cheek pouches as in Tamias (see p. 12); weight 
varying from 27.5 grams (in alpinus) to 123 grams (in senex). 

COLOR PATTERN 

The normal pattern on the upper parts consists of five blacldsh 
and four whitish stripes, all of approximately equal width; all but 
the outer pair extend from the shoulders to the rump and the median 
stripe reaches to the occiput; the outer (lateral) pair is shorter and 
often obsolete, and in some species (e. g., oiscurus and dorsalis) 
all the stripes except the median one are frequently much reduced or 
nearly obsolete; in certain members of the townsendii group the 



M The lower iacisors in all three groups are about alike in the striations. 



28 



NORTH AMERICAN FAXJNA 



(No. 82 



median pair of light stripes are tawny or olivaceous — practically the 
same color as the sides; the bases of the hairs over the entire body are 
plimibeous. 

"'LAGE AND MOLT 

The pelage of the ck' iLnlcs of this genus is soft, dense, rather 
short and appressed in SU' mer and longer and more woolly in winter. 
The bases of the hairs -.e plumbeous, but this color is ordinarily 
concealed by the terminal portions of the hairs, except on the beUy, 
where the hair is much thinner. 

Four melanistic specimens have been examined — three Eutamias 
minimus borealis from Tatletuey Lake, British Columbia, and one 
E. m. caniceps from Lake Bennett. British Columbia. Two of these 
are coal black all over, including t*^ bases of the haii-s, with a sHght 
sprinkling of grayish and cinnar jn hairs on the back, giving a 
suggestion of the usual striped effect. The other two are soHd black 
with a slight brownish tinge. 

All members of this genus molt twice a year, in spring or summer, 
and again in early fall. The spring or summer molt, involving a 
change from the worn and fad' 1 winter pelage, which has been 
carried from 8 to 10 months, is u- aaUy clearly marked by a molting 
line or by patches of new hair. T^is molt may begin as early as 
the first half of May (in Arizona) 1" usually occiu-s in July, and in 
breeding females, may be dela^ . .til August or in exceptional 
cases even later. 

The spring molt begins usua^j on the head and progresses back- 
ward, often quite uniformly, or it may begin in scattered patches on 
the foreback or shoulders, but in any case the rump is the last part 
of the body to be renewed. 

The resulting sunmier pelage is usually decidedly brighter and 
more tawny than the winter pelage, which is characterized by softer 
and more grayish tones. This pelage is worn for a much shorter 
period than the winter pelage and consequently, as a rule, shows less 
wear and fading.™ 

The fall molt takes place usually late in September or early in 
October, but instead of being clearly marked, as is the spring molt, 
the new pelage at this time appears insidiously and in only a small 
percentage of individuals is it possible to discover a "molting line" 
or even a clear indication of the area involved in the molt. There 
are, however, a sufficient number of specimens shov/ing the progress 
of the fall molt to establish with reasonable certainty the fact that 
this molt proceeds in the reverse direction from the spring molt, that 
is, beginning on the rump and advancing forward to the head. 

This pelage, as already stated, is carried throughout the winter 
and through the breeding season, which in the case of nursing females 
may extend almost through the following summer.^' With such 
extensive wear, it is not surprising to find that the pelage of late 
spring and early summer often appears decidedly unlike the same 
pelage when it was acquired in the fall. The amoimt of wear and 

"This pelage is called the "post-breeding pelage" by Doctor Merriam, but it seems more logical to 
designate it as the summer pelage, in contradistinction to the winter pelage, remembering that it may be 
acquired at any time between May and August. 

In some cases it is probably carried not more than six or eight weeks, that is, from late in August 
to early in October. 

" A female specimen taken Augu.st 20 in the Beaver Mountains, Utah, shows this molt completed over 
most of the body, the rump alone retaining faded winter pelage. 



I 



I929J 



KE3VISI0N OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



29 



fading varies with different species and different individuals, some 
specimens late in summer being exceedingly ragged or almost naked. 

The most remarkable instance of delayed molt that has come to 
the v/riter's attention is that shown by • breeding female specimen of 
oclirogenys taken at Mendocino City,, ^ lif., November 7, 1897, in 
which the old, worn, faded winter peli ■) persists on the posterior 
half of the body, while a fresh "sum^mer" .'^lage is coming in the usual 
manner on the head, shoulders, and forelJikok. Another female taken 
the same day at the same place is acquiiing winter pelage in the usual 
way, beginning on the rump and proceeding forward. 

LIST OF SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF EUTAMIAS WITH 

TYPE TjOCALITIES 

ETJTAML ^LPINUS GROUP 

Eutamias alpinus (Merriam) Mount Whitney, Calif, (p. 34). 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS GROUP 

Eutamias minimus minimus (Bachman).. Green River, Wyo. (p. 36). 

minimus pictus (Allen) Kelton, Utah (p. 39). 

minimus grisescens Howell . Farmer, Wash. (p. 41). 

minimus caryi Merriam San Luis Valley, Colo. (p. 42). 

minimus pallidus (Allen) Camp Thorne, Mont. (p. 42). 

minimus cacodemus Cary SslC Sheep Mountain," S. Dak. (p. 44). 

minimus confinis Howell ' Bighorn Mountains, Wyo. (p. 45). 

minimus consobrinv^ (Allen) ' Wasatch foothills, east of Salt Lake 

;j City, Utah (p. 46). 

minimus operarius Merriam i Gold HUl, Colo. (p. 48). 

minimus atristriatus Bailey Sacramento Mountains, N. Mex. 

(p. 51). 

minimum arizonensis HoweU Prieto Plateau, Ariz. (p. 52). 

minimus oreocetes Merriam Summit Mountain, Mont. (p. 53). 

minimus borealis (Allen) Fort Liard, Mackenzie (p. 54). 

minimus caniceps Osgood Lake Lebarge, Yukon (p. 58). 

minimus jacksoni Howell Crescent Lake, Wis. (p. 59) . 

EUTAMIAS AM(ENUS GROUP 

Eutamias ammus amcenus (Allen) Fort Klamath, Oreg. (p. 61). 

amoenu^ ochraceus HoweU Siskiyou Mountains, Calif, (p. 64). 

amcenus monoensis GrinneU and Warren Fork of Leevining Creek, 
Storer. Mono County, Calif, (p. 65). 

amcenus luteiventris (Allen) Waterton Lake, Alberta (p. 66). 

am^nvs vallicola HoweU Bass Creek, near StevensvUle, Mont. 

(p. 69). 

amcenus canicaudus Merriam Spokane, Wash. (p. 70). 

amcenus affinis (AUen) Ashcroft, British Columbia (p. 71). 

amoenus ludihundus HoUister YeUowhead Lake, British Columbia 

(p. 73). 

amoenus felix (Rhoads) Church Mountain, British Columbia 

(p. 75). 

amoenus caurinus Merriam Olympic Mountains, Wash. (p. 76). 

panamintinus (Merriam) Panamint Mountains, Calif, (p. 78). 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS GROUP 

Eutamias quadrivittatus quadrivittatus (Say) Arkansas River, about 26 miles 

below Canyon City. Colo. (p. 79). 

quadrivittatus hopiensis Merriam Keam Canyon, Ariz. (p. 83). 

quadrivittatus inyoensis Merriam White Mountains, Calif, (p. 84). 

quadrivittatus frater (Allen) Donner, Calif, (p. 86). 

quadrivittatus sequoiensis Howell Mineral King, Calif, (p. 88). 

quadrivittatus spedosus (Merriam) San Bernardino Mountains, Calif. 

(p. 89). 



30 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



Eutamias callipeplus (Merriam) Mount Pifios, Calif, (p. 91). 

palmeri Merriam Cliarleston Peak, Nev. (p. 92). 

adsitus Allen Beaver Mountains, Utah (p. 93). 

umbrinus (Allen) Blacks Fork, Uinta Mountains, Utah 

(p. 94). 

ruficaudus ruficaudus Howell Upper St. Marys Lake, Mont. (p. 96). 

ruficaudus simulans Howell Coeur d' Alene, Idaho (p. 97). 

cinereicollis cinereicollis (AUen) San Francisco Mountain, Ariz. (p. 99). 

cinereicollis cinereus Bailey Magdalena Mountains, N. Mex. 

(p. 100). 

cinereicollis canipes Bailey Gaudalupe Mountains, Tex. (p. 101). 

bulleri bulleri (AUen) Sierra de Valparaiso, Zacatecas, Mex- 

ico (p. 102). 

bulleri durangas Allen Sierra Candella, Durango, Mexico 

(p. 104). 

bulleri solivagus Howell Sierra Guadalupe, Coahuila, Mexico 

(p. 105). 

EtTTAMIAS TOWNSENDII GROUP 

Eutamias townsendii townsendii (Bachman) Lower Columbia River, Oreg. (p. 106). 

townsendii cooperi (Baird) Klickitat Pass, Wash. (p. 110). 

townsendii ochrogemjs Merriam Mendocino, Calif, (p. 112). 

townsendii siskiyou Howell Siskiyou Mountains, Calif, (p. 113). 

townsendii senex (Allen) Donner Pass, Calif, (p. 114). 

townsendii sonomBe GrinneU Guerneville, Calif, (p. 117). 

alleni Howell Inverness, Calif, (p. 119). 

quadrimaculatus (Gray) Michigan Bluff, Calif, (p. 121). 

merriami merrianii (AUen) San Bernardino Mountains, Calif. 

(p. 123). 

merriami pricei (Allen) Portola, Calif, (p. 127). 

mer-riami Aernensis GrinneU and Storer Fav Creek, 6 miles north of Weldon, 

Calif, (p. 128). 

merriami obscurus (AUen) San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower 

California (p. 129). 

merriami wendzowaZis Nelson and Gold- Aguaje de San Esteban, Lower 
man. California (p. 130). 

dorsalis dorsalis (Baird) Fort Webster, N. Mex. (p. 131). 

dorsalis uiahensis Merriam Ogden, Utah (p. 133). 

KEY TO SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF EUTAMIAS 

a^. Dorsal stripes (except the median one) more or less indistinct. 

b^. Postauricular patches large and clearly defined dorsaZis (p. 131). 

Postauricular patches smaUer and less clearly defined, 
c'. Size larger (greatest length of skuU usually more than 
36.5 mm.). 

tZ'. Under surface of tail dark tawny; range in Lower Cali- 
fornia obscurus (p. 129). 

d^. Under surface of taU pale tawny; range in California, kernensis (p. 128). 
c^. Size smaUer (length of skuU usually less than 36.5 mm.), 
d'. Tail darker (under surface tawny). 

fii. Tail longer (more than 105 mm.) meridionalis (p. IBO). 

e^. TaU shorter (less than 105 mm.) palmeri (p. 92). 

d^. Tail paler (under surface cinnamon) utahensis (p. 133). 

a^. Dorsal stripes aU distinctly marked. 

¥. Size larger (length of skull 37 mm. or over '2). 

c'. Interior forms (New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico). 

d^. Larger (hind foot 36^38 mm.); range in Sierra Madre, 
Mexico. 

Submedian pair of dorsal stripes blackish; taU paler 

beneath bulleri (p. 102). 

e^. Submedian pair of dorsal stripes brownish, tail darker 

beneath durangx (p. 104). 

cZ2. Smaller (hind foot 32-35 mm.); range in United States, canipes (p. 101). 

" Sometimes less in canipes and kernensis. 



1929] 



BE VISION OF THE A.MERICAJ^ CHIPMUNKS 



31 



c^. Pacific coast forms (British Columbia to Lower California) . 
d'. Postauricular patches large and conspicuous; ears long 

and narrow quadrimaculaius (p. 121). 

d^. Postauricular patches smaller and less conspicuous; ears 
averaging shorter and broader. 
e^. Median pair of light dorsal stripes mainly tawny or 
olivaceous (never clear white or gray). 
/I. Underparts whitish. 

Light dorsal stripes tawny or olivaceous townsendii (p. 106). 

g^. Light dorsal stripes more or less whitish sonomse (p. 117). 

/2. Underparts buffy. 

ffi. Size larger (hind foot 37-39 mm.); cheeks more 

ochraceous ochrogenys (p. 112). 

g^. Size smaller (hind foot 34-37 mm.); cheeks less 

ochraceous alleni (p. 119). 

e*. Median pair of light dorsal stripes mainly gray or 
white. 

Upper parts cinnamon buff in general tone cooperi (p. 110). 

Upper parts tawny or grayish in general tone. 
g^. Sides of face buffy. 

h^. Rump and thighs grayish in tone senex (p. 114). 

h^. Rump and thighs brownish in tone siskiyou (p. 113). 

g'^. Sides of face grayish. 

h^. Tail pale tawny beneath kernensis (p. 128). 

h'^. Tail dark tawny beneath. 

i'. Colors darker; tail longer pricei (p. 127). 

t'^. Colors paler; tail shorter merriami (p. 123). 

6^. Size smaller (length of skull less than 37 mm.). 

ci. Size larger (length of skull between 34.5 and 37 mm."). 
dK Range, Rocky Mountain region (British Columbia to 
Mexico; also Utah and Arizona). 

Dorsal stripes (except median one) tawny hopiensis (p. 83). 

e^. Dorsal stripes not tawny (blackish or fuscous). 
Shoulders washed with grayish. 
g^. Submedian pair of dorsal stripes brownish; hind 

feet grayish canipes (p. 101). 

g^. Submedian pair of dorsal stripes blackish; hind 
feet buffy. 

A'. Head and rump darker; range in Mexico, solivagus (p. 105). 
h^. Head and rump paler; range in United States. 

Shoulders and rump more grayish cinereus (p. 100). 

P. Shoulders and rump less grayish cinereicollis (p. 99). 

Shoulders not washed with grayish. 
g^. Under side of tail tawny. 

h^. Colors darker; under side of tail amber brown 

ruficaudus (p. 96). 

h?. Colors paler; under side of tail ochraceous 
tawny. 

t'. Head darker (ochraceous tawny or cinnamon) 

simulans (p. 97). 

i^. Head paler (drab or grayish). 

ji. Colors brighter; dorsal stripes blackish 

quadrivittatus (p. 79). 

Colors duller; dorsal stripes brownish-, wmbrf nws (p. 94). 
g'^. Underside of tail not tawny (sayal brown to 
pinkish cinnamon). 

h}. Sides darker (mikado brown) adsiius (p. 93). 

Sides paler (sayal brown to pinkish buff). 

Tail darker beneath (sayal brown) affinis (p. 71). 

i^. Tail paler beneath (pinkish buff) canicaudus (p. 70). 

d^. Range, Pacific coast and Great Basin regions.'* 
e^. Dorsal area more grayish; stripes less distinct. 

Size larger; colors darker obscurus (p. 129). 

f^. Size smaller; colors paler meridionalis (p. 130). 



" Rarely exceeding 37 rnrn. in obscurus. 

" One form reaching western and central Utah, 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[N O. 62 



^. Dorsal area more tawri}-; stripes more distinct. 
/ Black tip of tail longer (usually more than 20 mm.). 
5'. Upper parts more tawny; tail longer (92-114 

mm.) sequoiensis (p. 88). 

g~. Upper parts more grayish; tail shorter (80-95 

mm.) speciosus (p. 89). 

/-. Black tip of tail shorter (usually less than 20 mm.). 

g^. Underside of tail paler (sayal brown or cinnamon) fraier (p. 86). 
g-. Underside of tail darker (tawny or ochraceous 
tawny) . 

hK Submalar stripe blackish; outer pair of dorsal 

stripes buffy white callipeplus (p. 91). 

h^. Submalar stripe brownish; outer pair of dorsal 
stripes clear white, 
i'. Dark dorsal stripes brownish (much reduced 

in winter pelage) palmeri (p. 92). 

i^. Dark dorsal stripes blackish inyoensis (p. 84). 

. Size smaller (length of skull less than 35.6 mm.), 
d'. Size medium (length of skull usually more than 31 mm.). 
e^. Dorsal stripes blackish or fuscous black. 
/ ^ Underparts washed with buff. 

g^. Underside of tail paler (pinkish buff or cinnamon 
bufif). 

h^. Median pair of light dorsal stripes clear white 

vallicola (p. 69). 

h^. Median pair of light dorsal stripes not clear 

white canicaudus (p. 70). 

g^. Under side of tail darker (tawny or ochraceous 
tawny) . 

h^. Sides of face washed with ochraceous tawny felix (p. 75). 

h^. Sides of face not washed with ochraceous tawny. 
i^. Dorsal stripes blackish; underparts heavily 

washed with buff luteiventris (p. 66). 

i^. Dorsal stripes brownish; underparts faintly 

washed with buff ochraceus (p. 64). 

f^. Underparts not washed with buff. 

g^. Larger (length of skull between 33 and 35.6 mm.), 
/i^. Underside of tail paler (sayal brown or clay 

color) affmis (p. 71). 

h^. Underside of tail darker (ta-w^ny or ochraceous 
tawny) . 
i^. Dorsal stripes black. 

f. Head tawny; tail longer (103-121 mm.) 

simulans (p. 97). 

fi. Head drab or cinnamon drab; tail shorter 
(85-110 mm.). 

k^. Sides and tail darker tawny ludibundus (p. 73). 

Sides and tail paler tawny caurinus (p. 76). 

i^. Dorsal stripes fuscous black umbrinus (p. 94). 

g^. Smaller (length of skull between 31 and 34 mm.). 
h^. Range in Sierra-Cascade region and the Great 
Basin. 

i'. Tail darker beneath amoenus (p. 61). 

i^. Tail paler beneath monoensis (p. 65). 

h'^. Range in Rocky Mountain region and Great 
Plains (Yukon to New Mexico and Arizona), 
i'. Tail darker beneath (tawny or ochraceous 
tawny) . 

f. Dorsal stripes intensely black; rump and 
thighs ochraceous. 
fci. Dark dorsal stripes very bi'oad; range 

New Mexico atristriatus (p. 61). 

fc*. Dark dorsal stripes narrower; range 
Canada and northern United States. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



33 



l^. Sides and tail darker tawny jacksoni (p. 59). 

P. Sides and tail paler tawny borealis (p. 64). 

p. Dorsal stripes not intensely black (fuscous 

black or brownish); rump and thighs 

grayish. 

fci. Colors on upper parts brighter and more 
contrasted. 
Z'. Sides paler; shoulders washed with 

gray arizonensis (p. 52). 

Z^. Sides darker; shoulders not washed 

with gray operarius (p. 48). 

k^. Colors on upper parts duUer and less 
contrasted. 
Z'. Ears with conspicuous black patches 

confinis (p. 45). 

P. Ears without conspicuous black 

patches oreocetes (p. 53). 

i^. Tail paler beneath (clay color or pinkish buff) . 

j^. Dorsal stripes darker; tail paler caniceps (p. 58). 

Dorsal stripes paler; tail darker pallidus (p. 42). 

c^. Dorsal stripes (except median one) brownish or 
cinnamon. 

/ Sides tawny; dorsal stripes darker panamintinus (p. 78). 

/2. Sides not tawny; dorsal stripes paler. 

g^. Darker; dorsal stripes sayal brown pallidus (p. 42). 

Paler; dorsal stripes pinkish cinnamon cacodemus (p. 44). 

d^. Size small (length of skull usually less than 31 mm.). 
e^. Interorbital region broader (6.7-10.1 mm.); tail more 

bushy alpinus (p. 34). 

e^. Interorbital region narrower (6-7 mm.) ; tail less bushy. 
/ 1. Median pair of light dorsal stripes broader than 

dark stripes grisescens (p. 41). 

/ ^. Median pair of light dorsal stripes not broader than 
dark stripes. 

g^. Tail more blackish (less tawny) above, with paler 

edgings pictus (p. 39). 

Tail less blackish (more tawny) above, with darker 
edgings. 

h^. Dorsal stripes darker (blackish or bister) _ consobrinus (p. 
h?. Dorsal stripes paler (sayal brown of fuscous). 

z". Shoulders and rump more grayish caryi (p. 42). 

i^. Shoulders and rump less grayish minimus (p. 36). 

40279°— 29 3 



34 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No, 62 



EUTAMIAS ALPINUS GROUP 

EUTAMIAS ALPINUS (Mebriam) 
Alpine Chipmunk 
(Pis. 6, o; 10, o) 

Tamias alpinus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 8:137, December 28, 
1893. 

Eutamias alpiniis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11:191, July 1, 1897. 

Type. — Collected at Big Cottonwood Meadows, just south of Mount 
Whitney, Calif, (altitude, 10,000 feet), August 12, 1891, by Basil 

Hicks Dutcher; 9 
adult, skin and skuU; 
No. United 
States National Mu- 
seum (Biological 
Survey collection) ; 
original number, 191. 

Geographic distrib- 
ution. — Upper slopes 
of the southern Sierra 
Nevada, Calif., from 
Olancha Peak north- 
ward to southern 
Tuolumne County 
(Moimt Conness). 
Zonal range: Hud- 
sonian (about 8,000 
to 12,500 feet alti- 
tude). (Fig. 3.) 

Characters. — About the 
size oi Eutamias minimus 
pictus but ears larger; 
skull slightly larger and 
relatively broader inter- 
orbitaUy; tail broader 
and more bushy, with 
more black at the tip; 
coloration in summer 
pelage much brighter and 
more tawny than in pic- 
tus (similar to panamin- 
tinus but paler); in 
winter pelage coloration 
more buffy (less grayish), 
the sides slightly darker. 
Compared with E. amoenus monoensis: Upper parts in summer pelage similar, but 
paler, the dark stripes less blackish, the outer pair of light stripes broader and 
more prominent; head, rump, sides of body, hind feet, and underside of tail paler, 
the latter with more black at the tip. 

CfAor. — Summer pelage (August) : Head smoke gray, faintly washed with light 
pinkish cinnamon; stripe on each side of head pale fuscous mixed with sayal 
brown; ocular stripe fuscous; submalar stripe snuff brown; light facial stripes 
grayisli white; ears chjetura drab or dark hair brown anteriorly, buITy white 
posteriorly; postauricular patches rather large, creamy white; dark dorsal stripes 
tawny, more or less mixed with fuscous black, the median one darkest and 
usually mainly blackish; median pair of light dorsal stripes smoke gray, some- 
times sprinkled with tawny; outer pair broader, creamy white; sides clay color, 
with an indistinct patch of smoke gray on the shoulders; rump and thighs smoke 
gray, sprinkled with clay color; tail above fuscous black, overlaid with clay 




Figure 3. — Distribution of Eidamias alpinus 



1929] 



EEVISION OP THE A.MERIC4N CHIPMUNKS 



35 



color; tail beneath, between clay color and pinkish cinnamon, bordered with 
fuscous black and edged with clay color, the tip fuscous black for about 20 mm.; 
fore and hind feet pale smoke gray, faintljf washed with light pinkish buff; 
underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (October 11): Similar to the summer 
pelage but upper parts more grayish and less tawny; sides pinkish buff. 

Molt. — The beginning of the summer molt is shown by a specimen (c?) from 
Mount Whitney, Calif., June 19, in which the new summer pelage is coming in 
irregularly on the fore back; another male from east fork of Kaweah River, 
August 4, has nearly completed this molt, only the rump retaining the worn 
winter pelage. A breeding female from Alta Peak, August 10, is still in worn 
winter pelage, with no signs of molting; a male from the same place on the same 
day is in greatly worn winter pelage, with the new summer pelage just beginning 
to appear on the head and the middle of the back. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. minimus pictus but averaging larger in all dimen- 
sions and relatively much broader interorbitally. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from vicinity of Mount Whitney, Calif. : 
Total length, 184.9 (176-195) ; tail vertebrae, 79.5 (70-85); hind foot, 29.6 (28-31); 
ear from notch, 12.9 (12-14). Skull: Greatest length, 30.9 (30.3-31.7); zygo- 
matic breadth, 17.3 (16.6-17.8); cranial breadth, 13.8 (13.4^14.4); interorbital 
breadth, 7.6 (6.7-8.1); length of nasals, 9.7 (8.7-10.1). Weight: Average of 90 
ndividuals, 35.3 (27.5-45.5) grams. 

Remarks. — This species is remarkable in that it is not closely 
irelated to any Kving species and can not satisfactorily be placed in 
any of the groups. Externally it resembles E. minimus caryi rather 
closely in winter pelage and E. panamintinus in summer pelage, but 
in the skull characters the relatively great breadth of the inter- 
orbital region is not found in any other species. 

It is one of the highest ranging of any of the chipmunks, occurring 
at timber line on the High Sierra at 11,000 to 12,000 feet altitude, but 
ranges down also to about 8,000 feet, thus overlapping the ranges of 
E. amosnus monoensis, E. guadrivittatus frater, E. q. sequoiensis, and 
E. q. inyoensis. Its range is separated from that of E. minimus pictus 
(which occurs in Mono Valley) by a considerable gap comprising the 
greater part of two life-zone belts — the Transition and the Canadian. 

This species is most likely to be confused with E. amoenus monoensis 
but may be distinguished by somewhat smaller size, generally paler 
colors, decidedly paler (more grayish) hind feet, and more black on 
the end of the tail. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 374, as follows: 

California: Alta Peak, Kaweah River (11,500 feet altitude), 15; Bullfrog 
Lake, Fresno County (10,600 feet altitude), 24; Cirque Peak, Tulare 
County, 6;^^ Colby Mountain, Yosemite National Park, 1;" 
Cold Canyon, Yosemite National Park (8,00v/ feet altitude), 1;^^ 
Cottonwood Canyon, Inyo County (8,600 feet altitude), 1; Cotton- 
wood Lakes, Inyo County (11,000 feet altitude), 35; Dana Fork, 
Yosemite National Park, 2;'^ Glen Aulin, Yosemite National Park, 
1;'^ Horse Corral Meadows, Fresno County (7,600 feet altitude), 
1;'^ Independence Creek, Inyo County (10,000 feet altitude), 3; east 
fork Kaweah River (9,000 to 10,000 feet altitude), 13; Kearsarge Pass, 
33; Kings River (9,800 feet altitude), 2; Lake Tenaya, 2; 
Leevining Creek, Warren Fork, Mono County, 3; Little Cottonwood 
Creek, Inyo County, 1;" Lyell Canyon, Yosemite National Park, 
16; '5 McClure Fork, Merced River (9,200 feet altitude), 1;'5 
Merced River (near head), 1; Mineral King, 2; Mitchell Peak, 
Tulare County, 2; Mono Pass, 6; Mount Clark, Yosemite National 
Park, 6; ^5 Mount Conness, 1; Mount Dana, 4; Mount Florence Ridge, 
Yosemite National Park, 3; Mount Gould, Fresno County (12,600 
feet altitude), 1;'^ Mount Hoffman, Yosemite National Park, 10;'^ 
Mount Kearsarge, 1;?^ Mount Lyell, 22; Mount Unicorn, 12; Mount 
Whitney, 34; Olancha Peak (9,750 to 12,000 feet altitude), 13;" 
Onion Valley, Inyo County 13; Ten Lakea, Yosemite National Park, 



" Mus. Vert. Zool. 



™ Mus. Vert. Zool., 5. 



" Mus. Vert. Zool., 8. 



36 



NORTH ^lERICAJSr FA.UNA 



[No. 52 



7; "3 Tioga Peak, Mono County (9,700 feet altitude), 1;" Tioga Road, 
near Ellerv Lake, Mono Countv, 2;" Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite 
National Park, 35; Twin Lakes, Tidare County 3;" Twin Peaks, 
Tulare County, 1;" Vogelsang Lake, Yosemite National Park, 4;" 
Vogelsang Peak (9,800 feet altitude), 1;" Whitney Creek, Tulare 
County (10,650 feet altitude), 4; Whitney Meadows, Tulare County, 
23; " Young Lake, Yosemite National Park, 1." 

EUTARUAS MINIMUS GROUP 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS (Bachman) 

[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Diagnosis. — Size small to medium; hind foot, 26 (pidus) to 35 (cacodemus); 
skull length, 28.7 {minimus) to 34.2 (pallidus); brain case suborbicular, not 
conspicuously flattened; rostrum relatively short and stout; interorbital con- 
striction pronounced; coloration extremely variable; color of sides ranging 
from pinkish buff or light pinkish cinnamon in the paler forms {minimus, caco- 
demus, caryi, pictus, and pallidus) through clay color and saj'al brown to ochra- 
ceous tawny in the darkest forms {operarius, consobrinus, smdjacksoni) ; dark dorsal 
stripes ranging from cinnamon or pinkish cinnamon (in cacodemus) through sayal 
brown, snuff brown, and cheetura black to black (in borealis, caniceps, jacksoni, and 
atristriatus) ; median pair of light dorsal stripes graj-ish white or smoke gray, 
uimiixed in some forms {caryi, pictus, etc.) but usually more or less mixed with 
cinnamon or sayal brown; outer pair of light stripes white or creamy white, 
usually clear, rarely mixed with cinnamon; top of head ranging in general tone 
from pale smoke gray through mouse graj'', light drab, and cinnamon to brownish 
drab, the colors always intimately mixed and hard to define; under surface of 
tail ranging from pinkish buff or light pinkish cinnamon through clay color, 
avellaneous, cinnamon, sas'al brown, snuff brown, and mikado brown to ochra- 
ceous tawny; rump and thighs varying from pinkish buff or smoke gray to sayal 
brown and ochraceous tawny; hind feet grayish white, pinkish buff, pinkish 
cinnamon, or cinnamon buff. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS MINIMUS (Bachman) 
Least Chspmtjnk 
(Pls. 6, a; 10, a) 

Tamias minimus Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 71, 1839; 

AUen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 110, June, 1890. 
Eutamias minimus Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30 (no. 1) : 

42, December 27, 1901. 

Type. — Collected, on Green River, near mouth of Big Sandy Creek, 
Wyo. (To^\-nsend, 1839, p. 72). 

Geographic distribution. — Central and southwestern Wyoming and 
extreme northwestern Colorado. Zonal range: Upper Sonoran; 
5,800 to 8,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Size small (hind foot, 28-30 mm.); colors pale; dark dorsal stripes 
(except median one) mainly brownish; sides pinkish buff; under surface of taU 
light brown. 

Color. — Summer pelage: Head pinkish buff mixed with grayish white, the 
general tone near avellaneous; dark facial stripes snuff brown (sometimes fuscous) 
mixed with cinnamon; light facial stripes grayish white; ears drab, washed with 
cinnamon, the outer posterior portion grayish white; postauricular patches 
grayish white; median dorsal stripe nan-ow, black, margined on each side with 
sayal brown; outer dark dorsal stripes (two pairs) sayal brown, more or less 
mixed with fuscous; light dorsal stripes grayish white, the median pair tinged 
■with buff; sides of body light pinkish cinnamon or pinkish buff; thighs smoke 
gray, more or less washed with light buff; feet pale pinkish buff; tail above 
fuscous black, overlaid with cinnamon buff; tail beneath, sayal brown to clay 
color, Ijordered with blackish brown and cinnamon buff; underparts creamy 



" Mus. Vert. Zool. 



" Mus. Vert. Zool., 18. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



37 



white. Worn winter pelage: Similar to summer pelage, but general tone of 
upper parts more grayish, especially in worn (spring) specimens in which the 
buflf tones are greatly faded or nearly obliterated; head and rump more grayish; 
under surface of tail fading to cinnamon buff or pinkish buff. 

■^olt. — The spring molt occurs rather early in this race; a male specimen from 
Mountainview, Wyo., May 28, is in worn winter pelage, with a patch of new 
pelage appearing in the middle of the back; another male from Sage Creek, near 




Figure 4.— Distribution of the subspecies of Eutnmias minimtis. 1, E. minimus caniceps- 2 E 
viimmus boreahs; 3, E. minimus jacksoni; 4, E. minimus pallidas; 5, E. minimus oreocetes- 6 E 
minimus cacodemus; 7, E. minimus consobrinus; 8, E. minimus minimus; 9, E. minimus operarius- 
W, E. minimus cam; 11 E. minimus atTistriatus; 12, E. minimus arizonensis; 13, E. minimus 
ptctus; 14, E. minimus gnsescens; 15, E. minimus confinis 

Lone Tree, Wyo., June 5, has about the anterior half of the body covered with 
fresh summer pelage. 

SkuU.-Size small; brain case evenly rounded and rather deep (not conspic- 
uously flattened); zygomata not widely expanded (often nearly parallel to axis 
ot skull) ; nasals terminating posteriorly about on the same plane with ends of 
premaxiUaries; audital bullae moderately inflated. 

Measurementis— Average of 10 adults from southwestern Wyoming- Total 
length, 186.4 (178-190); tail vertebra;, 86.3 (80-90); hind foot, 29 (28-30); ear 

" Specimens in fresh winter pelage not seen. 



38 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



from notch, 10.7 (10-12). Skull: Average of S adults from Green River, Wyo. : 
Greatest length, 29.8 (28.7-30.4); zvgomatic breadth, 17 (16.1-17.4); cranial 
breadth, 13.9 (13.3-14.6); interorbital breadth, 6.7 (6.2-7); length of nasals, 
8.8 (8.1-9.3). 

Bemarlcs. — The least chipmunk was the second of the North 
American species to receive a name; it was not recognized, however, 
by the early writers, being considered to be the young of Eutamias 
quadrivittatus , and not until 1890, when Allen revived the name and 
used it in place of pallidus for the pale forms of Wyoming and Mon- 
tana, did it come into common use. 

This race occupies a comparatively linaited area and is surrounded 
on all sides by other forms of the species, with aU of which it inter- 
grades. In the foothills of the Uinta Mountains and on the western 
slopes of the Wind River Mountains it passes gradually into the 
darker form, consohrinus ; in the Casper Mountains and along the 
western border of the Medicine Bow Range it intergrades with 
operarius; in the Green Mountains, a small isolated range in central 
Wyoming, it shows approach to operarius in the darkening of the 
colors, although this colony is entirely surrounded by typical minimus; 
in the valley of the North Platte, between Casper and Douglas, and 
in the Wind River VaUey near Fort Washalde, intergradation with 
pallidus takes place; and in extreme western Wyoming, between 
Fossil and Border, minimus passes into pictus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 218, as foUows: 

Colorado: Bear River (at Sand Creek), Routt County, l;*" Craig, Routt 
County, 4; 80 Douglas Spring, Routt County, 1;^" Ladore, 1; Lay, 2;^^ 
Lily, 1; Snake River, Routt County (near Lower Bridge), 8; gnake 
River (20 miles west of Baggs, Wyo.), 1; Snake River (south of Sunny 
Peak), 2. 

Wyoming: Bear River Divide (14 miles north of Evanston), 7; Big Piney, 1; 
Bitter Creek, Sweetwater County (Kinney Ranch), 40;^ Bridger Pass, 
6; Canyon Creek (12 miles south of Alcova), 2; Casper, 5; Cumberland, 7; 
Douglas, 7; Eden, 1; Ferris Mountains, 4; Fontenelle, 7; Fort Bridger, 
13; Fort Steele, 3; Fremont Lake, 1;^" Green River (exact location 
not stated), 6; Green River (Junction of New Fork), 8; Green River 
(4 miles north of Linwood, Utah), 1; Green River City, 14; Green 
Mountains (8 miles east of Rongis), 1; Henry Fork (mouth Burnt Fork), 
1; Henry Fork (5 miles west of Lone Tree), 1; Independence Rock; 1, 
Kemmerer, 9; Lost Soldier (8 miles southeast), 1; Little Sandy River, 
1;** Maxon, 1; Mountainview, 6; Muddy Creek (near Big Sandy 
Creek), 1; Opal, 3; Rattlesnake Mountains, 10; Rawlins, 1;" Sage 
Creek, Uinta County, 7; Saratoga, 2; Sheep Creek (Albany County), 5; 
Spring Creek (10 miles west of Marshall), 1; Springvalley, 1; Steamboat 
Mountain (15 miles north of Superior), 4; Sulphur Springs (near Muddy 
Creek, Carbon County), 1; Sun, 4; Superior, 2. 



80 E. R. Warren coll. 

81 E. R. Warren coll., 1; Colo. Agr. College, 1. 

" E. R. Warren coll., 6; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Colo. Agr. College, 1. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35. 
8* Mus. Comp. Zool. 
8« Univ. Mich. 
88 Carnegie Mus. 



1929] 



EE VISION OF THE A.MERICAJSr CHIPMUNKS 



39 



EUTAMIAS MINIMUS PICTUS (Allen) 
Geeat Basin Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, n; 10, n) 

Tamias minimus pictus Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 115, June 1890 
Tamias minimus melanurus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 4. d 22 October 

8, 1890 (Blackfoot, Idaho). ' ^ ' '^'''""^^ 

Eutamias pictus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 190, 194 July 1 1897 
Eutamias minimus pictus Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat ' Hist 30- 42* 

December 27, 1901. ' ' ' 

T2/2?e.— Collected at Kelton, Utah, October 25, 1888, by Vernon 
Bailey; c? adult, sldn and sloiU; No. 186459, United States National 
Musejim (No. ffff, Merriam collection; original nmnber, 342). 

Geographic distribution. — Great Basin region of northwestern 
Utah, southern Idaho, Nevada (except southeastern part), and eastern 
and central Oregon; north to central Washington and central Idaho 
(Lemhi); east to extreme southwestern Wyoming; south to Nephi 
Utah, and Olancha Peak, Calif.; west to Klamath Lake, Oreg ! 
Mono Lake, Honey Lake, and Olancha Peak, CaHf. Zonal ranqe: 
^?rP?^ Sonoran; 2,000 feet (Yaldma County, Wash.) to 10,500 feet 
(White Mountams, Calif.) altitude. (Fig. 4.) 

C/iaraciers.— Similar to Eutamias m. minimus, but general tone of upper parts 
more grayish, especially on the rump and thighs; tail more blackish (less tawny) 
above, overlaid with a paler shade of buff; paler beneath, the median portion 
often much obscured by the blackish borders. 

Color—Summer pelage: Head smoke gray, more or less mixed with light 
pinkish cinnamon; median dorsal stripe blackish, margined with saval brown- 
outer dark dorsal stripes snuff brown varied with blackish; outer pair of light 
dorsal stripes white; inner pair grayish white, mixed with sayal brown; sides 
pmkish cinnamon, soon fading to hght pinkish cinnamon; rump and thighs 
smoke gray; feet grayish white, washed with pale pinkish buff; tail above blackish 
S«?Jo' u"" ^^}^ V^v^^ish buff; tail beneath, light pinkish cinnamon or 

pale avellaneous, bordered with blackish and edged with pale pinkish buff (the 
median area often largely overlaid with blackish hairs) ; under parts creamy white. 
Winter pelage: Closely similar to that of minimus, but averaging slightly more 
grayish dorsaUy, and paler on under side of tail. Similar to summer pelage of 
Se^and sZuWe^rs extensively grayish (less buffy), especiaUy on head, 

Molt.—K male specimen from Inyo Mountains, CaUf., June 26, is in greatly worn 

wwrin^l^r* f ^"''^^r^v.*^^ P<^^^g^ appearing in the middle of the 

back, an adult female from White Mountains, Calif., July 8 shows the new pelage 
coming m irregularly in patches over the back. The fall molt is weU shown by a 
specimen (9 adult from Burns, Orcg., October 9, in which the gray winter 
pelage IS seen covering the rump and hinder back. & y 

*S/cmZ/.— Practically identical with that of minimus. 

Meo^wremeTite.— Average of 10 adults from Kelton, Promontory, and Nephi, 
S^Jv ^^ tail vertebrae. 85.6 (82-90); hind fo<A2i 

(27 5-30) ; ear from notch, 10.6 (10-1 1 .5) . Skull: Average of eight adults from 
fel Hfif ^^""^i ^^5^*^' 29-9 (28.8-30.4); zygLatic breadth 

Jfi'lfifi^ T^-ll' cjanial breadth, 13.2 (13.1-13.8); interorbital breadth, 6.4 

SamW^oi^^^y^^/f-Tr'' ^"u ^^'f-^:^^- ^""^'"^^ 10 adults, 35 

grams (30.3-37.7) [Fide Grinnell and Storer, 1924, p. 177). 

RemarJcs.— This race has a very wide distribution and shows 
relatively httle variation over its entire range. The colony from the 
west side of the Columbia River, in the Yakima region, although 
apparently isolated from the rest of the subspecies (fig. 4), shows 
closer resemblance to the typical form than to grisescens. Some of 
the specimens from Mabton, however, show approach to the latter 
m the broad, gray, median dorsal stripes. Intergradation with 
mimmus takes place m extreme Mvestern Wyoming (at Border, 
Cokeville, Sage, and Fossil). ^ & v , 



40 



NORTH A.MERICAN FA.UNA. 



[No. 52 



This subspecies is preeminently an inhabitant of the sagebrush 
plains, but in many places it ascends into the foothills and under 
these conditions usually becomes darker, thus approaching consdbriniis 
in characters. This condition is well shown by specimens from 
Fairfield and Neplii, Utah, and MontpeUer, Idaho. A single speci- 
men from Donovan, Mont., is typical pidus, indicating that this 
form has pushed eastward from Idaho across the divide. At Dillon, 
J^Iont., a few miles farther east, pictus meets the range of pallidus, 
specimens from that place being considered intermediate between the 
two races. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 858, as foUows: 

California: Alturas, 2; Amedee, 10; Beckwith Pass, Lassen Countj', 4; 
Benton, Mono Country, 4;*^ Bishop Creek, Inyo County (7,000 feet 
altitude), 1; Bridgeport, Mono County, 1; Browneli, 15; Bunchgrass 
Spring (Lassen County), 3; Cedarville, 1; Chat, 2; Davis Creek (Modoc 
County), 1; Fort Sage Mountain (Lassen County), 4;^ Honey Lake 
(15 miles south), 1; Hot Springs, Mono County, 1;** Inyo Mountains, 20;'' 
Junction, Mono Countj', 1; Long Valley, Lassen County, 3; Madeline, 
1; " Madeline Divide, 3; Mammoth, Mono County, 3; Menache Mead- 
ows (5 miles southwest of Olancha Peak), 2; Milford (Honey Lake), 1; 
IMono Lake, ll;^" Mount Hebron, 14; Olancha Peak (9,000 to 9,750 feet 
altitude), 2;"' Owens River (head), 1; Owens Valley (Benton), 2; Pitt 
River (south fork, 4,100 feet altitude), 1; Plumas Junction, Lassen 
County, 1;*' Tuledad Canyon (northeast corner of Lassen County), 2; 
Vinton (Sierra Valley) , 5 ; ^' Walker Lake, Mono County, 1 ; Warner 
Mountains, 8; White Mountains, 66. 

Idaho: American Falls, 9; Arco, 1; Big Lost River, 18; Birch Creek (includ- 
ing mountains east of Birch Creek Valley), 21; Blackfoot, 13; Bridge, 
Cassia County, 2; Deer Flats (near Caldwell), 2; Dickey, 3; Dubois, 2; 
Idaho Falls, 2; Junction, 2; Juniper, Oneida County, 2; Lemhi, 7; Lemhi 
VaUey, 1; Little Lost River, 5; Malad City, 3; Minidoka, 6; MontpeUer, 
2; Nampa, 3; Orchard, Ada County, 2; Pahsimeroi Mountains, 1; 
Pahsimeroi Valley, 7; Patterson, 1; Pocatello, 6; Riddle (15 miles 
southeast), 1; Salmon Valley (near Sawi;ooth City), 1; SheUey, 2; 
Shoshone, 6; Silver City, 3; Twin Lakes, Snake River Desert (20 miles 
north of Minidoka), 2. 

Montana: Donovan, 1. 

Nevada: Arc Dome, 1; Austin, 16; Badger, 3; Bull Run Mountains, 2; 
CarUn, 1;"^ Carson, 4; Cloverdale Creek, 1; Cottonwood Range, 2; 
Double Springs, Douglas County, 1;** Elko, 3; Gardnerville, 1;'* 
Golconda, 2; Granite Creek (Humboldt Countj'), 3; Halleck, 40; Hol- 
brook, Douglas County, 1;** Little Owyhee River, 7; Manhattan, 1; 
Monitor Mountains, (25 miles southwest of Eureka), 2; Monitor Valley 
(30 to 50 miles north of Belmont), 2; Mountain City, Elko County, 10; 
Mount Magruder, 6; Mount Siegel, Douglas County, 4; Palisade, 8; 
Pine Forest Mountains, 26;*' Pyramid Lake, 2; Queen Station, Owens 
Valley, 1; Quinn River Crossing, 22;*' Reese River (at line between 
Lander and Nye Qjunties), 6; Reese River (head), 6; Reno, 1; Ruby 
Mountains, 2; Silver Creek, Lander County, 2; Silver Peak Mountains 
(near summit), 1; Sugar Loaf, Douglas County, 3;** Summit Lake, 
Humboldt County, 3; Verdi, 3; Virgin Valley, Humboldt County, 3; 
Washoe County (15 miles southeast of Lower Lake, California), 1; 
Wells, 10; White Rock Valley (30 miles southwest of Austin), 1; Win- 
nemucca, 1. 

Oregon: Alvord Valley, 1; Arnold Ice Cave (16 miles southeast of Bend), 2; 
Baker, 8; Beulah, 2; Bone Springs, Sheephead Mountains (Malheur 
County), 3; Buchanan, 2; Burkemont, Baker County, 1;'^ Burns, 18; 
Camp Creek (Crook County), 2; Cedar Mountains (Malheur County), 3; 
Christmas Lake (15 miles north), 1; Cold Springs, Malheur County 
(southeast of Riverside), 1; Cord (6 miles west), 1; Cow Creek Lake, 



" Mus. Vert. Zool. 

Mus. Coinp. Zool. 
" Mas. Vert. Zool., 4. 
*" Mus. Vert. Zool., 23. 
" Mus. Vert. Zool., 1 



" Mus. Vert. Zool., 56. 
»' Univ. Micb. 

»< Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Ilist. 
Univ. Mich., 7; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 



1929r EEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 41 

Malheur County, 1; Crane, 3; Crooked Creek (near Rome), 1; Diamond, 

v'oif '^A^;' 2;" Fremont, 4; Ironside, 20; Jordan 

CoS; 2 ^r'f ^'r^r^'' ^' ^^^^ Creek Canyon, LaS 

A/r^u^' ^' . Klamath Basin, 5; Mahogany Mountain 

ffntrll^'o^P -^^'-f,' ^^l^-""^ ^i'""*^' McDermitt, 5; Narrows loi 
? rZ'p '9 r^"'^^' 6; Riverside^ 8; Rock Creek Sink (Harney County) 
A^r IT^'r?' Ryegrass, Owyhee Desert, 4; Silver Lake, 2: SkuU Spring 
Vat sT Voltage' 6 fountains, 3; Tule Lake, 1; Tumtum Lakerfi 

Utah:_ Kelton, 8; Mantua, 1; Nephi, 6; Promontory, 2. 

Washington: Biekleton (10 miles northeast), 1; Columbia River (10 

YikLa1^Wl/"^> ^T"^'^' Ellensburg,'5; Mabton, fs- North 
^tajiima, 8; Wiley City (10 miles west of Yakima), 3. 
Wyoming: Border, 4; Cokeville, 5; Fossil, 7; Sage, 2. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS GRISESCENS Howell 
Coulee Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, m; 10, m) 

Eutamias minimus grisescens Howell, Journ. Mamm. 6: 52, February 15, 1925. 

ifiS^^K~?°A?^*^^^T^^-^^''"'^^' Douglas County, Wash. July 3l' 
TTniL^f^f M r'^'Tv/ ^^badult, skin and skuD; No. 89701 

P«STfT^n ,^^«^r^^^g?^--Coulee region of eastern Washington, 
east of the Columbia River; south to Pasco (Fio- 4 ) 

r.ffvlT""'^'''""'^'' ^^^''•^l ^*yP^' 31): Head smoke gray, mixed with lieht 

pmkish cmnamon; facial stripes chastura drab shaded with pa^e sav^ brown • 
median dorsal stripe narrow, black, bordered with sayal brown becorniniTss 
«i-I+f^K^''*^"°s'^y' ^^^^'^ ^^'■'^ dorsal stripes also narrow^E late?S strioes 
hrf«i V'°v'^''^' ^^y^^l brown, shaded with fuscous; mediln pafr of Si> sir pes 
broad, smoke gray; outer pair of light stripes narrower, white eSs hairbrown 
miX^'^th s^vi^br^^^ posteriorly wi^h light buff 'and wasSd on anterfor 
margin with sayal brown; inner surface of ear light ochraceous buff - sides smokp 
gray faintly washed with pale pinkish buff; feet pinkish buT tail above blackSh 

r/etrtTgTayil'h^^ ^^^^^^^ «PP^d with plfetr^o'S^g^a^JI 

wiXorte;"^Lt'ls.° °' ^ligMy narrower 

TotrCX?77~7^^fi?7l«^ f -f "^"^ .^^^"1* subadult) from type region- 

ear from fo^'chlo 6 r^^^^^^^^ tail vertebra., 78.7 (74-87); hind foot, 26.8 (26^28) 

o?n'LrsT5\8T-8S).''-' "^t-rbi'tafLeadth, 6.6 (&'.7)! 

i^marZfs.—This race apparently occupies a very restricted area 
m eastern Washmgton being found m its typical form only in the 
Coulee" region east of the Columbia River 

Intergradation with pictus takes place in the Yakima region 
west of the Columbia River. i«giou, 

Specimens examined. —Total number, 11, as follows: 
^^"pisfo^"!' ^' ^""S^^^' 1' 2; Moses Coulee, 1; 



•» Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. a. H. Helme coU. 



42 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



EUTAMIAS MINIMUS CARYI Merriam 
Cart's Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, d; 10, d) 

Eutamias minimus carrji Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 21: 143, June 9, 
1908. 

Type. — Collected at Medano Ranch, San Luis Valley, Colo., 
October 24, 1907, by Merritt Cary; c? subadult, sldn and skull; No. 
150740, United States National Museum (Biological Survey collec- 
tion); original number, 1176. 

Geographic distribution. — San Luis Valley, Colo, (limits of range 
unknown). Zonal range: Upper Sonoran. (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Closely similar to Eutamias m. minimus, but general tone of 
upper parts slighth' more grayish in winter pelage; shoulders and rump more 
extensively grayish; hind feet slightly larger. 

Color. — Winter pelage (October 24) : Head light drab, washed with pinkish 
cinnamon in front of eyes; stripe through eye usualh' blackish, becoming sayal 
brown at base of ear; other facial stripes sayal brown, the light stripes grayish 
white; ears fuscous, margined with sayal brown anteriorly, and with a large 
grayish white patch on anterior border; nape and shoulders washed with smoke 
gray; median dorsal stripe blackish, margined with sayal brown; other dark 
dorsal stripes sayal brown, mixed with fuscous black; median pair of light stripes 
smoke gray, outer pair white; sides light pinkish cinnamon; rump and thighs 
smoke gray; feet pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous, overlaid with pinkish buff; 
beneath, sayal brown to clay color, fading to cinnamon buff; under parts white. 
Summer pelage (topotype, June 22; tail in worn winter pelage): Closely similar 
to minimus in corresponding pelage; sides richer, and shoulders and thighs less 
grayish (more cinnamon) than in winter pelage. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of minimus. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from type locality: Total length, 192.6 
(186-200); tail vertebra, 87.9 (83-96); hind foot, 30.2 (29-31); ear from notch, 
10.1 (9-11). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type locality: Greatest length, 
30 (29.6-30.8); zygomatic breadth, 16.9 (16.4r-'l7.2) ; cranial breadth, 13.9 
(13.4-14.7); interorbital breadth, 6.6 (6-7); length of nasals, 9 (8.7-9.3). 

Remarks. — Cary's chipmunk is very closely related to typical 
minimus with which it agrees almost exactly in coloration in summer 
pelage, but is distinctly more grayish in winter. Its range, however, is 
widely separated from that of minimus, since it is confined to the 
bottom of the San Luis Valley and is entirely surrounded by the 
darker and larger subspecies, operarius, occupying the adjacent 
mountains. Intergradation with operarius is indicated by specimens 
from the mouth of Mosca Pass, at 8,200 feet altitude. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 28, as foUows: 

Colorado: Medano Ranch (15 miles northeast of Mosca), 24; Mosca, 2; " 
San Luis Lake, 2.** 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS PALLIDUS (Allen) 
Plains Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, e; 10, e) 

Tamias quadriviilatus b. var. pallidus Allen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16:289, 
1874. 

Tamias asiaiicus var. pallidus Allen, Monog. North Amer. Rodentia: U. S. 

Geol. Surv. Terr. 11: 793, 1877 (part). 
Eutamias pallidus Cary, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 19: 87-88, June 4, 1906. 



»6 E. R. Warren coll., 11. 



»» E. R. Warren coll. 



19291 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



43 



Type (lectotype). — Collected at Camp Thome (near Glendive), 
Mont., July 18, 1873, by J. A. Anen;_ sldn and skull; No. iifff, 
United States National Museum; original number, 200. Type 
locality fixed by Cary (1906, p. 88). _ 

Geographic distribution. — Plains region of eastern Montana, northern 
and eastern Wyoming, western North Dakota, western South Dakota, 
and extreme northwestern Nebraska; north to the Missouri River 
in Montana; east to the Missouri River in North Dakota; south 
to the valley of the North Platte in eastern Wyoming and to the Wind 
River Basin in western Wyoming; west to Meagher and Sweet Grass 
Counties, Mont., and to the foothills of the Wind River Mountains, 
Wyoming. Zonal range: Upper Sonoran and Lower Transition; 
4,500 to 7,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Closely similar in color to Eutamias m. minimus, but underside of 
tail averaging paler; size decidedly larger. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July and August) : Head pale smoke gray, mixed with 
pinkish buff; median dorsal stripe blackish, bordered with sayal brown; other 
dark dorsal stripes sayal brown mixed with fuscous; median pair of light stripes 
pale smoke gray; outer pair white; sides light pinkish cinnamon; rump and thighs 
smoke gray, tinged with pale buff; feet pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous black 
overlaid with pale pinkish buff; beneath, pinkish cinnamon or pinkish buff, 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with pale pinkish buff. Winter pelage 
(May 29): Head, nape, shoulders, rump, thighs, and median pair of light dorsal 
stripes dark smoke gray; two outer pairs of dark dorsal stripes mixed fuscous and 
sayal brown, the general tone near bister; sides pinkish buff; underside of tail 
between clay color and sayal brown; otherwise as in summer. 

Molt. — An adult male specimen from Big Timber, Mont., June 22, is in worn 
winter pelage, with the new summer pelage beginning to appear in scattered 
patches over the back; an adult female from Bighorn Basin, Mont., July 18, is 
likewise in greatly worn winter pelage, with the new pelage appearing on the 
sides of the head and neck and in a patch in the middle of the back; another 
female from Marmarth, N. Dak., July 31, has the anterior portion of the body 
completely covered with fresh pelage, the rump and hinder back still in worn 
and faded winter pelage. 

Skull. — Similar in general proportions to that of minim,vs, but decidedly larger; 
closely similar, also, to that of horealis; audital buUaj averaging slightly larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from eastern Montana: Total length, 
208.4 (197-223); tail vertebrae, 96.7 (91-104); hind foot, 33.1 (32-34); ear from 
notch, 13 (12-14.5). Skull: Average of 10 from eastern Montana: Greatest 
length, 32.7 (32-34.2); zygomatic breadth, 18.6 (17.8-19.2); cranial breadth, 14.9 
(14.5-15.5); interorbital breadth, 7.4 (7.1-7.8); length of nasals, 10.1 (9.8-10.3). 
Weight: One subadult male from Sanish, N. Dak., 38 grams. 

RemarTcs. — This pale race was recognized and named by Allen as 
early as 1874, but later was referred by him to minimus (Allen, 1890, 
p. 110). Cary (1906, pp. 87-88), restored pallidus and treated it as a 
full species, fixing the type locality at Camp Thome, Mont. It 
resembles minimus very closely in coloration but is decidedly larger. 

Intermediates between pallidus and minimus occur in the upper 
Bighom Basin, the Owl Creek Mountains, and in the valley of the 
North Platte between Casper and Douglas, Wyo. A specimen from 
the foothills of the Laramie Mountains, 15 miles southwest of Wheat- 
land, Wyo., shows approach to operarius, while numerous specimens 
intermediate between pallidus and horealis have been examined 
from the foothills of the Black Hills near Elk Mountain and Belle 
Fourche, S. Dak., the foothills of the Little Rockies near Zortman, 
Mont., and from Crow Agency, Mont. A small series from Sioux 
County, Nebr., is nearly typical pallidus, although from their proxim- 
ity to the range of cacodemus, one would expect to find intermediates 
between these two races in this region. 



44 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



Specimens examined. — Total number, 310, as follows: 

Montana: Alzada, 1; Ashland, 1; Big Timber, 2; Big Timber Creek (8-10 
miles north of Big Timber), 2; Billings, 20; Calf Creek (Custer County), 
1; ' Camp Thorne, Yellowstone River, 2; Columbus, 1; Crow Agency, 10; 
Darnell's Ranch, Dawson County (on Missouri River), 2; Dillon, 4; Dry 
Creek (22 miles southwest of Cohagen), 1; Ekalaka, 6; Fort Custer, 4; 
Jensen's Ranch, Musselshell County, 1;^ Judith River, 1; Lame Deer, 
4; Laurel (8 miles northwest), 1; Little Bighorn River (14 miles south 
of Crow Agency), 1; Miles City, 1; Moorhead, 17; Musselshell, 6; ' 
Painted Robe Creek, Yellowstone County, 3; Piney Buttes, 7; Powder- 
viUe, 7; Ringling, 2; Roundup, 11; Sage Creek, Bighorn Basin, 5; Sioux 
National Forest (8 miles east of Sykes), 2; Sumatra, 3; Sunday Creek, 1; 
Sykes (5 miles east), 2; Terry (10 miles north), 4; Yellowstone River, 3. 

Nebraska: Glen, Sioux County, 3;* Harrison (6 miles northwest), 5; 
Monroe Canyon, Sioux County, 1;^ Sowbelly Canyon, Sioux County, 
1; * Warbonnet Canyon, Sioux County, 8.* 

North Dakota: Buford, 10; Goodall, 3; Grinnell, 14; Marmarth, 5; Medora, 
5; North Dakota National Forest, 2; Oakdale, 10; Palace Buttes (6 
miles north of Cannon Ball), 5; Parkin, 3; Quinion, 1; Sentinel Butte, 1; 
WiUiston, 7. 

South Dakota: Belle Fourche, 1; Edgemont, 1; Elk Mountain (20 miles 
north, at 6,000 feet altitude) , 6. 

Wyoming: Arvada, 7; Bitter Creek, near Powder River, 1; Bridger Creek 
(head), 2; Fort Washakie, 6; GreybuU, 4; Guernsey, 1; Hyattville, 1; 
Jackeys Creek (3 miles south of Dubois), 3; Laramie County, 1;* 
Manderson (10 miles south), 1; Merino, 3; Moorcroft, 8; Newcastle, 2; 
North Platte River, 1;^ Otter Creek, Bighorn Basin, 2; Otto, 5; ^ 
Owl Creek Mountains, 4; Pine Ridge, 3; Powder River (at mouth of 
Clear Creek), 2; Powder River Basin (near Pumpkin Buttes), 2; Rawhide 
Butte (Goshen County), 3; Sheridan, 3; Ten Sleep (10 miles south and 15 
miles west), 3; Thornton, 2; Upton, 2; Wheatland (15 miles southwest), 
1; Willow Creek (10 miles southwest of Thermopolis) , 1; Wind River 
(near mouth of Meadow Creek), 1; Wind River Basin (near Wood 
Flat), 4. 



Eutamias pallidus cacodemus Gary, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 19: 89, June 



Type. — Collected, at head of Corral Draw, Sheep Mountein, Big 
Badlands, South Dakota, September 2, 1905, by Merritt Cary; c? 
adult, skin and skull; No. 138137, United States National Museum 
(Biological Survey collection) ; original number, 682. 

Geographic distribution. — Badlands of the Cheyenne River in south- 
western South Dakota. Zonal range: Upper Sonoran. (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias minimus ■pallidus but much paler; tail and 
hind feet relatively longer; ears smaller. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Head tilleul buff varied with pale smoke 
gray; facial stripes cinnamon, shaded with sayal brown; the stripes bordering 
the crown often mixed with olive brown; ears pinkish buff, becoming grayish 
white on posterior border; nape more or less washed with pale smoke gray; dark 
dorsal stripes cinnamon or pinkish cinnamon, shaded with fuscous, the median 
stripe darkest and sometimes distinctly black, especially on posterior half; 
median pair of light stripes pale smoke gray, outer pair white; rump and thighs 
smoke gray, tinged with pale bufT; sides pinkish buff or light pinkish cinnamon; 
feet pinkish buff or light pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous black, heavily overlaid 
with pale pinkish buff; tail beneath, pinkish buff or light pinkish cinnamon, 



EUTAMIAS MINIMUS CACODEMUS Cart 



Badlands Chipmunk 



(Pls. 6, f; 10, P) 



4, 1906. 



' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
2 Mont. State College. 
8 Mont. State College, 4. 
* Univ. Nebr. 



» Carnegie Mus. 1; TJniv. Nebr., 7. 
« Kans. Univ. Mus. 
' Mus. Comp. Zool. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A.MERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



45 



bordered with fuscous and edged with pale pinkish buff; underparts creamy 
white. Worn winter pelage (May) : Similar to the summer pelage, but general 
tone of upper parts more grayish (less ochraceous), the tail beneath about 
cartridge buff edged with grayish white. 

Skull. — SimUar to that of pallidus but averaging smaller; considerably larger 
than that of minimus. 

Measurements. — Average of seven adults from type locality: Total length 
214.6 (210-225); taU vertebrae, 102 (97-105); hind foot, 34.6 (34-35); ear from 
notch, 11.7 (10.5-13). Skull: Average of 12 adults from Cheyenne River region- 
Greatest length, 32.3 (31.4-33.4); zygomatic breadth, 18.3 (17.5-19); cranial 
breadth, 14.8 (14.2-16.5); interorbital breadth, 7 (6.6-8.2); length of nasals, 
9.9 (9.2 10.4) . 

Remarks. — The Badlands chipmunk is the palest known member 
of the genus; it has a rather Umited range in the Badlands along the 
Cheyenne and White Rivers in South Dakota, in a region of whitish 
alkaline soil and very scanty vegetation. It doubtless intergrades 
with pallidus wherever their ranges meet. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 32, as follows: 

South Dakota: Cheyenne River Badlands, 13; Corral Draw, Pine Ridge 
Indian Reservation, 12; ^ Sheep Mountain (head of Corral Draw), 7. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS CONFINIS Howell 
Bighorn Chipmunk 
Eutamias minimus confinis Howell, Journ. Mamm. 6: 52, February 15, 1925. 

Ty^e.— Collected at head of Trapper Creek (8,500 feet altitude), 
west slope of Bighorn Mountains, Wyo., June 7, 1910, by Merritt 
Gary; $ adult, sldn and skuU, No. 168957, United States National 
Museum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 1956. 

Geographic distribution. — Upper slopes of the Bighorn Mountains 
Wyo. (7,000 to 10,500 feet). (Fig. 4.) 

CAaroders — SimUar to consohrinus but larger; upper parts in winter pelaee 
niore buffy (less grayish) particularly on the thighs and buttocks; median pair 
of light dorsal stripes strongly mixed with buff (less clear gray); dark dorsal 
stripes blackish, mixed with ochraceous tawny (in consohrinus nearly russet); 

°r.tu?®^ P^^®^' summer pelage, dark dorsal stripes averaging less blackish 
and thighs more buffy. Compared with pallidus: Upper parts, sides, and under 
surface of tail decidedly darker. Compared with oreocetes: Closely similar in 
color, but ears showing conspicuous blackish patches; postauricular patches less 
conspicuous and more buffy (less whitish); nape usually washed with smoke 
gray; hmd feet paler (less tawny). Compared with borealis: Upper parts more 
grayish (less tawny); dorsal stripes less blackish; sides and tail paler. 

Color. —Summer pelage (September): Head mixed cinnamon and pale smoke 
gray, and bordered with a fuscous black stripe; dark facial stripes fuscous black 
shaded with tawny; Hght facial stripes buffy white; anterior portion of ears 
fuscous black; posterior portion smoke grav; postauricular patches rather small 
(often inconspicuous), bufify white; nape usually more or less washed with smoke 
gray; dark dorsal stripes black or fuscous black, more or less shaded or mixed with 
tawny or tawny-oHve; light dorsal stripes creamy white, the median pair some- 
times pale smoke gray; sides of body pale tawny olive or clay color; thighs and 
buttocks pale Sapcardo's umber, shaded with fuscous; feet pinkish buff; taU above, 
black, mixed with clay color; tail beneath, clay color, bordered with black; 
underparts creamy white. Worn winter pelage (June): General tone of upper 
parts paler and more grayish than in summer; sides of body pinkish buff; thighs 
smoke gray, washed with tawny olive; hind feet paler. 

Molt. —The midsummer molt apparently begins late in July; two adult females 
taken July 25 are still in winter pelage, while a third one taken the same day 
shows new summer pelage covering the anterior two-thirds of the back and most of 
^'i^ sides. Quite hkely some of the males begin to molt earlier than this date. 

Skull.— bimnur to that of pallidus and of oreocetes, but averaging smaller; 
decidedly larger and relatively broader than that of consohrinus. 

» Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 10; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 



46 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



rNo.52 



Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from Bigliorn Mountains: Total length, 
203 (198-210); tail vertebra?, 91.5 (88-95); hind foot, 32.3 (31-33); ear from 
notch, 12.7 (11.5-14). Skull: Average of 10 adults from same locaHties: Greatest 
length, 31.7 (30.9-32); zygomatic breadth, 18 (17.3-18.5); cranial breadth, 15.7 
(15. -±-16.1); interorbital breadth, 7.2 (6.8-7.5); length of nasals, 9.9 (9.4-10.5). 

Remarks— The Bighorn cliipmunk is closely related to paUidus, 
which occupies the surrounding plains, but lil^e all the mountain forms 
in this group it is darker than the plains form. It is also closely- 
similar to oreocetes of the high mountains of northern Montana, but 
differs from it in a few minor characters, and occupies an area widely 
separated frona the range of that race. From consobrinus, which 
occupies the high mountains in western Wyoming, it differs both in 
size and color. 

Specimens examined.- — Total number, 29, as follows: 

Wyoming: Bighorn Mountains, 29 (including head of Trapper Creek, 
Bighorn County, 15; head of Canyon Creek, Washakie County, 11; 
head of north fork of Powder River, Johnson County, 1; 20 miles 
from Sheridan, 2). 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS CONSOBRINUS (Allen) 
Wasatch Chipmunk 
(Pls. 2, b; 6, b; 10, b) 

Tamias minimus consobrinus Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 112, June, 
1890. 

Eutamias minimus consobrinus MUler and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

30: 42, December 27, 1901. 
Eutamias lectus Allen, Brooklyn Inst. Mus. Science Bui. 1: 117, March 31, 1905 

(Beaver Valley, Utah). 
Eutamias consobrinus clarus Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 31, May 16, 

1918. (Swan Lake Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo.). 

Type. — Collected in Parleys Canyon, Wasatch Mountains, near 
present site of Barclay, Utah, October 31, 1888, by Vernon Bailey; 
c? adult, skin and skull; No. 186456, United States National Museum 
(No. 111^ , Merriam collection); original number, 361. 

Geographic distribution. — Western Wyoming, extreme eastern 
Idaho, northern and south-central Utah, north-central Arizona, and 
northwestern Colorado; north to the Beartooth Moimtains, southern 
Montana; east to the Wind River Mountains, Wyo., and Grand and 
Gunnison Counties, Colo. ; south to Sapinero, Colo., and the Kaibab 
Plateau, Aiiz.; west to the Wasatch and Beaver Mountains, Utah. 
Zonal range: Transition and Canadian; 6,200 feet (Meeker, Colo.) 
to 11,800 feet (La Sal Mountains, Utah). (Fig. 4.) 

Characters.- — Similar to Eutamias m. minimus but much darker throughout, the 
dorsal and facial stripes more blackish, and the upper parts and sides more 
rufescent. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July and August) : Crown and occiput mixed smoke 
gray and ochraceous tawny, bordered on each side with a fuscous stripe; facial 
stripes fuscous or fuscous black, mixed with tawny, the ocular stripe darkest; 
postauricular patches rather small, grayish white; median dorsal stripe black, 
bordered with tawny; outer dark dorsal stripes mixed blackish and tawny; 
median pair of Ught stripes grayish white, often clouded with tawny; outer pair 
white; rump and thighs smoke gray, washed with cinnamon buff; sides ochraceous 
tawny or light sayal brown; feet light pinkish cinnamon or pinkish buff; taU 
above, fuscous black, overlaid with cinnamon buff; tail beneath, snuff brown, 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with cinnamon buff; underparts grayish 
white, faintly tinged with buff. Winter -pelage (September 27) : General tone of 
upper parts and sides more grayish (less tawny) than the summer pelage; head, 
nape, median pair of light dorsal stripes, rump, and thighs about mouse gray, 
sUghtly mixed with tawny; dark dorsal stripes bister; sides sayal brown. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AJMERICAJST CHIPMUNKS 



47 



Molt. — An adult female from Inkom, Idaho, June 20, shows the summer 
pelage appearing somewhat irregularly over the anterior portion of the back and 
sides; another female from Surveyors Park, near Pinedale, Wyo., July 21, has 
the molt about half completed. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of minimus, averaging slightly larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 15 adults from Wasatch and Uinta Mountains, 
Utah: Total length, 192.8 (181-201); tail vertebrae, 87.2 (80-94); hind foot, 
29.9 (29-31); ear from notch, 11.4 (10.5-12). Skull: Average of eight adults 
from Wasatch Mountains: Greatest length, 30.3 (30-31); zygomatic breadth, 
16.9 (16.3-17.5); cranial breadth, 14.2 (13.4^14.6); interorbital breadth, 
6.7 (6.5-7); length of nasals, 9.3 (9-10.1). 

Remarks. — The Wasatch chipmunk has an extensive range in the 
Rocky Mountain region and is apparently separated into several 
more or less isolated colonies. (See map.) There is considerable 
individual variation in the subspecies, but no differences correlated 
with geographic distribution have been discovered. 

Comparison of the type of E. lectus Allen with a series of seven 
topotypes shows it to be referable to consobrinus ; the type of conso- 
hrinus is exactly matched by a topotype of "lectus"; the series of 
"lectus" as a whole is slightly paler, especially on the rump and 
thighs, than a comparable series of consobrinus, thus showing approach 
to pictus; the same differences are shown, also, by a series from the 
Kaibab Plateau, Ariz. 

K consobrinus clarus of Bailey is also referred to the present race, it 
being considered intermediate between consobrinus and pallidus. 
The type of "clarus" is in fresh fall pelage (September 13) and is 
very shghtly paler than September specimens of consobrinus from the 
Wasatch Moimtains, the tails being of the same color. 

The present race intergrades with minimus on the western slopes of 
the Wind River Mountains and the northern slopes of the Uinta 
Mountains; with pictus on the western slopes of the Wasatch 
Mountains; and with operarius at many places in western Colorado 
and eastern Utah. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 447, as follows: 

Arizona: Bright Angel Spring, Kaibab Plateau, 1; De Motte Park, Kaibab 
Plateau, 9; Tunitcha Mountains, 6. 

Colorado: Allenton, Eagle County, 9; « Almont, 1; Axial Basin, 2; Baxter 
Pass, Book Plateau, 1; Big Beaver Creek, Rio Blanco County, 5;!" 
Buffalo Pass Road, Jackson County (altitude, 10,430 feet), 3; Cameron 
Pass, Jackson County, 1;" Canadian Creek, 7; Cedar Springs, Routt 
County, 2; " Chambers Lake, Larimer County, 3; " Coyote Basin, 
Routt County, 1; " Crawford, Delta County, 1; n Crested Butte, 11; 12 
Eagle, Eagle County, 2; " Egeria Pass, Routt County, 2; »i Elkhead 
Mountains (20 miles southeast of Slater), 1- Forest Reserve Camp, 
Gunnison County, 2;" Grand Lake, Grand County, 2;" Gypsum, 2; 
Hahn Peak, 1; Hell Creek, Jackson County, 2; " Homestead Ranch, 
Jackson County, 7; Kremmling, 2; Kremmling (12 miles north), 1; 
Lay, 1; McCoy Road, Grand County, 1;" Meeker, 14;" Minturn, 
Eagle County, 1;" Mount Meeker, 1;»5 Mount Whitely, 3; Mount 
Zirkel, Jackson County, 3; " Mud Springs, Garfield County, 6; " Oak 
Creek, Routt County, 1;» Pearl, 1; Rabbit Ear Mountains (Arapahoe 
Pass), 7; Rangely, 1; Red Cliff, Eagle County, 1; " Rio Blanco, 1; Roan 
Plateau (5-14 miles southeast of Dragon, Utah), 3; Sapinero, 3; Sheep- 



» E. R. Warren coll., 5; Colo. Agr. College, 1; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; Univ. Wis., 1. 

11 E. R. Warren coll., 4; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
" E. R. Warren coll. 

12 E. R. Warren coll., 9; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2. 

13 Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" E. R. Warren coll., 7; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" E. R. Warren coll., 2; Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
" E, R. Warren coU., 5; Amer, Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 



48 



NORTH AIMERICAN FAUNA 



psio. 52 



horn Pass, Grand Count}^ 9; Steamboat Springs, 7; " Sulphur Springs, 
Grand County, 20; 2" Twan Lakes, 1; White River (20 miles south of 
Rangely), 1; White River Plateau (25 miles southeast of Meeker), 9; 
Yampa, 3; Yarmanj' Creek, Eagle County, 1." 

Idaho: Crow Creek (head), 1; Gray Lake (10 miles east), 1; Inkom, 1; 
Irwin (10 miles southeast), 2; Montpelier Creek, 1; Swan Lake, 6. 

Montana: Yellowstone, Gallatin County, 

New Mexico: Chuska Mountains, 1; Lukachukai Mountains (8,000 feet 
altitude), 7. 

Utah: Baldy Ranger Sta., Manti Nat. Forest, 3; Barclay, 5; Beaver Moun- 
tains, 15; Beaver Vallej^, 7;^^ Blacksmith Creek, 4; "Buckskin Valley, 1; 
CoalviUe, 1; Currant Creek, Uinta Forest, 8; Ephraim, 2; Fairfield, 15; 
Fish Lake Plateau, 10; Laketo-mi, 2; Panguitch, 1; Panguitch Lake, 2; 
Parawan Mountains (Brian Head), 17; Park City, 7; Salt Lake City 
(Fort Douglas), 1; Thurber, 1; Uinta Mountains (south of Fort Bridger, 
Wyoming), 10; Uncompahgre Indian Reservation, 1; Wasatch Moun- 
tains (18 miles east of Salt Lake City), 1; Wasatch Mountains (near 
Soldier Summit), 1. 

Wyoming: Beartooth Lake, 8; Big Sandy, 6; Bridger Peak, 3; Bronx, 
Fremont County, 4; 24 Bunsen Peak, Yellowstone Park, 1; Canyon, 
Yellowstone Park, 2; Elk, Jackson Hole, 1; " Evanston, 9; Firehole River, 
Yellowstone Park, 1; Fremont Peak, 4; Jackson, 5; Kendall (12 miles 
north), 8; La Barge Creek (9,000 feet altitude), 1; Lake Fork, Wind River 
Mountains, 4; Lake Station, Yellowstone Park, 2; Little Sandy Creek, 2; 
Lone Tree, 4; Merna, 9; Needle Mountain, 5; Pinedale, 4; Riverside, 
5; Smith Fork, Lincoln County (7,00(3 to 8,000 feet altitude), 3; Snow 
Pass, Yellowstone Park, 1; South Pass City, 2; Stanley, 7; Summit 
Lake, Yellowstone Park, 2; Surveyor Park (12 miles northeast of 
Pinedale), 3; Swan Lake Valley, Yellowstone Park, 1; Teton Pass, 7; 
Thaj'ne, 1; Vallev, Park County, 1; Whirlwind Peak (near Pahaska 
Tepee), 9. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS OPERARIUS Merbiam 
Lessee Colorado Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, c; 10, c) 

Tamias quadrivittatus Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 97, June, 1890 (part); 

not Sciurus quadrivittatus Say. 
Eutamias arruenus operarius Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 18: 164, 

June 29, 1905. 

Type.— Collected at Gold Hill, Colo, (altitude, 7,400 feet), October 
8, 1903, by Vernon Bailey; ? adult, skin and skull; No. 129808, 
United States National Museum (Biological Survey collection); 
original number, 8160. 

Geographic distribution. — Mountains of southern and eastern 
Colorado, northern New Mexico, and southeastern Wyoming; north to 
the Laramie and Casper Mountains, Wyo.; south to the Pecos River 
and Gallinas Mountains, N. Mex.; west to Uncompahgre Plateau and 
Monticello, Utah. Zonal range: Transition and Canadian; 6,500 to 
13,300 feet altitude.^^ (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Closely similar to Eutamias minimus consobrinus, but hind 
foot slightly and skull decidedly larger; color of sides averaging more intensely 
tawny; tail broader and more bushy, the under surface shghtly darker and less 



" E. R. Warren coll. 

"' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" E. R. Warren coll., 7; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 
» E. R. Warren coll., 6; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 

» E. R. Warren coll., 12; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; TJniv. Wis., 2; Colo. Agr. College, 1. 
2> E. R. Warren coll., 2; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
»2 D. R. Dickey coU. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1 (type of "Udus"). 
'* Mus. Comp. Zool. 

" Specimens from Truchas Peak, N. Mei., at 13,300 feet, and from Culebra Mountain, N. Mex., at 
13,200 feet. 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



49 



mixed with blackish. Compared with borealis: Dark dorsal stripes paler (less 
blackish) ; light stripes more whitish (less mixed with tawny) ; rump and thighs 
more grayish (less ochraceous). 

Color.— Summer pelage (July and August) : Head and upper parts essentially 
as in consobrinus (see p. 16), the sides varying from tawny to ochraceous tawny; 
tail above fuscous black, overlaid with clay color and broadly edged with the same 
(fading to pale pinkish buff) ; tail beneath, sayal brown or ochraceous tawny, 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with clay color; under parts grayish wliite, 
sometimes washed with buff. Winter pelage (October) : Similar to the summer 
pelage, but colors on back duller and less contrasted, the hght stripes more 
grayish (less intensely white); sides about clay color; tail beneath, sayal brown 
edged with cinnamon buff. 

Molt. — The beginning of the summer molt is shown by a specimen (<? adult) 
from Golden, Colo., June 20, in which the new pelage shows in scattered patches 
over the anterior back and sides; an adult female from Springhill, Wyo., July 30, 
has the new summer pelage covering about the anterior half of the upper parts. 

Skull. — Similar to that of consobrinus, but decidedly larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 20 adults from Gold Hill and Estes Park, Colo.: 
Total length, 196.5 (184-212); tail vertebraj, 88 (80-98); hind foot, 30.7 (30-32); 
ear from notch, 11.5 (11-12). Skull: Average of 14 adults from Estes Park, 
Ward, and Gold Hill, Colo.: Greatest length, 32 (31.5-32.7); zygomatic breadth, 
17.7 (17.1-18.7); cranial breadth, 14.8 (13.8-15.2); interorbital breadth, 7.4 
(7-8.3); length of nasals, 9.8 (9-10.5). 

Remarks. — This chipmunk resembles the larger E. quadrivittatus 
so closely in general appearance that the two were long confused under 
one name. This confusion was, of course, increased by the fact that 
the two species occur together over a large part of their ranges and are 
very similar in habits. Allen's Tamias quadrivittatus of his second 
revision (Allen, 1890, p. 97) refers almost entirely to this form; at that 
time only 37 Colorado specimens of this genus were available, none of 
which was from the type locality of quadrivittatus. Some years later, 
Doctor Merriam, after having secured large series of specimens from 
various parts of Colorado, showed conclusively that there are two 
species of chipmunks ia the mountains of that State and that the 
name quadrivittatus, so long used for the present species, should 
properly be apphed to the larger species. (Merriam, 1905, p. 163.) 

The only constant differences in coloration between these two 
races are the paler feet, less tawny (more grayish) rump and thighs, 
and shghtly paler imder surface of tail in operarius, but these differ- 
ences can hardly be relied on to distinguish every specimen; however, 
the ears and hind feet of operarius are decidedly smaller, and the skull 
may be distinguished from that of quadrivittatus at a glance by its 
much smaller size and relatively shorter and broader brain case. 

The present form bears a striking resemblance, also, as pointed 
out by Merriam, to E. amoenus amoenus, the resemblance extending 
also to the skull characters, which are practically identical. That 
these resemblances, however, are accidental, and not indicative of 
close relationship, is clearly shown by the fact that operarius belongs 
in the minimus group, intergrading with both consobrinus and mini- 
mus, while amoenus is a member of a quite different group and inter- 
grades with luteiventris in Idaho and eastern Oregon. Members of 
the two groups occur together in many localities in Wyoming, Idaho, 
Washington, Oregon, and Cahfornia. E. minimus operarius differs 
from E. a. amoenus in its smaller ears, slightly longer tail, paler feet, 
slightly paler sides, and slightly less blackish upper surface of tail; 
in winter pelage the median pair of dorsal stripes are more whitish 
(less grayish), but in summer pelage, this character is less pronounced. 

40279°— 29 4 



50 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



Intergradation vrith. minimus occurs along the western slopes of 
the Medicijie Bow Mountains, Wyo.; with. paUidus along the eastern 
slopes of the Laraniie Mountains; and with consobrinus at many 
points in western Colorado, notably at Coulter, Silverton, Coventry, 
and Lone Alesa (near Dolores). Specimens from Crestone and the 
mouth of Mosca Pass, Colo., apparently show intergradation with 
canji, being noticeably paler than typical operarius, though the skulls 
are little, if any smaller than those of operarius. 

A specimen from Uncompahgre Plateau, southern Mesa County, 
Colo., is very ta-wTiy on the back and sides, including all the dark 
dorsal stripes except the median one; it thus bears a striking resem- 
blance to E. quadrivittatus hopiensis, which occupies the same region, 
but in size and skull characters it agrees closely with operarius, to 
which it is provisionally referred. 

Large series of tliis species from northern New Mexico (Pecos 
Baldy, Jemez Mountains, Gallinas Mountains, Tres Piedras, Halls 
Peak, and Bear Canyon, near Trinchera Pass) show approach to 
atristriatus in having more blacldsh dorsal stripes and larger skulls 
than typical operarius. Some of the skulls are as large as those of 
atristriatus, while others are nearer to operarius in size. The series 
as a whole seems nearer to operarius. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 492, as follows: 

Colorado: Antonito, 4; Beavei" Creek, Park County (near Fairplay), 4; 
Berthoud, 2; Black Hawk, 2; Blanca, 2; ^6 Boreas Pass, Summit County, 
6;^' Boulder, 6; Boulder County, 6; Breckenridge, Summit County, 
1: 26 Cascade, 1; Chromo, 2; Colorado Springs, 17; 3° Como, 2; Conejos 
Canyon, 1; Conejos River (8,300 feet altitude), 2; Coulter, 5; Coventry, 
4; 26 Crestone, 4; Culebra Canyon, Costilla Countj^ 2; Cumbres, 1; 
Del Norte, 1; Devils Gulch, Larimer County, Ij^i IDiUon, Summit 
County, 1; Dixie Lake, Boulder County, 3; 29 Elbert, 1; 26 Elkhorn, 2; 
Elk Mountains, 1; Estes Park, 44; Fairplay, l;^^ Fisher Peak, Las 
Animas County, 2; Florida, 12; Florissant, 2; 26 Fort Garland, 4; Fort 
Massachusetts, 2; Golden, 9; Gold Hill, 15; Grays Peak, 16; 3* Half- 
way, El Paso County, 1; Hardscrabble Canj-on, Cyster County (7 miles 
above Wetmore), 1;26 Hermit, 1; Hot Springs (Middle Park), 1; Idaho 
Springs, 2; Kokomo, Summit Coxmtj', 3; 26 Lake City, 4; Lake Fork, 2; 
Lake Moraine, El Paso County, 4; "6 Log Cabin, Larimer Countj', 
3; ^" Littleton, 2; 26 Livermore, 1; Lone Mesa, 25 miles north of Dolores, 
1; Longs Peak, 29; Madenos Canyon, Saguache County, 2; 
Madenos Creek (head), 4; Mesa Verde, 1; ^lichigan Creek, Park County, 
2; Minnehaha, El Paso County, 1;^^ Montgomery [base Mount Lin- 
coln], 5; ^2 Mosca Creek, Saguache County, 2; 26 Mosquito Gulch, 
Park County, 2; 26 Mount Lincoln, Park County, 1; 26 Mount McLellan 
4; Navajo River, Archuleta County, 2; 29 Nederland, 2; North Park, 1; 
Osier, 4; 29 Pagosa Springs, 3; Palmer Lake, Douglas County, 1;^' 
Palmer Lake, El Paso County, 8; 29 Pando, Eagle County, 1;26 Pine- 
wood, Larimer County, 1; Poncha Pass, Chaffee County, 2; ^6 Querida, 
Custer County, 3;26 St. Elmo, 3; Sahda, 2; 26 San Acacio, Costilla 
County, 3; 26 Sangre de Cristo Range (24 miles east of Hooper) 1;29 
Sangre de Cristo Pass, 1; Silverton, 7; Somerset, 1; South Platte, 1;^^ 
South Platte River (north fork), 2; ^2 TarryaU Creek, Park County 



1! E. R. Warren coll. 

" E. R. Warren coll., 4; Colo. Agr. College, 1; Mus. Vert. Zool., 1. 
>* Acad. Kat. Sci. Philadelphia, 2. 
» Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

^ E. R. Warren coll., 11; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Univ. Wis., 1. 
" Colo. Agr. College. 
" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

M Kans. Univ. Mus., 3; Colo. Agr. College, 2; Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; E. R. Warren coU., 1. 
M Kans. Univ. Mus. 
" Univ. Mich. 

2« E. R. Warren coll., 2; Mus. Vert. Zool., 1; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
J' Colo. Agr. College, 2; E. R. Warren coll., 1. 
» State Hist, and Nat. Hist. Soc. (Colo.). 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



51 



(8,700 feet altitude), 1; Tennessee Pass, Lake County, 4; ^5 Tercio, Las 
Animas County, 4; Trinidad, 1; Turkey Creek, Jefferson County, 1; 
Uncompaligre Plateau (5 miles south of Unaweep Canyon), 1; Ute 
Peak, Montezuma County, 7; 2' Virginia Dale, Larimer County, 1;" 
Ward, 7; West Paradox VaUey, 9.29 

New Mexico: Arroyo Hondo, Taos County, 1; Bear Canyon (near Trinchera 
Pass), 16; Brazos, 1; CatskiU, 5; CostiUa Pass, 10; Culebra Mountain 
(13,200 feet altitude), 1; Gallinas Mountains, 3; Halls Peak, 7; Hondo 
Canyon, 1; Hopewell, 3; Jemez Mountains, 4; Labelle, 1; Las Vegas, 
1;2^ Long Canyon (3 miles north of CatskiU), 5; Pecos Baldy, 11; 
Pecos River (near Willis), 1; Road Canyon (7 miles southwest of 
CatskiU), 1; Santa Fe (10 miles northeast), 1; Tres Piedras, 4; Truchas 
Peak (13,300 feet altitude). 1; Twining, 4. 

Utah: La Sal Mountains (11,000 feet altitude), 2; MonticeUo, 2. 

Wyoming: Bear Creek, Albany County (3 mUes southwest of Eagle Peak), 
5; "Black Hills" [Laramie Mountains], 2; Bluffs, near Pole Creek, 
Laramie Mountains, 1; Casper Mountains (7 miles south of Casper), 3; 
Eagle Peak, Albany County, 1; Islay (6 miles west), 4; Laramie Moun- 
tains (10 miles east of Laramie), 6; Medicine Bow Mountains, 6; Pole 
Mountain (15 miles southeast of Laramie), 2; Sherman, 2;^' Shirley, 2; 
Shirley Mountains, 7; SpringhiU (12 miles north of Laramie Peak), 9; 
Woods, Albany County, 1. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS ATRISTRIATUS Bailet 
Black-striped Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, h; 10, h) 

Tlutainias atristriatus Bailey, Proc. Biol. See. Washington 26: 129, May 21, 1913. 

Type. — Collected at Penasco Creek, 12 miles east of Cloudcroft, 
Sacramento Mountains, N. Mex. (altitude, 7,400 feet), September 
6, 1902, by Vernon Bailey; ? adult, skin and skull; No. 119028, 
United States National Museum (Biological Survey collection); 
original number, 7953. 

Geographic distribution. — Sacramento Mountains, southern New 
Mexico. Zonal range: Transition; 7,000 to 8,000 feet altitude, 
(Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias minimus operarius, but dark dorsal stripes 
broader and more blackish; sides averaging paler; underparts washed with buff; 
ears and taU longer; skuU larger; facial stripes prominent, fuscous black, mixed 
with tawny or russet, the ocular stripe nearly black. 

Color. — Summer pelage (September 6) : Head fuscous black, sprinkled with 
grayish white and cinnamon; dark dorsal stripes black, narrowly bordered with 
ochraceous tawny, the three median ones very broad; light dorsal stripes white, 
the median pair mixed with tawny; sides sayal brown (possibly somewhat 
darker in fresh pelage); rump and thighs mixed smoke gray and cinnamon buff; 
feet Ught pinkish cinnamon; tail above fuscous black, mixed with pinkish cinna- 
mon and edged with light pinkish cinnamon; tail beneath, sayal brown, bordered 
with fuscous black and edged with light pinkish cinnamon; underparts whitish, 
washed with pinkish buff. Immature pelage: Sides darker than in adults, about 
snuff brown. 

Skull. — SimUar to that of operarius but averaging larger. 

Measurements. — Average of four adults from type locality: Total length, 212.5 
(203-220); taU vertebrje, 99.5 (94-114); hind foot, 31.9 (31.5-32); ear from 
notch, 13.9 (13-15). Skull: Greatest length, 33 (31.9-33.9); zygomatic breadth, 
18.3 (17.9-18.9); cranial breadth, 14.7 (13.9-15.9); interorbital breadth, 7 
(6.4-7.3); length of nasals, 10.3 (10-11.1). 



"E. R. Warren coll. 
" Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" Colo, Agr. College. 



" Mus. Cotnp. Zool. 
" Kans. Univ. Mus. 
a' Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 



52 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



Bemarks. — This chipmunk has a restricted range in the Sacramento 
Mountains, where it occurs in the yellow-pine zone in company with 
the much larger E. cinereicollis canipes. Although its range is 
widely separated from that of its nearest relative, operarius, there is 
sufficient overlapping of characters to consider this form a subspecies 
of minimus (see remarks under operarius, p. 50). 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 10, as follows: 

New Mexico: Cloudcroft (6-12 miles east), 8; Penasco, 2. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS ARIZONENSIS Howell 

Lesser Arizona Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, l; 10, l) 

Eutamias minimus arizonensis Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 178, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected on the Prieto Plateau, at south end of Blue Range, 
Greenlee Coimty, Ariz., September 7, 1914, by E. G. Holt; c? adult, 
skin and skull; No. 205869, United States National Museum (Bio- 
logical Survey collection); original number, 384. 

Geographic distribution. — The White Mountains and Prieto Plateau, 
eastern Arizona. Zonal range: Canadian: 8,000 to 11,280 feet 
altitude. (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar in size and cranial characters to Eutamias minimus 
atrisiriatus; nearest in color to E. m. consobrinus, but general tone more grayish 
(less tawny), the shoulders frequently washed with pale smoke gray (as in E. 
cinereicollis) ; tail more bushy, with color of under surface brighter tawny (about 
as in operarius). 

Color. — Summer pelage (type, September 7) : Crown and occiput smoke gray, 
mixed with cinnamon (the general tone grayish) ; sides of nose washed with clay 
color; dark facial stripes fuscous, the median one fuscous black, aU more or less 
mixed ^dth tawny; light facial stripes grajdsh white; ears fuscous, bordered on 
posterior margin with grayish, the inner surface sprinkled with tawny hairs; 
nape and shoulders washed with smoke graj^; dark dorsal stripes blackish, edged 
with tawny, and all but the median stripe more or less mixed with tawny ; median 
pair of light stripes smoke gray, sparingly mixed with tawny; outer pair white; 
sides between saj^al brown and clay color, interrupted behind forelegs by a wash 
of smoke gray; rump and thighs hair brown, washed with clay color, forefeet 
pinkish buff; hind feet pinkish cinnamon, the toes pinkish buff; tail above, 
mixed fuscous and tawny, edged with cinnamon buff; tail beneath, mikado 
brown, bordered with fuscous and edged with cinnamon buff ; under parts creamy 
white. 

Molt. — In an adult female specimen from the summit of Thomas Peak, Ariz. 
(11,280 feet), September 12, summer pelage covers about two-thirds of the body, 
the rump and hinder back still retaining worn winter pelage. 

Skull. — Similar in size and shape to that of atrisiriatus, but averaging slightly 
shorter; similar to that of operarius but averaging larger with relatively narrower 
brain case. 

Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from White Mountains and Prieto 
Plateau, Ariz.: Total length, 208.2 (196-220); tail vertebra?, 93.5 (87-97); 
hind foot, 32.2 (30-33.5); ear from notch, 11.4 (10-13). Skull: Average of 10 
adults from same localities: Greatest length, 32.5 (31.9-33.1) ; zygomatic breadth, 
18.3 (18-18.6); cranial breadth, 14.5 (14.2-14.9); interorbital breadth, 7.1 
(6.4-7.6); length of nasals, 10.1 (9.5-10.4). 

Remarlcs. — This chipmunk has a rather restricted range and is 
apparently isolated from the other races of the species to which it 
belongs. It occurs over a part of the range of E. cinereicollis cinerei- 
collis and so closely resembles that species in color that it has imtil 
recently escaped recognition. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



53 



The sides are slightly paler and the nose less heavily washed with 
clay color than in cinereicollis, but in all other markings the resem- 
blance between the two species is remarkable. E. m. arizonensis, 
however, is decidedly smaller, with much shorter ears and hind feet; 
while the skull closely resembles that of atristriatus and is widely 
different in size and proportions from those of cinereicollis. 

This remarkable resemblance between two forms occupying the 
same area is duplicated in the case of quadririttatus and operarius in 
Colorado and New Mexico. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 23, as follows: 

. Arizona: Alpine, Apache County, 1; Horseshoe Cienega (White River), 2; 
Marsh Lake, White Mountains, 2; Prieto Plateau (south end Blue 
Range), 4; White Mountains, 14.« 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS OREOCETES Merhiam 

TiMBERLINE ChIPMUNK 

(Pls. 6, g; 10, g) 

Eutamias oreocetes Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 207, July 1, 1897. 
Eutamias minimus oreocetes Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 183, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected on Simimit Mountain (at timberline), north of 
Siunmit Station (on Great Northern R. R.), Mont., June 14, 1895, 
by Vernon Bailey; $ adult, skin and skull; No. 72468, United States 
National Museum (Biological Survey collection) ; original number, 
5024. 

GeograpJiic distrihution. — Known at present only from near timber- 
line in Glacier National Park, Mont. Zonal range: Hudsonian. 
(Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Size medium (about the size of operarius) ; similar to pallidus but 
tail and hind foot shorter; upper parts and sides darker; dorsal stripes more 
blackish; tail darker beneath. Compared with borealis: Similar in size but tail 
shorter and slightly darker beneath; dorsal stripes (except median one) paler; 
ears usually without black spots; hind feet paler. 

Color. — Summer pelage (incomplete, July 25) : Head smoke gray, shaded with 
cinnamon and bordered on each side with a snuff brown stripe; submalar stripe 
sayal brown; light facial stripes grayish white; ears pale smoke gray on posterior 
half, sayal brown on anterior base, without conspicuous blackish patches; post- 
auricular patches large, grayish white; median dorsal sti'ipe black, the others 
fuscous black, aU more or less shaded with sayal brown; light dorsal stripes 
grayish white; sides sayal brown or clay color; feet grayish white, faintly washed 
with pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with cinnamon buff; tail 
beneath, sayal brown edged with cinnamon buff; underparts creamy white. 
Worn winter pelage (June and July) : Similar to the summer pelage but general 
tone decidedly more grayish (less tawny) ; median dorsal stripe black, the other 
dark dorsal stripes chaetura black, mixed with cinnamon; median pair of light 
dorsal stripes pale smoke gray; outer pair white; rump and thighs smoke gray; 
sides pinkish buff; front feet grayish white; hind feet soiled whitish, faintly 
tinged with ivory yellow; tail above, fuscous black, mixed with cinnamon and 
overlaid with pinkish buff; tail beneath, cinnamon, bordered with fuscous black 
and edged with pinkish buff; underparts creamy white. Young pelage (Piegaa 
Pass, Mont., August 4) : Similar to the worn winter pelage, but dorsal stripes 
(except median one) more brownish (mikado brown, mixed with fuscous, the 
general tone near warm sepia); tail paler beneath (between cinnamon buff and 
pinkish buff). 

Molt. — The midsummer molt begins (at least in adult females) in July; a 
nursing female from Glacier Park, Mont., July 25, is still in winter pelage, while 
another taken the same day shows new pelage covering the anterior two-thirds 
of the body. 



Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 1 



54 



NOETH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 52 



Skull. — Closely similar to that of borealis but averaging slightly shorter and 
brain case broader; similar, also, to that of pallidus but slightly smaller with 
smaller audital bulla?. 

Measurements. — Average of four adults from t5^pe region: Total length, 
197.2 (193-201); tail vertebra;, 88 (82-90); hind foot, 31.8 (31-32); ear from 
notch, 11.4 (10-12.5). Skull: Average of three adult females from type region: 
Greatest length, 32.3 (32.1-32.6); zygomatic breadth, 18.4 (18-18.9); breadth 
of brain case, 15.8 (14.8-16.4); length of nasals, 10.1 (9.7-10.6). 

Remarlcs.—Bj reason of the small number of specimens available 
it is impossible satisfactorily to characterize this form. Most of the 
specimens are in worn winter pelage, there being but one in fresh 
summer pelage, and that not entirely complete. So far as indicated 
by the scanty material this chipmunk is intermediate in coloration 
between horealis and pallidus, nearer to the latter. The range of 
oreocetes probably meets that of borealis or approaches it closely in 
the mountains of southwestern Alberta,^' and further collecting 
in western Montana and Alberta utlU doubtless result in extending 
its known range. Apparently its range does not meet that of pallidus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 8, as follows: 
Alberta: Waterton Lake, 2.^ 

Montana: Indian Pass, Glacier National Park, 3; Piegan Pass, Glacier 
National Park, 2; Summit Mountain, 1. 

EUTAMIAS MINIMUS BOREALIS (Allen) 
Northern Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, i; 10, i) 

[Tamias asiaticus] var. borealis Allen, Monogr. North Amer. Rodentia: Rept. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 11: 793, 794, August, 1877 (part). 
Tamias quadrivittatus borealis Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 107 (type 

fixed, p. 109), June, 1890. 
Tamias quadrivittatus neglectus Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 106, June, 

1890 (Montreal River, Ontario). 
Eutamias quadrivittatus borealis Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30: 

44, December, 1901. 

Eutamias borealis Preble, North Amer. Fauna No. 27, p. 167, October 26, 1908. 

Type. — Collected at Fort Liard, Mackenzie [about 1860], by W. L. 
Hardisty; skin with broken skull mside and portion of tail missing; 
No. 6506, United States National Museum; original number, 1086. 

GeograpJiic distribution. — Interior Canada, from southern Macken- 
zie (Fort Simpson and Great Slave Lake) south over northeastern 
British Columbia, the greater part of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Mani- 
toba, and Ontario to northern North Dakota (Turtle Mountains) 
and the eastern end of Lake Superior; also isolated colonies in the 
eastern part of the northern peninsula of Micliigan, in the Black 
Hills of South Dakota, Bear Lodge Mountains of Wyoming, and the 
Big Snowy, Bear Paw, and other ranges in central Montana; west to 
the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and to Tatletuey 
Lake, northern British Columbia; east to the Mattagami River and 
Lake Nipissing, eastern Ontario. Zonal range: Canadian and 
Transition.^^ (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias minimus operarius but with slightly larger 
skull and longer tail and hind feet; general tone of upper parts more tawny (less 
grayish), the dark stripes more blackish and the light stripes more mixed with 



*i F.ulamins horealis is known from Mount Forget-me-not, about 40 miles southwest of Calgary. 

Nat. Mus. Canada. 
*2 Occurs in Transition Zone in the Black Hills, S. Dak. 



i929] EEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 55 

ochraceous (less whitish or grayish); rump buffy instead of grayish; sides of body 
and ventral surface of tail averaging paler. 

Color. — Type (apparently in summer pelage) : Crown and occiput mixed 
grayish white and cinnamon, the general tone drab; stripe from nose to eye 
fuscous black, the other facial stripes about snuif brown; light facial stripes 
soiled whitish; ears fuscous, the posterior portion soiled whitish; dark dorsal 
stripes black, edged with tawny; light dorsal stripes creamy white, the median 
pair moderately sprinkled with tawny; sides sayal brown; rump and thighs 
buffy brown; front feet pinkish buff; hind feet cinnamon buff; tail above, fuscous 
black, overlaid with pinkish buff ; tail beneath, sayal brown, margined with fuscous 
black and edged with pinkish buff; underparts creamy white, tinged with pale 
buff. Winter -pelage: Very similar to the summer pelage, but general tone of 
upper parts more grayish (less tawny) and sides somewhat paler. 

Molt. — A specimen ( ? ) from Brule Lake, Alberta, July 4, a male from Rocky 
Mountains, near Henry House, Alberta, July 17, and a female from Zortman, 
Mont., July 25, are in the midst of the summer molt, the new pelage covering 
about the anterior half of the upper parts; a female from Babine Mountains, 
British Columbia, August 12, has nearly completed the summer molt, the rump 
and hinder back being the only parts of the body not renewed. 

Skull. — Similar to that of pallidus, but brain case slightly narrower and more 
evenly rounded (less flattened); similar also to that of operarius but averaging 
slightly larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from Slave River, northern Alberta and 
southern Mackenzie: Total length, 217.4 (212-222); tail vertebra;, 101.7 
(97-110); hind foot, 31.3 (31-32); ear from notch, 12.7 (12-13.5). Skull: Aver- 
age of eight adults from Slave River region: Greatest length, 33 (32.5-33.5); 
zygomatic breadth, 18.3 (17.8-18.6); cranial breadth, 14.5 (14.4-14.8); inter- 
orbital breadth, 7.1 (7-7.4); length of nasals, 10.3 (10.1-10.7). Weight: One 
adult from Walhalla, S. Dak., 52.6 grams. 

RemarJcs. — The northern chipmunk was recognized and named 
by Doctor Allen in his first monograph of the group (1877, p. 793, 
794) being considered at that time a race of the Asiatic chipmunk 
(E. asiaticus). No type was selected at the time the species was 
named, but in 1890, in his second revision of the genus, Doctor Allen 
(1890, p. 107) designated as a type (that is, lectotype) No. 6506, 
United States National Museum collection, from Fort Liard, Mac- 
kenzie. The status of the species has remained in doubt since that 
date on account of the absence of this type from the National Museum 
collection (Preble, 1908, p. 167). It has recently come to light again, 
however, and has been available for comparison in the present study. 

This race has an extensive range in Canada and appears, also, on 
isolated mountain ranges in Montana and South Dakota. A large 
series from the Black Hills, S. Dak., is indistinguishable from Alac- 
kenzie and Alberta specimens except that the under surface of the 
tail averages slightly darker (more reddish); many specimens, how- 
ever, are almost exactly alike in all respects, including cranial 
characters. In the foothills of this range, intergradation with 
pallidus occurs, as shown by numerous specimens from Sundance, 
Wyo., and Elk Mountain and Belle Fourche Kiver, S. Dak. Similar 
intermediates between horealis and pallidus occur in the Big Snowy, 
Bear Paw, and Moccasin Mountains, Mont. In a series of 18 speci- 
mens from the Little Rockies near Zortman, Mont., the majority are 
typical horealis, but two specimens are noticeably paler, showing 
approach to pallidus. 

A series from Indian Head, Saskatchewan (June), have the under- 
surface of the tail decidedly paler than comparable specimens of 

" A specimen from Athabaska River, Alberta (30 miles above Athabaska Landing), September 8, agrees 
closely with the type; one from Fort Smith, Mackenzie, June 28, is somewhat more tawny above, the sides 
being ochraceous tawny and the median pair of light dorsal stripes rather heavily mixed with the same color. 

« Specimen from Fort Grahame, British Columbia, September 25. 



56 



NORTH A.MERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 52 



lorealis from Fort Smith, Mackenzie, thus probably showing approach 
to paUidus. Intergradation with, caniceps occm-s in the region between 
Telegraph Creek and Thudade Lake, northern British Columbia. 

^Material recently acquired from the tjipe region of E. neglectus proves 
to be indistinguishable from borealis. The type specimen of neglectus 
was taken by Agassiz, July 5, 1868, on the eastern shore of Lake 
Superior near the mouth of Montreal Kiver, Ontario. It has evidently 
been made over from a dried or salted skin; the terminal half of the 
tail is missing, and the color of the sides is several shades darker than 
in typical specimens of borealis and is even deeper in tone than speci- 
mens of the richly colored form from Wisconsin. This, however, is 
probabl}'' the result of soaking when the skin was remade, smce 
changes of tliis character are known to occur when specimens of 
chipmunks and squirrels are made over from salted sldns. The 
under surface of the tail matches the type of borealis exactly and shows 
no approach to the darker form of Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

There is now available a series of 7 specimens from the type region 
of neglectus — 5 taken by W. E. Clyde Todd early in July at Missi- 
naibi, about 80 miles north of the type locality, and 2 taken by 
J. Dewey Soper in early October, at Ridout, about the same distance 
east of the type locahty. 

The Missinaibi specimens are in unworn winter pelage and are abso- 
lutely typical of borealis, showing no approach to jaclcsoni. The Ridout 
specimens are in summer pelage, the tails considerably worn, but they 
also are closely matched by the type and other specimens of borealis. 

Other specimens from the Mattagami and Kapuskasing Rivers, 
somewhat farther north, confirm this decision, and a series of six 
specimens from Rossport, on the north shore of Lake Superior, are 
likewise referable to borealis. At Nipigon, however, a short distance 
to the westward, jaclcsoni, the richly colored form of INlinnesota and 
Wisconsin, appears. In a series of eight specimens from Oxford 
House, Manitoba, three have tails as red as those of jaclcsoni, with 
which they agree closely. The rest of the series, however, agree with 
borealis, and on geographical considerations they should apparently be 
referred to this form. More material from the region between Oxford 
House and Lake Superior may result in a different decision as to the 
proper allocation of these specimens. A series of 11 specimens in 
unworn summer pelage from Seney, northern Michigan, are typical 
borealis; others from Alger, Schoolcraft, and Chippewa Counties are 
more or less intermediate between borealis and jaclcsoni but seem best 
referred here. 

Three melanistic specimens have been examined from the moun- 
tains near the head of Tatletuey Lake, British Columbia. Preble 
states that about half of the individuals seen in this region are prac- 
tically pure black, the remainder being of normal coloration. 

The present form meets the range of E. amoenus luteiventris in 
western Alberta, both occurring at Banff and Canmore, and although 
they bear considerable resemblance to each other, there is no evi- 
dence that they intergrade. E. borealis is paler than E. luteiventris 
on the head, back, sides, feet, and upper surface of tail; the sides 
of the face and neck are more whitish (washed with ochraceous in 
luteiventris); the belly is clear creamy white, with no trace of buff; 
the ears are smaller and the skull smaller, with shorter rostrum and 
more rounded brain case. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AJVIERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



57 



Specimens examined. — Total number, 443, as follows: 

Alberta: Atliabaslia Landing, 1; Athabaska River, 4; (Grand Rapids, 2; 
House River, 1; 30 miles above Athabaslsa Landing, 1); Battle River 
(Ferry Point), 1;« Banif, 6; grule Lake, 2; Camrose, 4; Canadian 
National Park, 4; «'Canmore, 7; Christina River, Donalda !•« 
Eagle Butte, 13; ^3 Edmonton, 7; =2 Fort McMurray, 2; Grand Cache 
River (about 60 to 70 miles north of Jasper House), 5; Henry House 
5; Jasper Park, 8; ^3 Lake Athabaska (mouth of MacFarlane River)' 
1;55 IvIcLeod River, 1; Moose Creek, 1; Mount Forget-me-not, 1;« 
Muskeg Creek (about 90 miles north of Jasper House), 2; Nuquilon Lake 
1;« Peace Point, Peace River, l;«i Peace River Landing, 5; « Prairie 
Creek (altitude, 3,500 feet), 4; Red Deer, 6; Red Deer River (Little 
Sandhill Creek and near Red Deer), 5; « Red Deer River (junction Blind- 
man River), 5; " Rocky River (east branch), 1; 55 Slave River (10 to 25 
mUes below Peace River), 9; Smith Landing, Slave River, 7; Smith 
Portage, 1; Smoky River (Grand Cache), 1; South Edmonton, 9: 
Stony River (20 mUes north of Jasper House), 1; Sturgeon River 
(25 miles north of Edmonton), 1; Upper Sulphur River, 2. 
British Columbia: Babine (8 miles west), 1; Babine Mountains, 1; 
Bear Lake (site of Fort ConnoUy), 1; Chapa-atan River (mountains 
near head), 1; Driftwood River (15 miles northwest of Tacla Lake), 
1; Finley River (head, near Thudade Lake), 1; Fort Grahame, 2; Hud- 
son s Hope, 1; Ingenika River (mountains near head), 1; Tacla Lake 
(north end, site of Bulkley House), 1; Tatletuey Lake, 4; Tucheeda 
Lake, 1; Wapiti River (head), 1. 
Mackenzie: Fort Liard, 1; Fort Resolution, 4;" Fort Simpson, 1: Fort 

Smith, 9; Hay River, Great Slave Lake, 1; Salt River, 1. 
Manitoba: Antler and Souris Rivers, junction, 5; Aweme, 4; ^ Brandon 
1;56 Carberry, 1;55 Grand Rapids, 2;" Huns VaUey, 2; =8 Max Lake! 
Turtle Mountains, 2; Nelson River, 2; Oxford House, 12. 
Montana: Bear Paw Mountains (20 miles southeast of Fort Assiniboine) 5- 
Big Snowy Mountains, 9; Judith Mountains (7 miles northeast of Lewis- 
town), 1; Moccasin Mountains (5 miles northwest of Hilger), 2: Tvler 
(4 miles west), 1; Zortman, 18. 
Michigan: Alger County, 3; Chippewa County, 5; Floodwood, School- 
craft County, 2; 59 Michigamme, 3; Seney, 11; eo Vermihon, Chippewa 
County, 2; Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, 4.59 
North Dakota: Fort Pembina, 1; Turtle Mountains, 17; ei WalhaUa, 3 
Ontario: Franz, 2; GuU Bay, Lake Nipigon, 1;63 Iroquois Falls, 2; «2 
Kapuskasmg, 5; 53 Kapuskasing River, 5;«« Lake Abitibi,3;«3 Mattagami 
River (Smoky Portage), l;^* Minaki, 2; «3 Missinaibi, 6; " Missinaibi 
River (Green Hill Portage and St. Peters Portage), 8; ^ Moose River 
(Gypsum Rocks), 1; Nagagami, 2; Ridout, 2; « Rossport, 6.58 
Saskatchewan: Athabaska Lake (Poplar Point and mouth MacFarlane 
River) 2; Battle Creek, 4; 53 Borden, 1; Broadview, 2; « Carlton, 6; 
Fort Walsh, 1; 53 Indian Head, 15; «5 Wingard, 10. 
South Dakota: BufiFalo Gap, 1; Custer, 8; Deadwood, 19; Dumont, 1; Fort 
Meade, 1; Glendale, Custer County, 9; 55 Hill City, 3; Rapid City, 1; 
Redfern, 5; Savoy, 3; Squaw Creek, Custer County, 1.55 
Wyoming: Bear Lodge Mountains, 3; Devils Tower, 4; Newcastle, 2: 
Sundance, S. 



^"Pl"^ " W. E. Saunders coll. 

Mus. Comp. Zool 2. " Univ. Iowa. 

8 J. Dewey Soper coll., 2; W. E. Saunders coU., 2. 58 j. h. Fleming coll 
M 2- Univ. Mich. 

« ?ih*„ ^'^wu^'^'^S?- Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Mof° ?A ^^'I'l'iPS coll. 61 Amer. Mus Nat. Hist., 5. 

V ^.a'- Canada, 3; Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 62 m. M. Green coll 

sTxw' \^ ■ I5e'«'ey Soper coll., 2. es Eoyal Ontario Mus. 

L Nat. Mus. C;anada. u Carnegie Mus. 

, H'^*- ^< M"^- Comp. Zool., 1. 66 Nat. Mus. Canada, 4. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, 



58 



NORTH AMERlCAJSr FA.UNA. 



[No. 62 



EUTAMIAS MINIMUS CANICEPS Osgood 
Yukon Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, j; 10, j) 

Eutamias caniceps Osgood, North Amer. Fauna No. 19, p. 28, October 6, 1900. 
Eutamias borealis caniceps Preble, North Amer. Fauna No. 27, p. 169, October 
26, 1908. 

Type. —Collected at Lake Lebarge, Yukon, July 13, 1899, by W. H. 
Osgood; ? adult, sldn and skull; No. 99200, United States National 
Aluseum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 603. 

Geographic distribution. — Southern Yukon, southwestern Mac- 
kenzie, and northwestern British Columbia; north to Macmillan 
River, east to Nahanni River Mountains, south to Ispatseeza River, 
northern British Columbia, west to Lake Beimett and Lake Le- 
barge; ^® northern limits imperfectly known. Zonal range: Canadian. 
(Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias minimus borealis, but head more grayish 
(less ochraceous) ; sides slightly paler; upper parts averaging more grayish in 
general tone; tail much paler beneath; hind foot larger. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July): Head smoke gray, sparingly washed with 
cinnamon; median pair of hght dorsal stripes smoke gray, narrowly edged with 
sayal brown; sides clay color, shading to sayal brown at border of lateral stripes; 
tail above, fuscous black, overlaid and edged with pale pinkish buff; tail beneath, 
clay color; otherwisq as in borealis. Winter pelage (September 18) : Similar to 
the summer pelage but dorsal area slightly paler and sides about pinkish buff. 

Molt. — An adult male specimen from Caribou Crossing, Yukon, June 26, has 
nearly completed the spring molt, the rump being the only portion of the body 
still in winter pelage; in an adult female from the same locality, June 28, the molt 
is not quite so far advanced. 

Skull. — Practically the same as that of borealis. 

Measurements. — Average of five adults from Bennett, British Columbia: " 
Total length, 216.8 (203-225); tail vertebrae, 95 (84-99); hind foot, 33.6 (33-34); 
ear from notch, 12.6 (12-14). Skull: Average of seven adults from type region 
(Lake Lebarge and Lake Marsh): Greatest length, 33.4 (32.9-33.5); zygomatic 
breadth, 18.5 (18.2-19); cranial breadth, 14.6 (14.3-15); interorbital breadth, 
7 (6.8-7.3); length of nasals, 10.4 (10-10.7). 

RemarTcs. — The Yukon chipmunk is a fairly well-marked race of 
minimus, closely related to borealis, and intergrading with it in 
northern British Columbia. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 126, as follows: 

British Columbia: Atlin (Hot Springs, Wilson Creek, and Pike River), 
10;"" Bennett City, 13; Cheonnee Mountains, 1;"^ Ispatseeza River 
(near head), 1; Lake Bennett, 1; Level Mountain, 2;^° McDame Post, 
Dease River, 8; Raspberry Creek (near head of first south fork of 
Stikine River), 1;"' Stikine River (near head), 5;°^ Telegraph Creek, 
41; Teslin Lake, 10." 

Mackenzie: Nahanni River Mountains, 4. 

Yukon: Caribou Crossing, Yukon River, 4; Lake Lebarge, 13; Lake Marsh, 
5; Macmillan River, 2; Rink Rapids, Yukon River, 4; Semenow Hills, 
Yukon River, 1. 



The occurrence of chipmunks — tloubtless this species — near Klukwan in Chilkat Valley, Alaska, is 
reported by E. P. Walker ou the authority of an intelligent native. 
" The type series from Lake Lebarge are without external measurements. 
" Provincial Mu.s., Victoria, British Colunibia. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. liist. 
w Amer. Mus. Nat. Uist., 39. 
" Nat. Mus. Canada. 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



59 



EUTAMIAS MINIMUS JACKSONI Howell 
Lake Superior Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, k; 10, k) 

Tamias quadriviUahis neglectus AJlen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 106, June, 

1890 (in part — specimens from Minnesota). 
Eutamias quadrivittatus neylecius Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 

Hist. 30: 44, December 27, 1901 (and of authors generally). 
Eutamias horealis neglectus Hollister, Bui. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 6: 139. 

October, 1908. 

Eutamias minimus jacksoni Howell, Journ. Mamm. 6: 53, February 15, 1925. 

Type. — Collected at Crescent Lake, Oneida County, Wis., Septem- 
ber 7, 1917, by H. H. T. Jackson; c? adult, skin and skull; No. 
227423, United States National Museum (Biological Survey collec- 
tion); original number, 927. 

Geographic distribution. — Northern Michigan (except extreme 
eastern end); northern Wisconsin, northeastern Minnesota, and 
adjacent part of southwestern Ontario; north to Lac Seul, Ontario 
(possibly to Oxford House, Manitoba ^2). g^st to Nipigon, Ontario; 
west to Kalmar, Ontario, south to Juneau County, Wis. (Fig. 4.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias minimus horealis, but upper parts and tail 
more intensely tawny; head and facial stripes slightly darker; median pair of 
dorsal stripes more strongly tinged with sayal brown; tail darker, both above and 
below. 

Color. — Summer •pelage (type, September 7): Top of head mixed cinnamon, 
fuscous black, and whitish, the general tone brownish drab; dark facial stripes 
blackish, shaded with sayal brown; ears mixed fuscous and sayal brown on an- 
terior portion; soiled grayish white on posterior half; interior surface clothed 
with brownish hairs; postauricular patches pale smoke gray; dark dorsal stripes 
black, the central stripe extending forward to the crown; median pair of light 
dorsal stripes grayish white, strongly mixed with sayal brown; outer pair creamy 
white, edged with sayal brown; sides ochraceous tawny; thighs and flanks buffy 
brown; feet pale cinnamon buff; tail above fuscous black, heavily overlaid with 
ochraceous tawny; tail beneath, ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black, 
but tipped with ochraceous tawny; underparts white (the plumbeous bases of 
hairs showing through. Winter pelage (September 24 and June 9): Similar 
to the summer pelage, but somewhat paler and more grayish (less tawny); 
top of head with more white and less cinnamon in the mixture; median dorsal 
stripes drab gray (with less sayal brown in mixture) ; feet pale smoke gray, very 
faintly tinged with pale pinkish buff; sides pale ochraceous tawny. 

Molt. — A specimen (9 adult) from Herbster, Wis., June 20, shows the new 
summer pelage covering the anterior half of the body; another female from Rib 
Hill, Wis., July 11, shows the molt nearly completed, the rump and hinder back 
still retaining the winter pelage. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of horealis. 

Measurements. — Average of U adults from northern Wisconsin (Oneida, Vilas, 
and Oconto Counties) : Total length, 202.1 (198-209); tail vertebree, 88.8 (82-95); 
hind foot, 31.8 (31-33); ear from notch, 12.6 (11.5-14.5). Skull: Average of 10 
adults from Wisconsin: Greatest length, 32.6 (31.8-33.2); zygomatic breadth, 
}^-} (17.7-18.5); cranial breadth, 14.3 (13.9-15.2); interorbital breadth, 7.2 
(6.8-7.6); length of nasals, 10.3 (9.&-11.3). 

RemarTcs.—li^iis, is the form that Doctor Allen intended to charac- 
terize when he named neglectus. He had at that time only 7 speci- 
mens — 2 from Montreal River near the eastern end of Lake Superior, 
2 from North Pacific Junction, Minn., and 3 from Escanaba, Mich, 
(the last m too poor condition for comparison). Unfortunately he 
selected one of the specimens from Montreal River as the type, and 

" See remarks under Eutamias minimus borealis, p. 55-56. 



60 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



INo. 62 



(as explained in detail on p. 56) this proves to be inseparable from 
borealis. Had he chosen one of the Mmncsota specimens for a type, 
the name would stand for the richly colored form inhabiting northern 
Wisconsin, Mmnesota, and Michigan, but in the light of present 
knowledge, there seems to be no other course than to place negledus 
in the sjmonymy of borealis and provide a new name for the form 
currently laiown as negledus. 

The present form is the most richly colored race of the minimus 
group and the combination of heavj^ black stripes and bright tawny 
sides and tail make it one of the handsomest members of the genus. 
Intergradation wdth borealis takes place in the northern peninsula 
of Michigan (specimens from the eastern end of the peninsula being 
typical borealis) and in southwestern Ontario. Material is needed 
from many parts of western Ontario and eastern Manitoba before 
the range of this form can be worked out in detail. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 178, as follows: 

Michigan: Brown Lake, Dickinson County, 6; " Cisco, 1; Crooked Lake, 
Gogebic County, 1;" Escanaba, 3; Houghton, 1;'^ Lindsley Lake, 
Gogebic County, 1; Little Girls Point, Gogebic County, 2;" Mud 
Lake, Gogebic County, 1; Poor Lake, Gogebic County, 2; Porcupine 
Mountains, Ontanagon County, 9.'^ 

Minnesota: Clear Lake Portage, Lake County, 2; Ely, 1; Itasca County 
(T\A-p. 61 N., R. 26 W.), 1; North Pacific Junction, 2; Tower, 7; Two 
Harbors, 3. 

Ontario: Ignace, 1;" Kalmar, 2;" Lac Seul, l;^^ Nipigon, 4." 

Wisconsin: Basswood Lake, Bayfield County, 1; Camp Douglas, 50;'' Cres- 
cent Lake, Oneida County, 8; Florence 2; Herbster, 7; Holcombe, 3; 
Kelley Lake, Oconto County, 2; Lake St. Germain, Vilas County, 4; 
Lakewood, 5; Mamie Lake, Vilas County, 13; McAllister, 1; Mellen, 1; 
Mercer, 3; Moen Lake, Oneida County, 1;'^ Namekagon Lake, Bay- 
field County, 2; North Pelican Lake, Oneida County, 1;'" Ogema, 7; 
Orienta, 1; Rhinelander, 7; ^ Rib Hill, Marathon County, 3; Solon 
Springs, Douglas County, 5. 

EUTAMIAS AM(ENUS GROUP 

EUTAMIAS AMCENUS (Allen) 

[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Diagnosis. — Closely simUar in general to Eutamias minimus,^^ size small to 
medium; hind foot 29.5 millimeters (monoensis) to 35 millimeters (canicaudus, 
ludihundus, felix, and caurinus); skull length, 31.3 millimeters (amcenus) to 
35.6 millimeters (canicaudus) ; skull of the same general shape as that of E. 
minimus and in many of the races practically indistinguishable one from the 
other; color of sides ranging from pinkish cinnamon (ajjlnis) or cinnamon buff 
(monoensis), through sayal brown to tawny and ochraceous tawny (luleiventris, 
ludihundus, a-ud felix); dark dorsal stripes black or fuscous black, often shaded or 
mixed with tawny, ochraceous tawny, or cinnamon; median pair of light dorsal 
stripes smoke gray or pale smoke gray, usually more or less mixed with cinnamon 
or tawny; outer pair of light stripes clear creamy white, sometimes (in Jelix) 
mixed with ochraceous tawny; rump and thighs cinnamon, pinkish cinnamon, 
cinnamon buff or ochraceous tawny, mixed in each case with smoke gray; hind 
feet varying from light pinkish cinnamon through cinnamon buff to sayal brown; 



n Univ. Mich. 

Univ. Minn. 
" W. E. Saunders co. 
'» Nat. Mus. Canada. 
" Mas. Comp. Zool. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 37; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2; E. R. Warren coll., 2. 
'» E. E. Warren coll. 
» Univ. Wis., 4. 

*' Certain forms in the two groups ffor example, JiMamias a. ammmis and E. minimus operaritis) inhabit- 
ing widely sepamted areas are'so closely similar in tjoth externa) and cranial characters that many specimsns 
are diffictilt to identify without recourse to the locality label. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A.MERICA.N CHIPMUNKS 



61 



under surface of tail pinkish buff, pinliish cinnamon, clay color, cinnamon, sayal 
brown, tawny, or ochraceous tawny. 

EUTAMIAS AM(ENUS AMCENUS (Allen) 
Klamath Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, g; 9, g) 

Tamias amoenus Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 90, June, 1890. 
Tamias quadrivittatus amcenus Merriam, North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 44, July 
30, 1891. 

Eutamias amcenus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, July 1, 1897. 
Eutamias amoenus propinquus Anthony, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 32: 6, 
March 7, 1913 (Ironside, Oreg.). 

Type— CoWected at Fort Klamath, Oreg., May 16, 1887, by 
J. C. Merrill; ? adult, skin and skull; No. 186460, United States 
National Museum (No. f^ff, Merriam collection). 

Geographic distribution. — Central and eastern Oregon (except on 
the deserts and in the Blue Mountains) and southern Idaho ; south in 
California through the Salmon and Trinity Mountains to South YoUa 
BoUy Mountain and in the Sierra Nevada to Sierra County ; east to the 
Bannock Mountains and mountains east of Birch Creek, southeastern 
Idaho; north to the Columbia River, Oreg., and to Adams County, 
Idaho. Zonal range: Transition and Canadian; 4,000 to 9,000 feet 
altitude. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Closely similar in size and coloration to Eutamias minimus oper- 
arius but ears longer, tail averaging slightly shorter; hind feet and upper surface 
of tail slightly darker; sides averaging slightly deeper tawny. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Top of head smoke gray, mixed with cinna- 
mon; dark facial stripes fuscous, the median one fuscous black, all more or less 
mixed with tawny; ears fuscous black, broadly margined posteriorly with buffy 
white; dark dorsal stripes black, more or less mixed or margined with ochraceous 
tawny; median pair of light stripes pale smoke gray; outer pair white; sides 
tawny or ochraceous tawny; rump and thighs smoke gray, washed with cinnamon 
buff; taO. above, fuscous black, overlaid with clay color; tail beneath, cinnamon or 
sayal brown, margined with fuscous black and edged with clay color; feet light 
pinkish cinnamon; under parts creamy white, often washed with light buff. 
Winter pelage (October) : Similar to the summer pelage but general tone duller, 
the median pair of light. stripes darker (less whitish) and sides slightly paler — 
about sayal brown. 

Molt. — The beginning of the spring molt is shown by an adult female specimen 
taken at Prineville, Oreg., June 4, in which the new summer pelage is appearing 
in irregular patches on the middle of the back; a male from Idaho City, Idaho, 
June 13, shows the summer pelage covering a little more than half of the anterior 
upper parts. 

Skull. — Closely similar in size in proportions to that of E. minimus operarius. 

Measurements. — Average of 20 specimens (adult and subadult) from type 
locaUty: Total length, 197.6 (181-218); tail vertebr£E, 84.5 (78-90); hind foot, 
31 (30-32); ear from notch, 13.8 (13-15). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type 
locality: Greatest length, 32 (31.3-32.6); zygomatic breadth, 17.8 (17.4-18.2); 
cranial breadth, 14.3 (13.8-14.7); interorbital breadth, 7.6 (7-8); length of 
nasals, 9.9 (9.3-10.5). 

Remarlcs. — As already shown (see p. 49) this subspecies bears a - 
striking resemblance to E. minimus operarius of Colorado, but their 
ranges do not meet and members of the two groups occur together in 
many places without any indication of intergrading.^^ 

Occasional specimens have these stripes mixed with cinnamon, and in several from southern Idaho 
(Edna and Stanley Lake) the median stripes are solid bright cinnamon; but since the majority of specimens 
from that region are normal, this variation is not considered a subspecific character. 

For example, amcenus and pictus in northern California, eastern Oregon, and southern Idaho; iuiei- 
centris and consobrinui in western Wyoming; and canicavdua and griaescens in eastern Washington. 



62 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 




FiGUKE 5. — Distribution of the subspecies of Eviamias amcenus and of E. panamintmus. 1, E. 
arrmnw IvAiini'ndua; 2, E. amv/nua a/finis; 3, E. amcenus liUeiveniris; 4, E. amcenus fetix; 5, E. amce- 
mu caurinus; (>, E. anujenus cardcav/lus; 7, E. amanus vallicola; 8, E. amanus amanas; 9, E. amanuLS 
ochrauus; 10, E. amanua monoensis; 11, E. panarainiinm 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A.MERICA.N CHIPMUNKS 



63 



The Klamath chipmunk has a wide distribution and is subject to 
considerable individual variation. In the Siskiyou Mountains of 
northern California it grades into subspecies ochraceus, a somewhat 
larger and more buffy form. Large series from the Trinity, Salmon, 
and Yolla BoUy Mountains, Cahf., are nearest to amoenus but exhibit 
some of the characters of ochraceus; in the Yolla Bolly series the 
skulls are fully as large as those of ochraceus, though in coloration- 
and external measurements the specimens are more like amoenus. 
In the northern Sierra — between Independence Lake and Donner — 
this race passes insensibly into monoensis. In the foothills of the Blue 
Mountains, eastern Oregon, and at many places in central Idaho 
(Goodrich, Tamarack, moimtains east of Birch Creek, Lemhi Moirn- 
tains, etc.) intergradation with luteiventris occurs. 

The series of 12 specimens from Ironside, Oreg., on which Euiamias 
propinquus of Anthony was based, are clearly referable to amoenus; 
most of the series are quite indistinguishable from this race, either 
by coloration, size, or skull characters; the type specimen is consider- 
ably more ochraceous above, and is considered intermediate between 
amoenus and luteiventris. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 901, as follows: 

California: American River (south fork, altitude 6,500 feet), 1; Bear Creek 
(head), Trinity County, 19; Bear Flat, Shasta County, 1; Brownell, 2; 
Buck Ranch, Plumas County, 3; Bunchgrass Spring, Lassen County, 6; 
Canby, 2; Canby (20 miles northwest), 2;^* Canyon Creek, Trinity 
County, 4; Castle Lake, Siskiyou County, 2; Chaparal, Butte County, 
39; 85 Deadfall Creek (head), Trinity County, S;^^ Eagle Lake, 8; 
Fort Bidwell, Modoc County, 16; Fort Crook, 11; Goose Lake, 8; 
Goose Nest Mountain, Siskiyou County, 7; Grindstone Creek, Tehama 
County, 3; Grizzly Creek (head), Trinity Countj', 2;^'^ Happy Camp, 
Modoc County (25 miles north of Lookout), 1; Hayden Hill, Lassen 
County, 1; Jackson Lake, Siskiyou County, 30;** Johnsville, Plumas 
County, 3; Lake City, 2; Lassen Creek, Modoc County, 6; Lincoln 
Creek, Sierra County (6,200 feet altitude), 1; Little Shasta River (near 
head), 1; mountains west of Long Valley, Lassen County, 1; Madeline 
Divide, Lassen County, 1; Madehne Plains, 2; McCloud, 3; McCloud 
River (near Bartle), "l; Millford, 1; Mohawk, Plumas County, 8; 
Mount Lassen, 9; Mount Shasta, 65;*' Picard, 11; Pine Creek, Lassen 
County, 1; Plumas County, 20 miles southwest of Quincy, 9; Prattville, 
Plumas County, 2; Red Rock, Lassen County, 1; Robbins Creek, Lassen 
County, 2; Rush Creek (head), Siskiyou County, 19;*'' Salmon River 
(south fork, 5,000 feet altitude), 4;" Salmon Mountains, 2; Saloon 
Creek Divide, Siskiyou County, 7; ** Shasta County, 1; Shasta Valley, 1; 
Sierra Valley, 14; Sierraville, 3; ** Sisson, 5; Squaw Creek Valley, Siski- 
you County, 1; Sugar Hill, Modoc County, 9; Susanville, 8; Trinity 
Mountains (east of Hoopa), 5; Warner Mountains (Dry Creek, Parker 
Creek, and Warren Peak), 34; s* Webber Lake, Sierra County, 1; Wild- 
cat Peak, Siskiyou County, 7; ** Willow Creek Valley, Lassen County, 
4; 85 Yolla Bolly Mountains, 43."" 

Idaho: Albion, 5; Arco, 3; Bald Mountain Ranger Station (10 miles south 
of Idaho City), 2; Bannock Mountains (8 miles northeast of Inkom; 
14 miles southeast of Pocatello; 8 miles west of Swan Lake), 11; Big 
Butte, Bingham County, 1; Big Lost River (head), 1; Birch Creek, 
10 miles south of Nicholia, 5; mountains east of Birch Creek, 11; Blue 
Spring Hills (15 miles west of Malad), 1; Bridge, Cassia County, 8; 
Dickey, 1; Echo Crater, Snake River Desert (20 miles southwest of 
Arco), 1; Edna, 3; Goodrich, 3; Idaho City, 5; Ketchum, 6; Lardo, 2; 

»* Mus. Vert. Zool. 

'5 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

«6 Mus. Vert. Zool., 6. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 14; Mus. Vert. Zool., 1: Colo. Agr. College, 1. 
«8 Mus. Vert. Zool., 2. . . & b , 

«9 Mus. Vert. Zool., 9. 
«» Mus. Vert. Zool., 33. 



64 



NORTH A.MERICAN FAUNA. 



FNo. 52 



Lost River Mountains, 16; Malad City, 2; New Meadows, Adams 
County, 2; Pahsimeroi Mountains, 3; Sawtooth City (near Alturas 
Lalie), 1; Sawtooth (Alturas) Lake, 14; Stanley Lake, 5; TamaVack, 
Adams County, 1. 
Nevada: Washoe, 1. 

Oregon: Antelope, Wasco County, 1; Austin, 1; Bear Creek Buttes, Crook 
Count}^, 1; Beech Creek, Grant County, 7; Bend, Deschutes River, 8; 
Bourne, 3; Buchanan, 5; Burns, 9; Camp Creek, Crook County, 1; 
Cedar Mountains, 13; Christmas Lake (15 and 30 miles north), 2; 
Columbia River, 1;^' Crane, 3; Crater Lake, 15; Crooked River, 20 
miles soutli of PrineviUe, 2; Diamond Lake, 9; Drewsey, 1; Fort Kla- 
math, 79; Foster, Harney County, l;'-'^ Fremont, 4; Harney, 9; Hay- 
creek, 6; Howard, 6; Ironside, 12; Klamath Falls, 11; Lakeview, 2; 
Lapine, 5; Lone Rock, 1; Lost Creek Canyon, Lake County, 3; 
Maury Mountains, 4; McEwen, 1; Meacham, 7;^* Mount Mazama 
(Anna Creek), 6; Naylox, 3; Ochoco Forest, 1; Paulina Lake, 4; Prine- 
viUe, 9; Silverlake, 4; Sisters, 4; Steens Mountains, 25; Strawberry 
Mountains, 13; Swan Lake Valley, 3; Sycan Marsh, 2; Upper Hamath 
Marsh, 1; Warner Mountains, 7; West Sink Creek, Klamath County 
(12 miles east of Mount Thielson), 1; Yamsay Mountains, 2. 

EUTAMIAS AMCENUS OCHRACEUS Howell 
OcHRACEOus Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, k; 9, k) 

Eutamias ammnus ochraceus Howell, Journ. Mamm. 6: 54, February 15, 1925. 

Type. — Collected in Studhorse Canyon, Siskiyou Mountains, Calif, 
(altitude, 6,500 feet), September 27, 1909, by N. HoUister; c? adult, 
skin and skull; No. 161049, United States National Museiun (Bio- 
logical Siu-vey collection); original number, 3511. 

GeograpJdc distribution. — Siskiyou Mountains of California and 
Oregon. Zonal range: Transition and Canadian. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias a. ammnus but larger; upper parts more 
ochraceous (less grayish), especially on head and rump; dark dorsal stripes aver- 
aging more brownish (less blackish) ; median pair of light dorsal stripes more 
mixed with tawny or cinnamon (less clear gray) ; tail paler, both above and below. 
Similar to E. a. luteiveniris but dark dorsal stripes less blackish (more brownish) ; 
postauricular patches larger and more distinct; under parts less heavily washed 
with buff. 

Color. — Summer -pelage (type, September 27) : Top of head cinnamon, mixed 
with white, bordered on each side with bister; ocular stripe blackish, shaded 
with snuff brown; submalar stripe snuff brown, shaded with fuscous; light facial 
stripes grayish white; ears black, broadly margined on posterior border with 
bufify white and washed on anterior base with cinnamon; postauricular patches 
rather large, buffy white; dark dorsal stripes fuscous black, mixed with mikado 
brown; median pair of light stripes grayish white, sprinkled with mikado brown; 
outer pair of light stripes creamy white; sides sayal brown; rump and thighs 
mixed cinnamon and smoke gray; hind feet dull pinkish cinnamon, shading on 
toes to pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with pinkish buff; tail 
beneath, between clay color and pinkish cinnamon, bordered with fuscous black 
and edged with pinkish buff; underparts dull whitish, faintly washed with pinkish 
buff. Winter -pelage: Similar to the summer pelage but slightly darker, the 
sides about snuff brown. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. a. amoenus but averaging larger. 

Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from the Siskiyou Mountains: Total 
length, 215.2 (209-22.5); tail vertebra;, 95.7 (90-107); hind foot, 32.9 (32-34); 
car from notch, 14.2 (13-15.5). Skull: Average of seven adults from same 



" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

«i Collected by J. K Townsend, probably near The Dalles. 
''2 A. H. Helme coll. 
»2 Carnegie Mus., 7. 
" A. H. Helme coU., 4. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAJST CHIPMUNKS 



65 



localities: Greatest length, 33 (32.5-33.5); zygomatic breadth, 18.3 (17.8-18.6); 
cranial breadth, 14.5 (14.4r-14.9) ; interorbital breadth, 7.5 (7.2-7.8); length of 
nasals, 9.9 (9.5-10.5). 

Remarks. — The ochraceous chipmunk, although restricted to a 
rather hmited range, is a well-marked form, characterized by large 
size and ochraceous coloration. It is typical only in the Siskiyou 
Mountain region of northern California and southern Oregon and 
apparently does not range much northward of that region. South- 
ward, in the Triaity and Salmon Mountains, it intergrades with 
amcenus, the specimens being referred to the latter race. 

A large series from the Big Valley Mountains, Lassen County, 
Calif., is apparently best referable to this race, although the colony 
is isolated from the typical colonies of ochraceus, the intervening 
territory being occupied by typical amcenus. This series is nearest 
to ochraceus in coloration, although the undersides of the tails average 
paler, and a few specimens are less ochraceous above. They differ 
from amcenus m. much larger size, both of skins and skulls. The 
underparts are more strongly washed with buff than in either amcenus 
or ochraceus, thus suggesting luteiventris. The skulls are somewhat 
smaller than in the latter form and the nasals are shorter. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 33, as follows: 

California: Adin, 1; Big Vallej^ Mountains, Lassen County, 14; Siskiyou 
Mountains (Studhorse Canyon), 3. 

Oregon: Ashland Peak, 1; Lake Mountain, Josephine County, 2; Siski- 
you, 12. 

EUTAMIAS AMCENUS MONOENSIS Grinnell and Storbr 

Mono Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, h; 9, h) 

Eutamias amcenus monoensis GrinneU and Storer, Univ. California Publ. Zool. 
17: 3, August 23, 1916. 

Type. — Collected on Warren Fork of Leevining Creek (9,200 feet 
altitude). Mono County, Calif., September 25, 1915, by J. Grinnell; 
c? adult, skin and skull; No. 23380, Mus. Vert. Zool, Univ. of 
Cahfornia; original number, 3709. 

Geographic distribution. — Sierra Nevada, Calif., from Nevada 
County south to Mammoth Pass; Pine Forest and Cottonwood 
Kanges, northern Nevada. Zonal range: Canadian; 6,000 to 9,500 
feet altitude. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias a. amoinus but head slightly paler (more 
grayish), under side of tail paler (less intensely tawny); sides of body and edging 
of tail averaging paler. 

Color. — Summer pelage (September): Top of head pale smoke gray, mixed 
with cinnamon; dorsal area practically as in ammnus; sides cinnamon, cinnamon 
buff, or sometimes ochraceous tawny; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with 
light pinkish cinnamon; tail beneath, between sayal brown and clay color, 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with light pinkish cinnamon; underparts 
whitish, sometimes faintly washed with pale buff. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of amosnus. 

Measurements. — Average of 13 adults from type region (Leevining Creek, 
Mono Craters, and Walker Lake) : Total length, 194.2, (186-205); tail vertebrje, 
82.4 (73-92); hind foot, 31 (29.5-32); ear from notch, 13.3 (13-14). Skull: 
Average of 11 adults from type region (Leevining Creek, Mono Craters, and 
Mammoth) : Greatest length, 32,6 (32.2-33.3) ; zygomatic breadth, 18 (17.5-18.5) ; 

40279°— 29 5 



66 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



INo. 52 



cranial breadtli, 14.4 (13.9-15); interorbital breadth, 7.8 (7.3-8.1): length of 
nasals, 10 (9.5-10.3). Weight: Average of about 10 adults, 43 grains (37.9-48.7). 
[Fide Grinncll and Storcr (1924, p. 177).] 

Remarks. — The Mono chipmunk is a pale, grayish form of amcenus, 
the characters only moderately pronounced. Specimens from the 
Pine Forest Range, Nev., are best referred to this race, although ap- 
parently geographically isolated from the colony in the southern 
Sierra; they are even paler and more grayish than the type series, 
with paler hind feet, thus showing the extreme of the characters which 
differentiate monoensis from amoenus. 

Intergradation with amcenus takes place in the Lake Tahoe region; 
specimens from Independence Lake, Nevada County, and Marklee- 
ville, Alpine Coimty, being considered intermediate. 

This chipmunk closely resembles E. quadrivittatus f rater m summer 
pelage but may be distinguished by the paler color of the sides and of 
the ocular stripe, more buffy underparts, and smaller size. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 245, as follows: 

California: Cisco, 22; Donner, 41; Echo, Eldorado County, 7; Emerald 
Bay, 6; Farringtons, Mono County (Bloody Canyon), 1; Gem Lake, 
Mono County, l;"^ Hermit Valley, Calaveras County, 1;'* Hope 
Valley, Alpine Conuty, 4; Independence Lake, 31; Junction, Mono 
County [Hardy Station, 14 miles northwest of Bridgeport], 2; Lake 
Tahoe, 4; Lake Valley, Placer County, 1;'^ Leevining Creek, Mono 
County, 4; i Mammoth, Sierra Nevada, 11; Markleeville, 7; McKinney, 
Lake Tahoe, 5; Mono Craters, 3; Mono Lake, 5; Mount Tallac, 
8; Owens River (head), 2; Pine City [near Mammoth Pass], 1; Pyramid 
Peak, Eldorado County, 5; Silver Lake, Amador County, 6; Silver 
Lake, Mono County, 1;'^ Soda Springs Station, Placer County, 1;^^ 
Sonora Pass, 1; Summit [Donner], 5; Tallac, 3; ^ Tioga Road, Mono 
County (9,400 feet altitude), l;''^ Walker Lake, Mono County, 8; 
Williams Butte, Mono County, l;'^ Woodfords, Alpine County, 1.*^ 

Nevada: Cottonwood Range, 1; Edgewood, Douglas County, 2; Glen- 
brook, 5; Mount Sugar, 1; ^ Pine Forest Mountains, 36.^ 

EUTAMIAS AMCENUS LUTEIVENTRIS (Allen) 
Buff-bellied Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, p; 9, p) 

Tamias quadrivittatus luteiventris AUen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 101, 
June, 1890. 

Eutamias quadrivittatus luteiventris MiUer and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 
30: 44, December 27, 1901. 

Type. — Collected at "Chief IVTountain Lake" [Waterton Lake], 
Alberta (33^ miles north of the United States-Canada boundary),* 
August 24, 1874, by Elliott Coues; c? adult, skin and skull; No. 
United States National Museum; original number, 4596. 

GeograpJdc distribution. — Rocky Mountain region of southern 
Alberta, southeastern British Columbia, extreme northeastern and 
southeastern Washington, northern, central, and southeastern Idaho, 
western Montana, and northwestern Wyoming; north to Golden, 



" Mus. Vert. Zool. 
»« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" Mus. Vert. Zool., 29. 
" Kans. Univ. Mus. 

Mus. Comp. Zool. 
' Mus. Vert. Zool., 3. 

2 Acfld, Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

3 Mus. Vert. Zool., ^i. 

« Sec liept. U. 3. Northern Boundary Comm., 1878, p. 313. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



67 



British Columbia, and Banff, Alberta; east to the Highwood and 
Crazy Mountains, Mont., and the Shoshone Kange, Wyo.; south to 
the Salt Kiver Mountains, Wyo.; west to Shuswap and Okanagan 
Lake, British Columbia, Thompson Falls, Mont., and through central 
Idaho to the Blue Mountains in northeastern Oregon and south- 
eastern Washington. Zonal range: Transition and Canadian; 3,000 
feet (Cranbrook, British Columbia) to 10,000 feet (Teton Mountains, 
Wyo.). (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias a. amcenus but larger, with relatively longer 
tail; underparts heavily suffused with bufif; general tone of upper parts more 
ochraceous (less grayish), especially on the head, sides of neck, and rump; post- 
auricular patches more buffy (less whitish); light dorsal stripes less whitish; 
underside of tail slightly paler. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Top of head cinnamon, mixed with smoke 
gray; dark facial stripes fuscous or fuscous black, the lower one broad .and mixed 
with ochraceous tawny; light facial stripes whitish, usually tinged with cinnamon 
buff or light ochraceous buff; ears fuscous or fuscous black, broadly margined 
posteriorly with light buff, and washed at anterior base with ochraceous tawny; 
postauricular patches light buff or buffy white; sides of neck below ears strongly 
washed with ochraceous buff; dark dorsal stripes blackish, the outer ones often 
quite brownish from a mixture of tawny hairs; light dorsal stripes white, the 
median pair tinged with pale smoke gray, the outer pair often creamy white; 
rump and thighs dark smoke gray strongly mixed with cinnamon buff; sides 
tawny or ochraceous tawny; feet pinkish cinnamon or cinnamon buff"; tail above, 
fuscous black overlaid with clay color; tail beneath, light ochraceous tawny, 
margined with fuscous black and edged with clay color; underparts cinnamon 
buff or Ught ochraceous buff. Winter pelage (Yellowstone Park, Wyo., October 
29) : Similar to summer pelage but upper parts more grayish, especially on the 
shoulders and rump; median pair of light stripes darker (less clear white); sides 
considerably paler — about clay color. 

Molt. — A specimen ( 9 adult) from Valley_, Wyo., July 8, shows the summer 
molt just beginning; a female from Salt River Mountains, Wyo., August 19, 
shows the summer pelage coming in irregularly over the upper parts; another 
(unsexed) from Donovan, Mont., August 30, has the summer pelage coming in 
on the head and foreback. The beginning of the fall molt is well shown by a 
male specimen from Teton Pass, Wyo., September 8, in which the rump and 
hinder back are covered with fresh winter pelage, in sharp contrast to the brighter 
but only moderately worn summer pelage. 

Skull. — Similar to that of ochraceus but averaging slightly larger; decidedly 
larger than that of amcenus. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from vicinity of type locality (Chief 
Mountain Lake, St. Marvs Lake, Tobacco Plains, and Columbia Falls, Mont.): 
Total length, 221.5 (212-230); tail vertebra?, 101.8 (95-107); hind foot, 33.2 
(32-34) ; ear from notch, 13.5 (12.5—14). Skull: Average of nine adults from 
northwestern Montana (St. Marys Lake, Tobacco Plains, and Upper Stillwater 
Lake): Greatest length, 34.2 (33.7-34.8); zygomatic breadth, 19 (18.5-19.3); 
cranial breadth, 15 (14.7-15.5); interorbital breadth, 7.5 (7.1-7.8); length of 
nasals, 10.7 (10.5-11.1). 

RemarJcs. — The buff -bellied chipmunk has an extensive range in 
the Rocky Mountain region and exhibits little variation from its 
northern limit near Banff, Alberta, southward to west-central 
Wyoniing; specimens of the series from Wyoming, however, have the 
tail sHghtly darker beneath than typical luteiventris, thus showing 
approach to amcenus. Intergrades with the latter race occur at 
many places where their ranges meet, notably in the Lemhi Motm- 
tains, Idaho, and the Blue Mountains, Oreg. In the series of 18 
specimens from Lemhi Mountains, 10 have buffy underparts, like 
luteiventris, while 8 have whitish imderparts, lil^e amcenus; the skulls 
on the average are nearer to luteiventris, only one being as small as 
that of amcenus. 



68 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



tNo.82 



The series from the Blue Mountains is very puzzling, being vari- 
ously intermediate between luteiventris, amoenus, and canicaudus. 
Specimens in summer pelage from Blue Creek, Wash., and the Wal- 
lowa. Mountains, Oreg., are fairly typical luteiventris, the underparts 
being slightly less buffy than in Montana specimens. In a series of 
15 from the plateau between Enterprise and Paradise, Oreg., about 
half of the specimens have white underparts, and the skulls are 
somewhat smaller, thus sho-wing approach to amccnus. 
I On the northeast slopes of the Blue Mountains, in extreme south- 
eastern Washington, Ivteiventris apparently grades into canicaudus. 
In northwestern Montana, however, these two forms do not inter- 
grade, their ranges being sharply divided by Clarks Fork of the 
Columbia j on the north (or east) bank of tliis river, at Thompson 
Falls, luteiventris is common, but on the south bank its place is taken 
by typical canicaudus, which here reaches its eastern limit. 

In northeastern Washington (Ferry County), on the eastern side 
of Okanagan Lake, and at Sicamous and Shuswap, British Columbia, 
luteiventris grades into affinis, most of the specimens from that region 
being so perfectly intermediate between the two forms as to make 
their assignment to one or the other very difficult. Intergradation 
with ludihundus seems probable, though not clearly shown by the 
material in hand; no specimens from the region between Banff and 
Henry House, Alberta, are available. 

Throughout most of its range, luteiventris occurs in the same 
territory with either rujicaudus or umbrinus — both larger species 
with white underparts — and in western Wyoming it occurs, also, with 
E. minimus consobrinus, from which it may be distinguished by larger 
size, more buffy underparts and darker (more tawny) tail. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 622, as follows: 

Alberta: Banff, 23; Burmis, 2: « Calgary (foothills, 40 miles west), 6; ^ 
Canmore, 7; Coleman, 6; ^ Crows Nest Pass, 2; * Laggan, 2; ' Waterton 
Lalte Park, 16.^ 

British Columbia: Cranbrook, 11; 8 Crows Nest, 2; « Elko, 2; « Fernie, 2; « 
Field, 3; 5 Glacier, 3; "> Golden, 1; Monashee Divide, Gold Range, 9;" 
Okanagan, 14; 12 Okanagan Lake, 1; ^ Okanagan Landing, 12; Revel- 
stoke, 5; Shuttleworth Creek, Okanagan, 2; Shuswap, 20; Sicamous, 
12; Tobacco Plains ( = Newgate), 2; Trail, 6; s Vernon, lO.^ 

Idaho: Cabinet Mountains, 1; Craig Mountains, Lewis County, 8; Fiddle 
Creek (near Lucile), Idaho County, 3; Leadore, 1; Lemhi VaUey, 1; 
Preuss Mountains (head of Crow Creek), 5; Priest Lake, 1; "Salmon 
River Mountains" ( = Lemhi Mountains, 10 miles west of Junction), 
20; Seven Devils Mountains, 7; Trude, 5; Warm River, Fremont 
County, 7.15 

Montana: Big Belt Mountains (4 miles south of Fort Logan), 4; Big 
Timber (14 miles south), 2; Birch Creek Canyon, Teton County, 1; 
Bozeman, 10; Bridger Range, 1; Buffalo, 9; Butte (8 miles east), 1; 
Castle Mountains (4 miles east of White Sulphur Springs, 4; Chief 
Mountain [Waterton] Lake, 8; Columbia Falls, 6; Crazy Mountains, 6; 
Donovan, 1; Dry Creek, GaUatin County [near Gallop], 1; Eagle Creek 



' Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
• Nat. Mus. Canada. 
' W. E. Saunders coll. 

" C. B. Oarrett coll., 5; Provincial Mus., Victoria, British Columbia, 2. 

» M. M. Green coll. 

'» Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

" Mus. Comp. Zool., 6; Provincial Mus., Victoria, British Columbia, 3; Nat. Mus. Canada, 1. 
'2 Provincial Mus., Victoria, Britisii (Columbia. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; Nat. Mus. Canada, 3. 
" D. E. Dickey coll. 



1929] 



BEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



69 



[near Gardner], 5; East Gallatin ''River [near Hillsdale], 1; Emigrant, 2; 
Flathead Lake, 7; Helena, 15; Highwood Mountains, 3; Horse Plains 
[Plains], 2; Kalispell, 1; Kootenay River [on forty-ninth parallel], 1; Lake 
Como, Ravalli County, 1; Lennep, 1; Libby, 1; Little Belt Mountains, 
17; Livingston, 1; McLeod, 1; Mid vale, Teton County, 2; Mystic Lake 
(in Gallatin Range), 2; National Bison Range (near Dixon), 2; Pleasant 
. Valley, 1 ; " Red Lodge, 1 ; Reed Point, 1 ; Robare, 2 ; Ruby Mountains, 10 ; 
St. Marys Lake, 7; Sula, 1; Superior, Mineral County, 1; Thompson 
Falls, 2; Tobacco Plains [Newgate], 3; Upper Stillwater Lake, 1; Ward 
Peak, Madison County [Tobacco Root Mountains], 2; West Boulder 
Creek, 4; West Gallatin River (west fork), 10. 
Oregon: Anthony, 12;" Cornucopia, 11; Elgin, 8; Joseph, 1; Joseph 
Creek, Wa,llowa County, 5; Kamela, 6; Telocaset, 1; Wallowa Canyon, 
7; Wallowa Lake, 10; Wallowa Mountains, 4; Whiskey Creek, Wallowa 
County, 4. 

Washington: Anatone, 5; Blue Creek, Walla Walla County, 16; Blue 
Mountains (25 miles southeast of Dayton), 1;-^ Blue Mountains (21 
and 35 miles southeast of Dayton), 4; Eureka, Ferry County [between 
Marcus and Republic], 3; Grande Ronde River (6 miles south of Ana- 
tone), 1; Humpeg Falls, Columbia County, 2;!" Marcus (15 miles west), 
1; Mud Springs, Columbia County, 1.-" 

Wyoming: Afton, Salt River Mountains, 1; Bunsen Peak, Yellowstone 
National Park, 1; Clarks Fork, Park County [near head], 11; Canyon, 
Yellowstone Park, 4; La Barge Creek (9,100 feet altitude), 1; Mammoth 
Hot Springs, Yellowstone Park, 2; Merna, 6; Moran, 9; Old Faithful, 
Yellowstone Park, 1; Pacific Creek, Lincoln County, 2; Pahaska, Park 
County [north fork Shoshone River, at Grinnell Creek], 23; Roaring 
Mountain, Yellowstone Park, 1; Salt River Mountains (10 miles south- 
east of Afton), 5; Stanley, 1; Teton Mountains, 21; Teton Pass, 16; 
Upper Geyser Basin, 2; Valley, Park County, 3; Yancey, Yellowstone 
Park, 1; Yellowstone Lake, 2; Yellowstone Park (Apollinaris Spring), 

lib 



Eviamias amoenus vallicola Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 179, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected on Bass Creek, near StevensvLUe, Mont, (altitude, 
3,725 feet), March 23, 1910, by Clarence Birdseye; ? adult, skin 
and skull; No. 168027, United States National Museum (Biological 
Survey collection) ; original number, 1052. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the Bitterroot Valley, 
Mont., and the foothills on either side. Zonal range: Transition; 
3,000 to 4,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias amcenus luteiventris, but paler throughout, 
especially the head, upper parts of body, and under surface of tail. 

Color. — Unworn winter -pelage (type, March): Top of head, nape, shoulders, 
and median pair of dorsal stripes pale smoke gray, mixed with cinnamon; ears 
fuscous, margined posteriorly with smoke gray; postauricular patches creamy 
white; dark dorsal stripes blackish, margined with pinkish cinnamon, the outer 
pair and the lateral stripes slightly paler, and sprinkled with pinkish cinnamon; 
outer pair of light stripes clear white; sides between pinkish cinnamon and 
pinkish buff [clear pinkish buff in some specimens]; rump and thighs mixed 
pinkish cinnamon and smoke gray; hind feet hght pinkish cinnamon; front feet 
a paler shade of the same; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with pinkish buff; 



EUTAMIAS AMffiNUS VALLICOLA Howell 



BiTTERBOOT VaLLET ChIPMUNK 



(Pls. 5, o; 9, o) 



11 Mus. Comp. Zool. 
M D. R. Dickey coil. 
16 E. R. Warren coU. 



18 Carnegie Miis. 
" Mus. Vert. Zool. 
2» State College Wash, 



K Mus. Vert. Zool., 10; E. R. Warren coll., 2. 



70 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



tNo. 62 



tail beneath, cinnamon buff or pinkish buff, margined witli fuscous black and 
tipped ■uith pinkish buff; underparts pale pinldsh buff. Summer pelage (August) : 
Similar to the winter pelage, but sides darker. 
Skull. — Practically tlie same as that of luteiventris. 

Measuremenls. — Average of 11 adults from Bitterroot Valley, Mont.: Total 
length, 215.4 (208-228); taU vertebrae, 95.4 (90-105); hind foot, 32 (31.5-33); 
ear from notch, 14 (13-15.5). Skull: Greatest length, 34.1 (33-34.9); zygomatic 
breadth, 19 (18.8-19.2) ; cranial breadth, 15.2 (14.7-15.5) ; interorbital breadth, 7.4 
(7.1-7.5); length of nasals, 11.2 (10.4-11.8). 

Remarks. — This subspecies apparently is confined to the Bitterroot 
Valley and the adjacent foothills, but since no specimens from the sm- 
rounding regions are available, the exact limits of its range are not 
known. Its pale coloration is weU shown in the series in unworn 
winter pelage; in summer pelage the characters are less strongly 
marked. 

Specimens examined. — Total nxunber, 29, as follows: 

Montana: Bass Creek, near Stevensville, 6; Corvallis, 3; Florence, 7; 
Lolo, 6; Willow Creek, 7-10 miles east of Corvallis, 7. 

EUTAMIAS AMGENUS CANICAUDUS Mekkiam 
Gray-tailed chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, l; 9, l) 

Eutamias canicaudus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16: 77, May 29, 1903. 

rt/2)e.— Collected at Spokane, Wash., April 11, 1891, by C. P. 
Streator; ? adult, skin and skull; No. fH^, United States National 
Museimi (Biological Survey collection); original number, 639. 

GeograpJiic distribution. — ^Eastern Washington, northern Idaho, 
and a small area in northwestern Montana; east to Clark Fork of the 
Columbia (opposite Thompson Falls, Mont.); west to the Columbia 
River; north to Marcus, Wash.; south to Orofino, Idaho, and the 
foothills of the Blue Mountains, southeastern Washington. Zonal 
range: Transition; 1,100 to 3,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar in size and coloration to Eutamias amcenus luteiventris, 
but sides and feet paler, tail paler and more grayish, underparts less buffy; 
median pair of light dorsal stripes more mixed with ochraceous tawny. Com- 
pared with affinis: General tone of upper parts more ochraceous (less gi-ayish), 
especially on the head and rump; median pair of liglit stripes more mixed witli 
ochraceous tawny; sides slightly paler and more ochraceous (less tawny); under 
parts more buffy; under side of tail paler (less tawny). 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Top of head cinnamon, mixed with smoke 
gray; dark dorsal stripes black, conti-asting strongly with the light stripes; 
median pair of light stripes wliitisli, heavily mixed witli ocliraceous tawny or 
cinnamon; outer pair creamy v^^hite; rump and thighs cinnamon buff, mixed 
Tvath smoke gray; feet Ught pinkish cinnamon; sides sayal brown; tail above, 
blacldsh, overlaid %vith pale smoke gray or pinkish buff; tail beneath, pinkish 
buff, bordered with blackish and edged with pinkish buff or pale pinkish buff; 
underparts whitish, washed with pinkish buff. Winter pelage: Similar to the 
summer pelage, but tail usually more grayish, edged with pale pinkish buff" or 
pale smoke gray; sides paler, approaching pinkish buff. In the worn winter 
pelage (AprQ and May) the ochraceous tones of the upper parts and sides are 
much faded, giving to the animal a distinctly drabby tone. 

Molt. — The beginning of the spring molt is shown by an adult female specimen 
from Sprague, Wash., June 12, 1918, which is in greatly worn winter pelage, with a 
few small patches of summer pelage appearing on the hinder back. Another 
female from Prospect Creek, Mont., August 2, has the new summer pelage cover- 
ing the head and anterior back. 



" Montana State College, 6. 



1929] 



KEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



71 



Skull. — Very similar to that of luteiventris, but averaging slightly longer. 

Measurements. — Average of 13 adults from type region (Spokane, Spokane 
Bridge, and Fort Spokane) : Total length, 227.2 "(207-236) ; tail vertebra), 104.4 
(98-115); hind foot, 33.7 (33-35); ear from notch, 14 (13-15). Skull: Average 
of 10 adults from same localities: Greatest length, 34.6 (34.2-35.6); zygomatic 
breadth, 18.8 (18.5-19.2) ; cranial breadth, 15.1 (14.8-15.5) ; interorbital breadth, 
7.4 (7.2-7.9); length of nasals, 10.7 (10.3-11). 

Remarks. — The gray-tailed chipmunk occupies a comparatively 
limited area but its characters are well marked. It intergrades with 
luteiventris in the foothills of the Blue Mountains, southeastern 
Washington, and possibly also in extreme northeastern Washington, 
but at its eastern limit on Clark Fork of the Columbia, Mont., it 
apparently does not intergrade, the two typical forms occurring on 
opposite sides of the river. It resembles affinis rather closely, but 
at present is not known to intergrade with it, the two being separated 
by the Columbia River. In eastern Washington, this species occurs 
in the same region with Eutamias minimus grisescens, which it much 
resembles in color, but from which it differs in much larger size. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 132, as follows: 

Idaho: Coeur d'Alene, 12; Fort Sherman, 4; Kingston, 1; Mission, Kootenai 
County, 2; Moscow, 6; 22 Osborn, 10. 

Montana: Prospect Creek, near Thompson Falls, 11; Thompson Pass, 2. 

Washington: Bonnie Lake, Spokane County, 1;23 Cheney, 5; Colville, 9; 
Douglas, 5; Fort Spokane, 17; Garfield, 6; Kamiak Butte, Whitman 
County, 2; Marcus, 4; Marshall, 12; Pullman, 1; 24 Spangle, 1; Spokane, 
7; Spokane Bridge, 7; Spokane River (south side), 1; Sprague, 6. 



EUTAMIAS AMCENUS AFFINIS (Allen) 
Columbian Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, j; 9, j) 

Tamias quadrivittatus affinis Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 103, June, 1890. 
Eutamias quadrivittatus affinis Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30: 
44, December 27, 1901. 

Type. — Collected at Ashcroft, British Columbia, July 3, 1889,^^ by 
Clark P. Streator; 9 adult, skin and skull; No. fi-J-l, American 
Museum of Natural History. 

Geographic distribution. — Interior of southern British Columbia 
and central Washington ; north to Lac la Hache, British Columbia; east 
to Okanagan Lake and Midway, British Columbia, and the Columbia 
River in central Washington ; west to Lillooet, British Columbia, and 
the eastern slopes of the Cascade Range in Washington; south to 
the Columbia River, southern Washington. Zonal range: Transition; 
1,000 feet (Oroville, Wash.) to 6,500 feet (Okanogan County, Wash.). 
(Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias amoenus luteiventris, but coloration of upper 
parts more grayish (less ochraceous) especially on the head and rump; outer pair 
of dorsal stripes clearer white; sides of body and feet paler; underparts whitish, 
usually without trace of buff. Similar to ludibundus, but paler and more gray- 
ish above; light dorsal stripes clear white; sides and tail paler; underparts more 
whitish. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Top of head light pinkish cinnamon mixed 
with smoke gray; postauricular patches prominent, grayish white; median pair 



'2 Amer. Mas. Nat. Hist., 2. 

23 W. T. Shaw coll. 

2* State College of Washington. 

M As recorded on original label; not "June 18," as given in original description. 



72 



NORTH AJVIERICA.N FA.UNA 



Pso. 52 



of light dorsal stripes pale smoke gray; outer pair white; median dark dorsal 
stripes fuscous black, edged with cinnamon, the outer pair fuscous; sides pinkish 
cinnamon or sayal brown; rump and thighs smoke gray, faintly washed with 
light pinkish cinnamon; feet cinnamon buff; tail above, fuscous mixed with 
cinnamon and bordered with cinnamon buff; tail beneath, sayal brown or clay 
color, bordered with fuscous black and edged with cinnamon buff; underparts 
creamy white. Winter pelage (Republic, Wash., November): Very similar to 
the summer pelage but head, shoulders, and median pair of light dorsal stripes 
tinged with pale drab gray; underparts faintly washed with pinkish buff. 

Molt. — The beginning of the summer molt is shown by a specimen (c7) from 
Stormy Peak, Wash., July 6, 1918, in which the new pelage is growing in patches 
on the back and shoulders; two adult females from Signal Peak, Wash., July 24 
and 29, are still in worn winter pelage, with no sign of molting, and a female 
from Mount Aix, Wash., September 6, shows the summer pelage just beginning 
to appear in smaU patches on the fore back. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of canicaudus; slightly longer than that of 
luteiventris. 

Measurements. — Average of seven adults from type localitv: Total length, 
212.6 (205-220); tail vertebrae, 93.6 (89-101); bind foot, 33.3 (33-34); ear from 
notch, 13.7 (12.5-14.8). Average of 8 adults from Molson, Wash.: Total 
length, 221.7 (216-230); tail vertebraj, 97.7 (95-100); hind foot, 33.7 (33-35). 
Skull: Average of nine adults from type localitv: Greatest length, 34.6 (33.9- 
35.5); zygomatic breadth, 19.2 (18.7-19.6); cranial breadth, 15 (14.6-15.3); 
interorbital breadth, 7.3 (7-7.8) ; length of nasals, 11.2 (10.8-11.6). 

Remarks. — The Columbian chipmunk is a pale race of amoenus, 
about the bize of canicaudus or ludihundus; it occupies a compara- 
tively narrow strip in the dry interior of southern British Columbia 
and northern Washington, intergrading with luteiventris on the east 
and with ludihundus on the north and west. Most of the large series 
from the eastern side of Okanagan Lake, British Columbia, are 
moderately washed with buff on the underparts and are therefore 
referred to luteiventris. A series of 12, however, collected by J. A. 
Munro and labeled "Okanagan," are more whitish beneath and 
are best referred to affinis. Intermediates between the present 
form and ludihundus have been examined from Similkameen and 
Lillooet, British Columbia, and from Blewett Pass (Kittitas County) 
and Bauerman Ridge (near Tungsten Mine), Wash. Specimens from 
Chelan and Entiat, Wash., are more tawny above and have shghtly 
darker tails than typical affinis, thus showing approach to ludihundus; 
specimens from Wenatchee and Goidendale, Wash., while nearly like 
aijinis in color, have somewhat shorter skulls, thus approaching 
amo&nus. 

This chipmmik, as pointed^put by Allen in the original description, 
bears a striking resemblance to E. quadrivittatus of Colorado, but 
the two have no connection, being separated by other very distinct 
forms in both of the groups to which they belong. Allen's remarks 
(1890, p. 104-10.5), were based, on a misconception of the characters 
of true quadrivittatus, which explains his statement that affinis 
is larger than quadrivittatus. E. affinis has a slightly shorter hind foot 
and smaller skull than quadrivittatus, and differs also, in having a more 
grayish (less ochraceous) rump, and paler hind feet and under surface 
of tail. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



73 



Specimens examined. — Total nmnber, 326, as follows: 

British Columbia: Ashcroft, 21; 26 Cariboo Lake (near Karaloops), 
6; CUnton, 7;" Cranbrook, 2; 2s Grand Prairie, l;^' Hedley, 6; si Hope 
(Gordon's Ranch), 1;^° Hope-Princeton Summit, 6; si Kamloops, 19; 
Lac la Hache, 2;32 Lena VaUey (Martin's Ranch), l;2i> LiUooet, 2; si 
Midway, 5; si Nicola River, 1;S3 Nicola Valley, 2;ss Okanagan Valley, 
23s* (including 6 from Schoonover Mountain, 2 from Incaneep Creek, 
and 1 from Sheep Creek); Penticton, 2; si Princeton, 4; si Similkameen, 
11; S5 Spence's Bridge, 1; so Vaseaux Lake, 2.S8 

Washington: Bald Mountain, Okanogan County, 3; Bauerman Ridge 
(near Tungsten Mine), 8; Bumping Lake, Yakima County, 3; Chelan, 
15; Chopaka Mountain (altitude, 5,700 feet), 4; Cleveland, 8; Con- 
conully, 7; Conrad Meadows, Yakima County, 2; Easton, 14; Entiat 
River, 20 miles from mouth, 12; Fort Simcoe (8 miles southwest), 
1 ; Glenwood, 1 ; Goldendale, 1 ; Goose Prairie, Bumping River, 1 ; s? 
Grand Dalles (10 miles north), 2; Hart Lake, Chelan County, 1; Hedley, 
Sterling Creek, 6; si Keremeos, 8; si Lake Chelan (head), 6; Lake Cle Elum, 
3; Loomis, 1; Lucerne, 1; Lyle (12 miles north), 6; Mazama, 2; Molsan, 
8; McAllister Meadows, Tieton River (altitude 3,000 feet), 4; Mount 
Adams, 4; Mount Aix (altitude 6,500 feet), 10; Mount St. Helens, 1;S' 
Naches River (40 miles from mouth), 2; Okanogan (5 miles southwest), 
1; Omak Lake (Okanogan County), 2; Orono (opposite on west bank 
Columbia River), 1; Oroville, 1; Osoyoos-Bridesville Summit, 6; si 
Republic, 5; Sheep Mountains, Okanogan County, 4; Signal Peak, 
Yakima Indian Reservation, 19; Stehekin, 2; Stormy Peak, Chelan 
Mountains, 1; Tieton River (south fork, altitude 4,200 feet), 2; s? Twisp, 
4; Tunk Mountain, Okanogan County, 5; Wenatchee, 3; Wenatchee 
Lake, 1; Westbridge, l.si 

EUTAMIAS AM(ENUS LUDIBUNDUS Hollister 
Hollister's Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, n; 9, n) 

Eutamias ludibundus Hollister, Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 56: 1, December 5, 1911. 

Type. — Collected at Yellowhead Lake, British Columbia (3,700 
feet altitude), August 29, 1911, by N. Hollister; $ adult, skin and 
skull; No. 174225, United States National Museum; original number, 
3987. 

Geographic distribution. — Central, eastern, and southwestern British 
Columbia and extreme west-central Alberta; south through western 
LiUooet (district) and on both slopes of the Cascades as far as central 
Oregon; northern and western Umits imperfectly known, but north 
at least to Hazelton, British Columbia, and head of Smoky River, 
Alberta. Zonal range: Canadian. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — About the size of Eutamias amoenus affinis; tail averaging rela- 
tively shorter than that of luteiventris; ears averaging smaller than in either 
affinis or luteiventris; similar in color to luteiventris but head and rump slightl}'^ 
more grayish (less ochraceous) ; underparts mainly white (rather than buff) , 
and tail averaging darker tawny beneath. Compared with affinis: Upper parts 
decidedly more ochraceous (less grayish) ; sides and tail darker. Compared with 



2« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 8; Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 4. 
" Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6; Nat. Mus. Canada, 1. 
28 M. M. Green coll. 

2' Provincial Mus., Victoria, British Columbia. 

5" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

'1 Nat. Mus. Canada. 

S2 Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

33 W. E. Saunders coll. 

3« Nat. Mus. Canada, 2; Provincial Mus. British Columbia, 21. 
35 Provincial Mus., British Columbia, 10; Nat. Mus. Canada, 1. 
38 J. Dewey Soper coll. 
S7 State College Wash, 



74 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 52 



E. minimxis borealis: Total length about the same, but tail averaging slightly 
shorter and liind foot considerably larger; skull slightly larger and relatively 
broader across zygomata, the rostrum longer and narrower; sides of body, hind 
feet, and under surface of tail darker; light dorsal stripes clearer white (less 
mixed with cinnamon) ; rump and thighs more grayish (less ochraceous) . 

Color. — Sununcr pelage (August) : Top of head mixed pinkisli cinnamon and 
grayish white; sides of face more or less washed with pinkish buff; facial stripes 
fuscous or bister, shaded with cinnamon; dark dorsal stripes black or fuscous 
black,- thinly edged with sayal brown; median pair of light dorsal stripes grayish 
white or smoke graj', more or less mixed, especially on fore back, with sayal 
brown or ochraceous tawnj'; outer pair creamy white; rump and thighs cinnamon 
buff, mixed with smoke gray; sides ochraceous tawny or tawny; feet cinnamon 
buff or clay color; tail above, fuscous black, mixed with ochraceous tawny, and 
bordered with cinnamon buff; tail beneath, tawny or ochraceous tawny, bordered 
with fuscous black and edged with cinnamon buff; underparts grayish white, 
faintly tinged with pinkish buff. 

Molt. — The summer molt is shown b}^ an adult female from Henry House, 
Alberta, July 8, and an adult male from North Fork of Moose River, British 
Columbia, July 21, in which the new summer pelage covers about two-thirds of 
the dorsal region. An adult female from Babine, British Columbia, taken 
August 16, is in worn winter pelage, with no indications of a molt. No specimens 
showing a fall molt have been found in the material examined. 

Skull. — Very similar to that of luieiventris, averaging slightly shorter; also 
similar to that of affi.nis, but shorter. 

Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from type region (Yellowhead Lake and 
IMoose Lake, British Columbia, and Henry House, Alberta) : Total length, 217 
(205-230); taU vertebra?, 96.4 (91-108); hind foot, 33.5 (32-35); ear from notch, 
12.2 (11.2-13). Skull: Average of nine adults from Yellowhead Lake, Moose 
Lake, and Moose River, British Columbia: Greatest length, 33.8 (33-34.4); 
zygomatic breadth, 19 (18.4-19.5); cranial breadth, 15 (14.3-15.6); interorbital 
breadth, 7.6 (7.4r-7.8); length of nasals, 10.9 (10.1-11.5). 

Remarks. — HoUister's chipmunk is the most northerly ranging 
member of the amcenus group ; it is closely related to both affinis and 
luieiventris, being darker than the former and whiter beneath than 
the latter. It is also exceedingly close in size and coloration to 
caurinus, differing chiefly in paler head, darker sides, and slightly 
darker under sui'face of tail. The greater part of the range of Ivdi- 
hundus is widely separated from that of caurinus, but in the Cascades 
north of Mount Rainier the two forms meet and doubtless intergrade. 
In southwestern British Columbia the present form occurs in a 
comparatively narrov/ strip of country west of the Fraser River, thus 
separating the ranges of affinis and jelix. Specimens from Lillooet, 
British Columbia, show intergradation with affinis, one specimen in 
the series being almost typical of the latter form. A specimen from 
Brackendale, near Howe Sound, is typical; another from the same 
place strongly approaches /eZix in intensity of coloration, but the tail 
is paler beneath, as in ludihundus. Two specimens in full winter 
pelage from Port Moody, British Columbia, taken by Pi'ofessor 
Macoim, are typical of ludihundus, although others from there in 
summer pelage are referable to Jelix. Were it not for the extensive 
range of this chipmunk in central and eastern British Columbia, 
where it is widely separated from the range of felix, the southern 
British Columbia specimens might be considered to be intermediates 
between /eZ-ix and affinis (which they really are), and the form allowed 
to pass without a name. 

S^jecimens exarrdned. — Total number, 200, as follows: 

Alberta: Henry House, 13; Jasper Park, 13; ^8 Smoky River (head), 1. 
British Columbia: AJta Lake, New Westminster district, 2; Babine 
(8 miles west), 1; Barkerville, 1; Brackendale, 2; Burrard Inlet, 1; 



2« Nat. Mus. Canada. 
^ Kenneth Kacey coll. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



75 



"Cariboo" [158 Mile House, fid<^ Allan Brooks], 2; Coalmont, l;'" 
Fraser River, near mouth of north fork, 1; Hazelton, 6;^" Hope, 4;" 
LiUooet, 13;^ McGillivary Creek (LiUooet district), 2;^« Mons, 2; 
Moose Lake, 16; Moose River, 5; Nita Lake, New Westminster district, 
1; 39 Port Moody, 2; « Spences Bridge, 1; Second Summit (on United 
States-Canada boundary, west of Skagit River), 4; Telkwa, 4; Van- 
derhoof, 5; YeUowhead Lake, 5. 

Oregon: MiU Creek, 20 miles west of Warmsprings, 6; Mount Hood, 5; 
O'Leary Mountain (10 miles south of McKenzie Bridge), 2; Three 
Sisters, 3; Wapinitia, 11; Warm Springs River (2,400 feet altitude), 2. 

Washington: Austin Pass, Mount Baker, 2; " Barron, Whatcom County, 
21; Buck Creek Pass, 2; Hannegan Pass, Whatcom County, 2; Hidden 
Lakes, Okanogan County, 4; Lyman Lake (Chelan County), 1; Mount 
Baker (north fork Glacier Creek), 1; ^ Mount Rainier, 4 (Glacier Basin 
and Reflection Lake); Mount St. Helens, 4; Mount Stuart (altitude 
3,500 feet), 5; Pasayten River, Okanogan County (altitude 3,900 
feet), 4; Skagit River, Whatcom County (mouth of Ruby Creek), 1; 
Stevens Pass, Chelan County, 1; Suiattle River (altitude 6,500 feet), 1; 
Swamp Creek, Whatcom County, 1; Trout Lake, Mount Adams, 4; 
Twin Sister Lakes (near Cowlitz Pass), 1; Winchester Mountain (Twin 
Lakes), 4. 

EUTAMIAS AMGENUS FELIX (Rhoads) 
Tawny Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, m; 9, m) 

Tamias quadrivittatus felix Rhoads, Amer. Nat. 29: 941, October, 1895. 
Eutamias quadrivittatus felix, Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30: 
44, December 27, 1901. 

Type. — Collected on Church Mountain, New Westminster district, 
British Columbia (long. 121° 50' W.), near the international boundary, 
August 13, 1895, by Allan Brooks;*^ ? adult, skin and skiill; No. 
9355, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (formerly No. 2355, 
collection S. N. Rhoads) ; original number, 467. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast region of southern British Co- 
lumbia, from, the Mount Baker Range, near the United States-Canada 
boundary, north at least to Malaspina Inlet; northern limits unknown. 
Zonal range: Canadian and Transition ; sea level to 5,700 feet altitude. 
(Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias amosnus ludihundus, but upper parts strongly 
suffused with ochraceous tawny, the head and rump much darker; light dorsal 
stripes much mixed with ochraceous and the underparts clouded with buff; ears 
larger. Compared with luteiventris: Upper parts much darker (more tawny) ; 
sides of face and neck more strongly ochraceous tawny; underparts less intensely 
buffy; tail darker (more rufescent) both above and below; ears slightly larger. 

Color. — Top of head mixed cinnamon and smoke gray; dark facial stripes 
bister; Kght facial stripes soiled whitish, tinged with buff; sides of nose and cheeks 
cinnamon buff; sides of face and body deep ochraceous tawny; dark dorsal stripes 



'8 Nat. Mus. Canada. 
3» Kenneth Raoey coll. 
« Mus. Vert. Zool. 
« Mus. Comp. Zool. 

« Provincial Mus., Victoria, British Columbia, 9; Nat. Mus. Canada, 4. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Nat. Mus. Canada, 1. 
" State College Wash. 

Allan Brooks states (1902. p. 240) that the type specimen was collected on "Lumsden Mountain on 
forty-ninth parallel, due north of Mount Baker." Major Brooks, in correspondence, informs the writer 
that he intended to spell this Indian name "Liumsden," and this is evidently the same name as Lihumit- 
son, which appears as the name of the creek just to the west of Church Mountain on a map of New West- 
minster and Yale districts published in 1914 by the British Columbia Department of Lands; the region is 
now known as Lihumption Park. The altitude given by Brooks (7,000 feet) is erroneous, for Church 
Mountain is only 5,700 feet high. 



76 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



black; median pair of light stripes smoke gray, more or less mixed wnth cinnamon 
or ochraceous tawny, especially on shoulders and fore back, where the tawny 
color prevails; outer pair bufify white, mixed with cinnamon; rump and thighs 
ochraceous tawny, shaded with fuscous and sprinkled with smoke gray; front 
feet pinkish cinnamon; liind feet between cinnamon and sayal brown; tail above, 
fuscous black, heavily mixed with ochraceous tawny; tail beneath, dark ochra- 
ceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black; underparts pinkish buff or light pinkish 
cinnamon, the tawny color of the sides often encroaching on the belly. 

Molt. — The summer molt is shown b}^ two adult female specimens from Mount 
Baker Range, British Colvimbia, August 22 and 31, in which the new summer 
pelage covers onlj- the anterior half of the bod.v. The tail, however, appears to 
be in new pelage. An adult female from Port Moody, British Columbia, July 30, 
is in badly worn and faded winter pelage, with no sign of the beginning of the 
molt. 

Sk^tll. — Closely similar to those of luleivenlris and ludibundus but zj-gomata 
slightly more expanded posteriorly. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from tvpe locality: Total length, 224.7 
(215-245); taU vertebraj, 98.8 (90-105); hind foot, 34.1 (33-35); ear from notch, 
14.4 (13-16). Skull: Average of eight adults from tj^pe locality: Greatest 
length, 34.2 (33.3-34.7); zygomatic breadth, 19.4 (19-19.8); cranial breadth, 
15.1 (14.6-16.9); interorbital breadth, 7.5 (7.1-8.2); length of nasals, 10.7 
(10.3-11.2). 

Remarks. — The taAvny chipmunk is the darkest and most richly 
colored of the races of amcenus, showing the usual characters developed 
by the forms occupjong the humid belt of the northwest coast. It 
has not thus far been taken south of Mount Baker, Wash., but the 
limits of its range, both on the south and the north, are imperfectly 
kno%\'n. 

Apparently it ranges but a short distance in the interior; two 
specimens from Brackendale near the head of Howe Sound, British 
Columbia, show intergradation with ludibundus in having paler 
tails and more whitish bellies; one agrees with, felix, the other with 
ludihwadus, in the color of the upper parts. Specimens from "Second 
Summit," on the United States-Canada boundary are likewise 
intermediate between these two fonns. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 59, as follows: 

British Columbia: Cascade Mountains, 15 miles north of Mount Baker, 1; 
Howe Sound (Gibson Landing), 9; Lihumption Park, 7;*' Lund, Mala- 
spina Inlet, 2; Mount Baker Range [Church Mountain], 22; Port 
Moody, 7; Skagit [River?], l;*^ Tami Hy Creek [Long. 121° 45', near 
United States boundary], 3. 

Washington: Mount Baker; 2;« Mount Baker (Heather Meadows, 4,300 
feet altitude), 3; Mount Hermon, Whatcom County, 2."" 

EUTAMIAS AMGENUS CAURINUS Merkiam 
Olympic Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, i; 9, i) 

Eutamias caurinus Merriam, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1898 (October 
4), p. 352. 

Type. — Collected in the Olympic IMountains, Wash, (timberline, 
near head of Soleduck River), August 27, 1897, by C. Hart Jvlerriam 
and Vernon Bailey; S adult, slcin and skull; No. 90636, United States 
National Museum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 
6211. 



Mu5. Comp. Zool., 13. 
«' Nat. Mus. Canada. 



<s W. T. Shaw, coll. 1. 
Edith Hardin coll. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A-MERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



77 



Geographic distribution. — Olympic Mountains and Mount Rainier, 
Wash. Zonal range: Canadian; 3,500 to 8,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Very similar to Eutamias amcenus ludihundus, but head slightly 
darker; sides of face less washed with ochraceous; sides of body slightly paler, 
and underside of tail averaging paler but more mixed with blackish. Compared 
with felix: Upper parts and sides of head and body decidedly paler (less tawny) ; 
outer pair of dorsal stripes clearer white (less mixed with ochraceous) ; underside 
of tail paler. Compared with ochraceus: Upper parts less washed with tawny; 
sides paler; underside of tail less tawny and more mixed with blackish; hind feet 
larger; skull broader across zygomata. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August and September) : Head mixed cinnamon and 
smoke gray, the general tone near cinnamon drab; median (3) dark dorsal stripes 
blackish; outer pair about fuscous black; median pair of light stripes smoke gray, 
sprinkled with ochraceous tawny; outer pair white; sides light ochraceous tawny; 
front feet pinkish buff; hind feet cinnamon buff; tail above, fuscous black, mixed 
with cinnamon and edged with cinnamon bufif; tail beneath, ochraceous tawny or 
sayal brown, bordered with fuscous black and tipped with cinnamon buff (the 
median portion often encroached upon by the fuscous black); underparts soiled 
whitish, tinged with pinkish buff. 

Molt. — The summer molt is shown by an adult male specimen from Mount 
Rainier, July 10, in which the fresh summer pelage covers about half of the 
anterior upper parts, extending back on the sides to the flanks; the underparts 
show new pelage from the chin to a point just back of the forelegs and an isolated 
patch on the abdomen. An adult female from the same locality, August 4, still 
retains the old worn winter pelage, and another female taken August 2 shows the 
summer molt just beginning. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of ludihundus. 

Measurements. — Average of 18 adults from Mount Rainier, Wash.*^ : Total 
length, 212 (20-5-224); tail vertebrce, 94.7 (88-105); hind foot, 33.3 (32-35); 
ear from notch, 14.1 (12.5-15). Skull; Average of eight adults from type 
locality: Greatest length, 33.9 (33.4-34.6); zygomatic breadth, 19.4 (19-19.7); 
cranial breadth, 14.7 (14.4^15); interorbital breadth, 7.3 (7.2-7.6); length of 
nasals, 10.6 (10.4-11.1). 

RemarTcs. — The Olympic chipmunk is very closely related to E. 
amcenus ludihundus; the typical colony of caurinus is apparently iso- 
lated on the Olympic Peninsula from the other races of this species, 
but another colony, nearly indistinguishable from the typical form 
occupies Mount Rainier and intergrades in that region with ludihundus 
on the north and ochraceus on the south. Compared with these two 
races, caurinus is a dull-colored form, the sides less intensely tawny 
than in ludihundus, and the tail less tawny than in ochraceus. 

The large series from Moimt Rainier is referable as a whole to 
caurinus, but three specimens from Glacier Basin, on the northeast 
side of the mountain, are indistinguishable from ludihundus, to which 
they are referred. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 82, as follows: 

Washington: Canyon Creek, Clallam County (3,550 feet altitude), 1; 
Dosewallips River (near head), 1; Mount Angeles (6,000 feet altitude), 
5; Mount Carrie, Clallam County (6,000 feet altitude), 1; Mount 
Rainier, 49; Olympic Mountains (Boulder Lake), 6;^° Olympic Moun- 
tains (Happy Lake), 14; Olympic Mountains (head of Soleduck 
River, 5. 



*' This series, apparently of the same size as Olympic Mountain specimens, is used for measurements in 
place of the series of topotypes, because the measurements of the latter are taken to end of tail hairs and 
without claws. 

w Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 6; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2. 



78 



NOETH AJMERICA.N FAUN A. 



[No. 52 



EUTAMIAS PANAMINTINUS (Merriam) 
Panamint Chipmunk 
(Pls. 6, p; 10, p) 

Tamias panamintinus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 8: 134, December 
28, 1893. 

Eutamias panamintinus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, July 1, 
1897. 

Type. — Collected in Joluison Canyon, Panamint Mountains, Calif, 
(about 6,000 feet altitude), April 3, 1891, by E. W. Nelson; c? adult, 
skin and skull; No. fffM? United States National Museum (Bio- 
logical Survey collection); original number, 723. 

GeograpMc distribution. — Lower slopes (Upper Sonoran and low 
Transition Zones) of the desert ranges of southeastern California and 
southv/estern Nevada (White Mountains, Grapevine Mountains, 
Coso Mountains, Panamint Mountains, Providence Mountains, etc.); 
also on the east slope of the Sierra Nevada from Olancha Peak north 
to Bishop Creek. Zonal range: Upper Sonoran and low Transition; 
6,000 to 9,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 5.) 

Characters. — Apparently a member of the amcenus group; nearest to Eutamias 
amosnus monoeusis but decidedly larger, with much larger skull; upper parts, 
tail, and sides darker tawny; dorsal stripes more tawny (less blackish); rump and 
thighs more extensively graj'ish. Compared with E. quadrivittatus inyoensis: 
Size smaller; facial stripes paler; dorsal stripes reddish rather than blackish; 
rump and thighs grayish instead of buffy. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July) : Top of head smoke gray, mixed with pinkish 
cinnamon and bordered with fuscous; ocular streak blackish, becoming mikado 
brown at base of ear; submalar stripe indistinct, mikado brown shaded with fus- 
cous; ears mouse gray or smoke gray, shaded on posterior margin with buffy 
white (but not conspicuously contrasted as in most species) ; postauricular 
patches creamy white; dark dorsal stripes mikado brown, the median one shaded 
(usually rather faintly) with fuscous black; median pair of light stripes grayish 
white; outer pair creamy white; sides mikado brown, shading to sayal brown or 
cinnamon below; rump and thighs smoke gray, strongly contrasted with the 
back and sides; feet pinkish buff, tinged with smoke gray; tail above, fuscous black 
(the bases of the hairs pinkish cinnamon), overlaid with pinkish buff; tail beneath, 
sayal brown or clay color, bordered with fuscous black and tipped with pinkish 
buff; under parts buffy white. Winter pelage (April): Similar to the summer 
pelage but colors on back and sides duller and less contrasted; top of head near 
light drab; median dorsal stripe fuscous black, more or less mixed, especially 
anteriorly v/ith sayal brown; outer pair of dark stripes sayal brown; median pair 
of light stripes smoke gray, mixed v/ith pale buff; outer pair dull v/hitish; rump 
and hinder back smoke gray, shaded with cinnamon buff; underside of tail sayal 
brown. 

Molt. — The winter pelage often becomes excessively worn by early summer, so 
that the dorsal stripes are entirely obliterated. An adult male specimen from 
White Mountains, Calif., June 9, and an adult female from Panamint Mountains, 
Calif., June 14, have the new summer pelage covering the shoulders and fore 
back. Two specimens (cf and 5) from Providence Alountains, Calif., June 1, 
1902, are in full, fresh summer pelage, indicating apparently a very early molt. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. amcenus ochraceus, but averaging larger, with 
larger audital bullae; smaller than that of E. quadrivittatus inyoensis, with flatter 
brain case, and relatively larger audital bullse. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from tvpe locality: Total length, 206.5 
(198-220); tail vertebra;, 91.7 (85-102); hind foot, 31.9 (31-32.5); ear from notch, 
14.7 (13.5-16). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type localitv: Greatest length: 
34.5 (34-34.8); zygomatic breadth, 18.8 (18.5-19.2); cranial breadth, 14.7 
(14.3-15.3); interorbital breadth, 7.6 (7.1-8.1); length of nasals, 10.8 (10.4-11.5). 
Weight: Average of 58 specimens, 53.3 grams (45.5-67.2). 

RemarTcs. — The Panamint chipmunk is a handsome species, charac- 
terized in summer pelage by bright tavmy colors and a conspicuous 



1929] REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 79 

gray rump, and in winter pelage by mucli duller colors and even more 
gray on the rump. It is clearly a member of the amcenus group and 
somewhat resembles both amoenus and monoensis in general coloration; 
in cranial characters it most resembles E. amcenus ochraceus, but 
averages larger. Its range is complementary to the other members of 
the amoenus group, occupying, as it does, the outlying desert ranges of 
southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. On the eastern 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada it ranges north to within a short distance of 
the range of monoensis and the two may occur together at some places. 
E. panamintinus is known to occur at 7,000 feet altitude on Bi.shop 
Creek, while monoensis has been taken at 8,400 feet altitude near the 
head of Owens River. In the White and Inyo Ranges, Calif., E. 
panamintinus occurs with E. quadrivittatus inyoensis, their ranges 
overlapping between 7,600 and 8,400 feet altitude. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 260, as follows: 

California: Argus Mountains, 15; Benton, Owens Valley, 6; Bishop Creek, 
Sierra Nevada (7,000 feet altitude), 1; Carroll Creek, Inyo County 
(5,500 to 8,000 feet altitude), 15; Coso Mountains, 4; Inyo Mountains, 
27; " Cottonwood Creek, Inyo County (8,500 feet altitude), 1; =3 Little 
Cottonwood Creek, Inyo County (9,000 feet altitude), 1; ^ Little Onion 
Valley, 1;^^ Lone Pine, 1; New York Mountain, 1; Olancha (canyon 5 
miles southwest), 1; Onion Valley, Inyo County, 3; Panamint Moun- 
tains, 100; Providence Mountains (about 24 miles northwest of 
Fenner), 4; Rock Creek, Mono County (21 miles northwest of Bishop), 
2; 53 White Mountains, 67.5« 

Nevada: Grapevine Mountains, 4; Mount Magruder, 1; Queen MiU, White 
Mountains, 1; Queen Station, Owens Vallev, 1; Silver Peak Mountains 
(6,800 to 9,000 feet altitude), 3. 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS GROUP 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS (Say) 

[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Diagnosis. — Size medium; hind foot 32-30 millimeters; skull length 34.5-36.8 
millimeters; skull larger than that of any of the races of minimus or amoenus, but 
not appreciably different in shape from that of several of the races of amcenus 
(e. g., ajjinis, ludibundus, and canicaudus) ; head smoke gray or drab, more or less 
shaded with cinnamon or pinkish cinnamon; dark dorsal stripes black, fuscous 
black, russet, or mikado brown, often more or less shaded with tawny; light 
dorsal stripes creamy white or smoke gray, the median pair more or less mixed 
v/ith cinnamon, sayal brown, or mikado brown; sides tawny, ochraceous tawny, 
russet, or cinnamon; rump and thighs smoke gray or hair brown, mixed with 
sayal brown, cinnamon, cinnamon buff, or pinkish buff; hind feet cinnamon, 
cinnamon buff, pinkish cinnamon, or pale smoke gray; under surface of tail 
tawny, ochi-aceous tawny, sayal brown, cinnamon, or cinnamon buff. 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS QUADRIVITTATUS (Sat) 

Larger Colorado Chipmunk 

(Pls. 2, a; 4, e; 8, e) 

Sciurus quadrivittatus Say, in James, Long's Exped. to Rocky Mountains 2:45, 
1823. 

Spermophilus quadrivittatus F. Cuvier, Suppl. a I'hist. nat. Buffon 1:340, 1831. 
T[amias] quadrivittatus Wagner, Suppl. Schreber's Sauget. 3:243, 1843. 
Tamias quadriviiatus, var. quadrivitalus Allen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16: 
289, 1874 (part). 



M Mus. Vert. Zool., 4. 
M Mus. Vert. Zool. 

" Miis. Vert. Zool., 20; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 

55 Mus. Vert. Zool., 39; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2; Amer, Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 

«« MU.S. Vert. Zool., GO. 



80 NORTH AIMERICAN FAUNA [No. 62 

Tamias asiaticus quadrivittaivs Allen, Monogr. North Amer. Rodentia: Rept. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 11: 793. 1S77 (part). 
Tamias quadrivittatus gracilis Allen, Bui. Amor. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3:99, June, 1890 

(San Pedro, N. Mex.). 
Euiamias quadriviliatus Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30: 43, 

December 27, 1901. 

Euiamias quadrivittatus animosus Warren, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 22:105, 
June 25, 1909 (Irwin Ranch, Las Animas Countj^ Colo.). 

Type. — None designated; collected on the Arkansas River, Colo., 
about 26 niiles below Canyon Citv, July 18, 1820 (Merriam, 1905, p. 
163). 

Geographic distribution. — Mountains and foothills of central Colo- 
rado and northern New Mexico; north to Estes Park, east to Tu- 
cumcari. N. Mex., and Kenton, Okla.; south to Manzano Mountains; 
■west to Chuska Mountams, N. Mex., Silverton and Sapinero, Colo. 
Zonal range: Transition and Canadian; 5,000 to 10,800 feet altitude. 
(Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Size medium; external measurements about as in Euiamias 
amoenus ludibundus but ears larger; skull larger than that of any of the races of 
amcenus or minimus; coloration very similar to that of E. minimus operarius, but 
feet and underside of tail averaging paler. 

Color. — Summer pelage (June-September) : Head cinnamon, shading on crown 
to light drab or smoke gray; stripe through eye fuscous black, bordered with 
cinnamon; other facial stripes rather narrow, mixed cinnamon and fuscous; 
sides of nose and sometimes of face washed with clay color; ears fuscous or fuscous 
black, edged on anterior margin with ochraceous tawny and broadly margined 
posteriorly with grayish white; postauricular patches grayish wliite; dark dorsal 
stripes black, margined with ochraceous tawny, the outer pair sometimes mainly 
tawny; lateral stripe fuscous, fuscous black, or tawny; light dorsal stripes grayish 
white, the outer pair usua.lly creamy white; sides ochraceous tawny, shading on 
shoulders to cinnamon; rump and thighs cinnamon buff mixed with smoke gray; 
front feet cinnamon buff; hind feet pinkish buff or pinkish cinnamon; tail above, 
fuscous black (the bases of the hairs cinnamon) overlaid with pinkish buff; 
tail beneath, ochraceous tawny or tawny, bordered with fuscous black and 
edged with pinkish buff; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (October- 
December) : Closely similar to the summer pelage, but median pair of light 
dorsal stripes more grayish (less clear white). 

Moll. — -An adult male specimen from Boulder, Colo., June 11, shows the new 
summer pelage coming in irregularly over the anterior back; an adult female 
from Copperton, N. Mex., July 13, is still in v.-inter pelage, with the new pelage 
just beginning to appear in the middle of the back. 

Skull. — Larger tlian that of any of the other Rocky Mountain chipmunks; 
much larger than that of E. miniynus operarius, with relatively long and narrow 
brain case and long nasals. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type locality: Total length, 222.3 
(216-230); tail vertcbrte, 99.9 (93-104); hind foot, 33.7 (33-35); ear from notch 
(dry), 15.4 (14.2-16.2). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type locality: Greatest 
length, 35.9 (34.6-36.6); zygomatic breadth, 19.6 (19.2-20.1); cranial breadth 
15.3 (14.9-16); interorbital breadth, 8 (7.5-8.3); length of nasals, 11.2 (10.7-11.9). 

Remarlcs. — This chipmunk was the first of the American species to 
be named but, as ah^eady shown,^^ was for many years confused with 
the smaller E. minimus operarius. Indeed, it was not imtil 1905, 
nearly a centurj' after the species was described, that its true charac- 
ters were pointed out and the name quadriiittatus correctly assigned 
(Merriam, 1905, p. 163-164). As shoAvn by Doctor Merriam, this 
species is the only chipmunlc occurring in the region where Say 
procured the type specimen. Doctor Allen, in his revision of the 
group in 1890, assumed that a series of 12 specimens from. Park 
County, Colo., represented quadriiittatus, and he therefore took this 



K Under Eatamius minimus operarim, p. 49. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



81 



series as the basis of comparison. Most, if not all, of this series are 
referable to operarius,^^ as indeed, were the majority of the 37 speci- 
mens referred by him to guadrivittatus. The measurements given by 
Allen are those of operarius and the general concept of guadrivittatus 
at that time, therefore, was of a small animal. Proceeding on the 




Figure 6. — Distribution of the species and subspecies of tlie Eutamias quadrimttatus group. 1, E. 
ruftcavdus ruficaudus; 2, E. Tuficaudus simulans; 3, E. umbrinus; 4, E. q. guadrivittatus; 5, E. q. 
kopiensis; 6, E. q. inyoensis; 7, E. q. frater; 8, E. q. sequoiensis: 9, E. q. speciosus; 10. E. callipeplus; 
11, E. palmeri; 12, E. adsitus; 13, E. cinereicoUis cinereicollis; 14, E. cinereicollis cinereiLS; 15, E. 
cinereicoUis canipes; 16, E. butleri durangse; 17, E. bulleri bulkri; 18, E. buileri soHvagus 



assumption that guadrivittatus was the smaller moimtain form of 
Colorado, Doctor Allen named a series in bright summer pelage from 
San Pedro, N. Mex., as a subspecies, gracilis, referring to this form, 
also, a series in worn winter pelage from Apache Coimty, Ariz., later 
described by Merriam as Eutamias hopiensis. When compared, the 



58 In the absence of skulls and external measurements it is impossible to identify all of them positively. 
40279°— 29 6 



82 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



(No. 52 



San Pedro series and a series of typical quadrivitiatus from Canyon 
City, Colo., are found to be practically identical. 

As pointed out under operarius (p. 49) the present form, although 
almost indistinguishable in color, is decidedly larger than operarius, 
and may be easily recognized by its much larger skull with more 
elongated brain case, or by its longer hind feet; the feet are also 
darker (more tawny) and the ears are larger. 

The type of E. quadrivitiatus animosus Warren, from Las Animas 
County, Colo., appears to be paler than typical quadrivitiatus in 
comparable pelage, but since it is in a much worn and faded pelage, 
satisfactory comparisons are not possible. Several additional speci- 
mens from the type region in unworn spring pelage, however, agree 
closely with certain topotypes of quadrivitiatus, as does also a specimen 
in summer pelage from Kenton, Okla. 

Intergradation with hopiensis is shown by specimens from Blanco, 
La Jara Lake, and Chuska Mountains, N. Mex., and Timitcha 
Mountains, Ariz.; indeed, some of the specimens in the type series 
of hopiensis are almost identical with quadrivitiatus. 

Specimens from the high mountains of northern Colorado (Estes 
Park, Longs Peak, and Gold Hill) average somewhat darker on the 
back and sides than typical quadrivitiatus; the light dorsal stripes are 
also somewhat duller and the dark stripes less blackish, thus showing 
an approach to the characters of umirinus. There is no direct 
evidence, however, of intergradation between these two forms, which 
are widely separated geographically by an area occupied in part by 
Jiopiensis. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 476, as follows: 

Arizona: Fort Defiance (12 miles north), 5; Tunitcha Mountains (8,000 to 
9,000 feet altitude), 4. 

Colorado: Antonito (7 miles east), 1; Arkins, 1; Bayfield, 1; Bellevue, 
Larimer County, l;^^ Bondad, 3; Boulder, 13; Buena Vista, 2; 
BufTalo Pass, Jackson County, 2; Canyon City, 70; Cascade, 1; 
Chimney Gulch, Jefferson County, 1; ^2 Chromo, 1; Cochetopa National 
Forest, 6; Colorado Springs, 13; Crested Butte TVIountain (Gunnison 
County), 1;«2 Crestone, 1; Divide, TeUer County, 1:82 Elkhorn, 
Larimer County, 3; ^9 Estes Park, 14; Florida, La Plata County, 13; 
Fort Collins, 1;58 Freese's Station, Boulder County, 2: Gaume's 
Ranch, northwest corner Baca County, 1; «2 Golden, 1; Gold Hill, 11; 
Grand Lake (Grand County), 4; ^2 Homestead Ranch, Jackson County, 
I;*" Horsetooth Gulch, Larimer County (southwest of Fort Collins), 
1;^' Howard, Fremont County, 5; Irwin's Ranch, northeastern Las 
Animas County, 2; Jimmie Creek, Las Animas County, 9; Log Cabin, 
Larimer County, 1;82 Long Canyon (near Martinsen) , 1; Long's Peak, 
11; McCoy, 1; ^2 Madenos Canyon, Saguache County, 1; ^2 Mosca Creek, 
Saguache County (8,200 feet altitude), 3; "2 Mount Zirkel, Jackson 
County (10,000 feet altitude), 2; ^2 Pagosa Springs, 8; Palmer Lake (El 
Paso County), l;^" Pikes Peak Trail, 1; Querida, Custer County, 4; 
Rist Canyon, Larimer County, 1; St. Elmo, 1; Salida, 3; "2 San Acacio, 
Costilla County, l;'^^ Sapinero, 3; Silverton, 1; Sheephorn Pass, Grand 
County, 1;82 Soldier Canyon, Larimer County, 1; Spring Canyon (7 
miles southeast of Fort Collins), 2-''^ Sulphur Springs, Grand County, 
2; 82 TarryaU Creek Camp, Park County, 1;62 Trinidad, 16; Wagon 
Wheel Gap, 2; 82 Wetmore (Hardscrabble Canyon), 1.82 



» Colo. Apr. College. 

w Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

«■ Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 4. 

« E. R. Warren coll. 

M E. R. Warren coll., 9; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

«' E. R. Warren coll., 1; U. S. Nat. Mus. (type of "animosus"), 1. 
M Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist., 5; E. R. Warren coU., 3. 



1929] 



EE VISION OF THE A.MERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



83 



New Mexico: Bernal, 1; Blanco, 2; Cabra Spring (10 miles north), 1; 
Canadian River (30 miles northwest of Tucumcari), 2; Carasal, Ber- 
nalillo County, 3; " Chuska Mountains, 14; CienequiUa, Taos County, 
17; Copperton, 5; Costilla Pass, 3; Coyote Creek, Mora County, 2; 
Cuervo, 2; Dulce, 1; Emery Peak, Union Count}', 1; Folsom, 3; GaUinas 
Mountains (Rio Arriba County), 2; Glorieta, 2; Guadalupita, 2; Hondo 
Canyon, Taos County, 3; Horse Lake, 1; Jemez Mountains, 4; La Jara 
Lake, 2; Las Vegas (12 miles north), 1; Manzano Mountians, 31; Mora 
(10 miles south), 1; Moreno Valley, 3; Pecos, 2; Ribera, 3; Rinconada, 
1; Rito de los Frijoles, 1; Road Canyon (7 miles southwest of Catskill), 
1; Sandia Mountains, 12; Mount Taylor, San Mateo Mountains (Va- 
lencia County), 22; San Pedro, 9; Santa Clara Canyon (Jemez Moun- 
tains), 3; Santa Fe (10 miles northeast), 1; Sierra Grande, 9; Taos, 1; 
Taos Mountains, 3; Taos Pass, 2; Taos Pueblo, 6; Tierra Amarilla, 2; 
Tres Piedras, 4; Tucumcari (25 miles west), 3; Twining (10,500 feet 
altitude), 1; Willis, 5; Zuni Mountains, 9. 

Oklahoma: Kenton, 1, 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS HOPIENSIS Mekriam 
Hop: Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, f; 8, f) 

Buiamias hopiensis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 18: 165, June 29, 1905. 

Type. — Collected in Keam Canyon, Painted Desert, Ariz., July 27, 
1894, by A. K. Fisher; 9 adult, skin and skull; No. 67768, United 
States National Museum (Biological Survey collection); original 
number, 1688. 

Geographic distribution. — Northeastern Arizona, extreme eastern 
Utah, and western Colorado; north to White River, Colo.; east to 
Eagle and western Gunnison Counties, Colo.; south to Keam Canyon, 
Ariz.; west to Keam Canyon, Ariz., and Blulf City, Utah (probably to 
the Colorado and Green Rivers). Zonal range: Transition; 4,500 to 
7,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias quadriviltaius quadrivittatus but coloration 
above more tawny; head paler; facial stripes more cinnamon (less blackish); 
dorsal stripes entirely tawny or only the median one black; ears more tawny, 
with less fuscous. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July) : Top of head drab gray, mixed with cinnamon 
buff on nose, bordered on sides of crown with sayal brown or snuff brown; facial 
stripes sayal brown or ochraceous tawny, with small blackish patches around the 
eye; ears ochraceous tawny anteriorly, pinkish buff or buffy white posteriorly, 
shading to cha3tura drab at the tip; dark dorsal stripes russet or tawny, the median 
one blackish in the center from about middle of back to rump; median pair of 
light dorsal stripes grayish white; outer pair creamy white; sides cinnamon 
shaded with ochraceous tawny; shoulders washed with pinkish cinnamon; rump 
and thighs cinnamon buff washed with pale smoke gray; feet pinkish cinnamon or 
light pinkish cinnamon; tail above, fuscous, mixed with cinnamon and overlaid 
with cinnamon buff; tail beneath, ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous and 
tipped v/ith cinnamon buff; under parts creamy white. Winter pelage (November; 
Bluff City, Utah) : Similar to the summer pelage but head and rump slightly 
darker; median dorsal stripe tawny, faintly shaded with fuscous; under surface of 
tail cinnamon. 

Molt. — A specimen (c? adult) from Keam Canyon, Ariz., May 26, is in badly 
worn winter pelage, with new summer pelage appearing irregularly over the entire 
back. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of E. quadrivittatus quadrivittatus. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type locality: Total length, 224.7 
(219-233); tail vertebra;, 101.2 (98-110); hind foot, 3j.3 (32-34); ear from notch, 
14.5 (13-16). Skull: Greatest length, 35.6 (34.7-36.5); zygomatic breadth, 19.7 



" Mus. Comp. Zool. 
68 D. K. Dickey colj. 



84 



NORTH AMERICA.N F.^UNA. 



[No. 62 



(19.3-20.2); crani.ll breadth, 15.1 (14.3-15.5); interorbital breadth, 8.1 (7.6-8.4); 
length of nasals, 11.1 (10.4-11.5). 

Remarks. — The Hopi chipmunk is a brightly colored, tawny race of 
guadrwittatus in which the dark dorsal stripes are mainly tawny in- 
stead of black. Apparently the type locahty (Keam Canyon, Ariz.) 
is just on the edge of the range of the form, for ia the series of 25 
specimens from there, not over half of them agree with the type in 
having the dorsal stripes tawny; the rest are nearer to quadrivittatus 
in this character, and some of them can scarcely be distinguished 
from that form; the heads of all, however, average distinctly paler. 
The home of this race in its purest form is in western Colorado and 
southeastern Utah and in specimens from that region the dorsal 
stripes (except the median one) are uniformly tawny. 

Specimens are lacking from the region vi^here this form meets the 
ranges of E. adsitus and E. urnbrinus, and therefore its relationship 
with those species is not clear; at present, there is no evidence of inter- 
gradation with either of them. 

A series of seven specimens from Yarmany Creek, near A'IcCoy, 
Colo., are tj'^pical of this race, but in the same locality was taken a 
single specimen seemingly referable to quadrivittatus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 129, as follows: 

Arizona: Keam Canyon (80 miles north of Holbrook), 32; Lukachiikai 
Mountains, 8; Tunicha Mountains, 3. 

Colorado: Ashbaugh Ranch, Montezuma County, 2; Atchee, Garfield 
County, 2; Bedrock, Montrose County, 5; ™ Carbonera, Garfield 
County, 1;''' Cortez, 5;" Coventry, 16;" De Beque, Mesa County, 1; 
Dotsero (Grand River Canvon), 1; Eagle, 1;"^ Four Corners (Monte- 
zuma County), 1;'* Grand Junction, 13; McCoy, 2; Mesa Verde (25 
miles southwest of Mancos), 2; Rangely (20 miles southwest), 2; Rifle 
(8 miles north), 1; Roan Plateau (14 miles southeast of Dragon, Utah), 1; 
Sinbad Valley, 1; Somerset, 1; Ute Peak, Montezuma County, 1;™ 
West Paradox Valley, 7;'* White River (20 miles east of Rangely), 5; 
Yarmany Creek, Eagle County (near McCoy), 7.'^ 

Utah: Bluff City, San Juan River, S.'"' 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS INYOENSIS Merriam 
Inyo Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, i; 8, i) 

Eutamias speciosus inyoensis Merriain, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 202, 208, 
July 1, 1897. 

Tamia5 callipeplus inyoensis Elliot, Field Columbian Mus. Pub. Zool. 3: 286, 1904. 

Type. — Collected in Black Canyon, White Mountains, Inyo 
County, Calif, (altitude 8,200 feet), July 7, 1891, by E. W. Nelson; 
<? adult, sldn and skull; No. ^rijih United States National Museum 
(Biological Survey collection); original number, 1069. 

Geographic distribution. — Higher mountains of the Great Basin in 
Nevada and southern Utah; west to the Inyo and White Mountains 
and the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada from Mount Whitney 



6» E. R. Warren coll. 

'0 E. R. Warren coll., 3; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2. 
1 E. R. Warren coll., 4; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
" E. R. Warren coll., 7; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6. 
" Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

'« E. R. Warren coll., 6; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2; Univ. Wis., 1. 
" E. R. Warren coll., 6; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
'« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 0. 



29] 



EEVISION OF THE AMEEICAN CHIPMUNKS 



85 



no-^th to Mammoth Pass, Calif.; north in Nevada to the Ruby 
Mountains; east to Fish Lake Plateau and the Henry Mountains, 
Utah (but not in the Beaver Mountains). Zonal range: Canadian; 
7,500 to 11,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Closely similar in summer pelage to Eutamias quadrivittatus 
quadrivittatus, but sides slightly darker; head more grayish (less cinnamon); 
outer pair of dark dorsal stripes more mixed with brownish; inside of ears washed 
with a paler shade of buff. Compared with E. adsitus: Upper parts paler, 
the median pair of light stripes broader and less mixed with tawny, the outer 
pair of dark stripes less blackish (more brownish); head more grayish, post- 
auricular patches larger and paler (more whitish) ; tail more extensively tawny 
and less blackish (both above and below) with buffy instead of grayish edgings. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July) : Sides of nose pinkish cinnamon or cinnamon 
buff; top of head smoke gray or pale smoke gray, faintly washed, especially on 
nose, with pinkish cinnamon and bordered with a stripe of fuscous; ocular 
stripe black or fuscous black, shaded with verona brown; submalar stripe narrow, 
sayal brown; ears fuscous or chstura drab, shaded with mouse gray and bordered 
on posterior margin with buffy white; postauricular patches grayish white; 
median dorsal stripe pronounced, reaching to the crown between ears, black, 
margined with sayal brown; outer dark stripes blackish, heavily mixed with sayal 
brown or mikado brown; median pair of light stripes grayish white; outer pair 
pure white; lateral stripes obsolete; sides russet or tawny, shading to ochraceous 
tawny on sides of neck; thighs cinnamon buff, shaded with fuscous and smoke 
gray; feet cinnamon buff or light pinkish cinnamon; tail above, cinnamon mixed 
with fuscous black; tail beneath, cinnamon, cinnamon buff or ochraceous tawny, 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with pinkish buff; under parts creamy 
white. Worn winter pelage (Little Onion Valley, May) : Similar to the summer 
pelage but rump more grayish and sides slightly paler (duU sayal brown, shaded 
with cinnamon). 

Molt. — In a specimen (c? adult) from Monitor Mountains, Nev., June 9, the 
spring molt is in progress, the new pelage covering the head and most of the 
back; the rump, flanks, and tail are in worn winter pelage. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of E. adsitus; similar to that of E. q. quadri- 
vittatus but rostrum somewhat narrower. 

Measurements. — Average of 13 adults from White and Inyo Mountains: Total 
length, 224.3 (212-235); tail vertebrse, 97.7 (92-103); hind foot, 33 (32-34.5); 
ear from notch, 14.1 (13-16). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type locality: 
Greatest leng-th, 35.8 (34.9-36.5); zygomatic breadth, 19.7 (19.2-20.2); cranial 
breadth, 16.6 (15.2-15.9); interorbital breadth, 8 (7.6-8.4); length of nasals, 
11.2 (10.7-11.9). 

Bemarks. — The Inyo chipmunk is closely related to E. quadrivittatus 
quadrivittatus and intergrades with it in southeastern Utah; specimens 
from the Plenry Moimtains, Utah, being about as near one race as 
the other. At present, however, by reason of lack of material from 
extreme eastern Utah, geographical continuity of range has not been 
established. The Hopi chipmunk {E. q. Jiopiensis) is known from 
the lower zones in southeastern Utah and western Colorado, but it 
seems probable that either quadrivittatus or inyoensis will be found in 
the higher mountains east of the Green River Valley. Specimens in 
both summer and v/inter pelage from the Toyabe Movmtains, Nev., 
are typical inyoensis; large series in winter pelage are at hand from 
the Ruby Mountains, Nev,, and Pine Valley Mountains, Utah, and 
a small series in summer pelage from Parawan Mountains, Utah, and 
these agree closely with inyoensis, and apparently do not intergrade 
with adsitus.''^ This seems remarkable in view of the close geograph- 
ical connection between the Pine Valley Mountains and the Beaver 
Moimtains, the home of adsitus. 



g " Fresh winter specimens from type region not seen. 
" The latter is readily distiaguisiied by its narrower and more blackish tail with pale gray edgings. 



S6 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. fi2 



Intergradation with speciosus occurs in the Mount Whitney region, 
intermediate specimens having been examined from Cottonwood 
Lakes and head of Big Cottonwood Creek. 

Si^ccimens examined. — Total niunber, 174, as follows: 

California: Bishop Creek, Inyo County (9,000 feet altitude), 1; Bullfrog 
Lake, Fresno County, 3; Cirque Peak, Cottonwood Lakes, Inyo 
County, 3; ""^ Hockett Trail, Inyo County (8,500 feet altitude, south of 
Carroll Creek), 2; " Independence Creek (10,000 feet altitude), 1; Inyo 
Mountains, 11; Kearsarge Pass, 9; " Little Onion VaUey, 3; Mammoth 
Pass (9,800 feet altitude), l;8t> Mount Whitney (head of Big Cotton- 
wood Creek), 4; Onion Valley (Inyo County), 14; White Mountains, 
31.*' 

Nevada: Arc Dome, Toyabe Mountains, 2; Manhattan (Toquima Range), 
1; Monitor Mountains (25 miles southwest of Eureka), 15; Reese River 
(head), 4; Ruby Mountains, 26; Toyabe Mountains, 2; White Moun- 
tains, 2. 

Utah: Fish Lake Plateau, 6; Mount Ellen, Henry Mountains, 7; Parawan 
Mountains, 5; Pine Valley Mountains, 20. 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS FRATER (Allen) 
Tahoe Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, g; 8, g) 

Tamias frater Alien, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 88, June, 1890. 
Eutamias speciosus frater Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, 202, 
July 1, 1897. 

Type. — Collected at Donner, Cahf., June 7, 1886, by C. A. Allen; 
9 adult, sldn and skull; No. -VW-j American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Geographic distrihution. — Upper slopes of the northern Sierra 
Nevada, California, from Mammoth Pass and upper San Joaquin 
River north to Lassen Peak and Eagle Lake. Zonal range: Canadian 
and Hudsonian; 5,000 to 1 0,700 «^ feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias quadrivittatus inyoensis but coloration above 
more tawny (less grayish) ; head darker and more tinged with ochraceous; light 
dorsal stripes strongly tinged with buffy (less clear white); facial stripes 
darker (more blackish); tail averaging shorter and slightly paler beneath; 
hind foot averaging longer. Compared with E. speciosus: Upper parts and 
sides suffused with a brighter and paler shade of tawny, the light stripes more 
buffy (less clear white); head more ochraceous; shoulders more tawny (less 
grayish); tail slightly longer, less blackish above, paler and less extensively 
black-tipped beneath; hind foot averaging longer and ear shorter. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August and September) : Top of head mixed cinnamon 
and smoke gray, bordered with sayal brown and fuscous; ocular stripe black; 
submalar stripe sayal brown, shaded with fuscous; postauricular patches grayish 
w^hite; median dorsal stripe black, bordered with sayal brown; outer pair of 
dark stripes fuscous black, mixed vrith pale tawny or sayal brown; median pair of 
light stripes grayish white, more or less mixed with sayal brown; outer pair 
creamy white; sides ochraceous tawny, shading to pale russet, the shoulders often 
washed with cinnamon buff; rump and thighs mixed smoke gray and pinkish buff; 
feet pinkish buff; tail above, cinnamon or mikado brown, mixed with fuscous 
black and overlaid with pinkish buff; tail beneath, sayal brown or cinnamon, 
bordered with fuscous black and tipped with pinkish buff; underparts whitish, 
tinged with pale buff. Winter pelage (October-June) : Similar to the summer 
pelage, but upper parts much more grayish and less tawny; rump and median pair 



'» Mus. Vert. Zool. 

«> Donald U. Dickey coll. 

f Mus. Vert. Zool., 24. 

*2 Specimens from Sierraville, Sierra County, and North Fork Mills, San Joaquin River, Fresno County. 
*' Specimens from near Vogelsang Lake, Yosemite Park, at 10,300 feet altitude and from head of Lyell 
Canyon at 10,700 feet. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMIHSTKS 



87 



of dorsal stripes often clear smoke gray; shoulders ashed with the same; sides 
about clay color. 

Molt.- — The beginning of the summer molt is shown by a specimen ( 9 adult) 
from Pine City, Mono County, Calif., July 26, in which the new pelage is appear- 
ing on the head and in a patch on the middle of the back. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of speciosus. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from type locality: Total length, 216.7 
(204-231); tail vertebra;, 91.4 (86-100); hind foot, 34.6 (33-36); ear from notch, 
14.2 (13-17). Skull: Average of 10 adults from Donner and Cisco, Calif.: Great- 
est length, 35.3 (34.5-36.2); zygomatic breadth, 19.4 (18.7-20); cranial breadth, 
14.9 (14.6-15.2); interorbital breadth, 8 (7.3-8.5); length of nasals, 11.4 (10.7- 
12.2). Weight: Average of about 10 adults, 59.2 grams (52.3-66.1). {Fide 
Grinnell and Storer, 1924, p. 177.) 

Bemarks. — This race is most nearly related to inyoensis, from 
which it differs chiefly in. more tawny upper parts; it has shghtly 
more black on the tip of the tail than that form, but less than speciosus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 418, as follows: 

California: American River (south fork, near head), 1; Aspen Meadows, 
Tuolumne County, 8; Aspen VaUey, Yosemite Park, 10; Bloods, 
Calaveras County, 1;*^ California Mill (headwaters Fresno River), 3, 
Cascada, Fresno County, 3; ^* Chaparral, Butte County, 2; 8« Chin- 
quapin, Yosemite Park, 3; ^* Cisco, 42;*' Clouds Rest, Yosemite Park, 
1;84 Crane Flat, Mariposa County, 3; Donner, 56; Eagle Lake, l;*^ 
Echo Creek Basin, Yosemite Park, 1;^^ Echo, El Dorado County, 9; 
Emerald Bay, 1; Fish Camp (Mariposa County), 2;*' Fletcher Creek, 
(near Vogelsang Lake), Yosemite Park, 1;** Gentrys, Yosemite Park, 
2; 8* Glen Aulin (Tuolumne River), Yosemite Park, 4; Hermit Valley, 
Calaveras County, 7; Highland Peak, Alpine County, 2; Hope VaUey, 
Alpine County, 1; Hot Springs, Mono County, 3; Huntington Lake, 
Fresno County, 8;** Indian Canyon (east fork), Yosemite Park, 3;^* 
Independence Lake, 4; Kyburz Station, El Dorado County, 1; Lake 
Tahoe, 3; Lake Tahoe Valley; 1;** Lake Tenaya, Yosemite Park, C; 
Lassen Peak, 19; Leevining Creek (Warren Fork), Mono County, l;^^ 
Lincoln Creek, Sierra County (7,000 feet altitude), 2; Lyell Canyon, 
Yosemite Park, 12; Mammoth, Mono County, 10; MarkleeviUe, 1; 
Mattie Lake, Yosemite Park, 1;«2 McKinney, 2; Merced Lake, 5; 
Merced River (at 5,500 feet altitude, and near head), 3; Mount Dana, 
2; Mount Lyell, 2; Mount Tallac, 6; Mono Meadov/s, Yosemite Park, 
8; Mono Pass, 1; Owens River (near head), 7; Pine City, Mono County, 
1; Porcupine Flat, Yosemite Park, 18; Prattville, 1; *^ Pyramid Peak, 
20;"* San Joaquin River (near head), 14; Sierraville, 1; Silver Lake, 
Amador County, 20; Slippery Ford, El Dorado County, 2; Sonora 
Pass, Mono County, 1;"" Sequel Mill (headwaters north fork San 
Joaquin River), 3; Summit, Sierra County, 1; Sunrise Creek, Yosemite 
Park, 1;«2 Sierraville, 1; 92 Susie Lake (Tahoe region), 1;92 Ten Lakes, 
Yosemite Park, 3; Tioga Road (near Mount Hoffman), Yosemite 
Park, 2; 82 Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite Park, 24; Tuolumne River 
(6,400 to 7,300 feet altitude), 3;«2 Upper Lost Creek (Shasta County), 
1; Upper McClure Fork, Yosemite Park, 3; "2 Walker Lake, Mono 
County, 6; «2 White Cascade, Tuolumne River (8,000 feet altitude), 2; 
Walker River, Mono County, 1 ; 8" Wright Lake, El Dorado County, 
2; 82 Woodfords, Alpine County, 3; Yosemite Creek, 1; Yosemite Falls, 
1; 82 Yosemite Point, 2.92 

Nevada: Edgewood, Douglas County, 2;^^ Genoa, Douglas County, l;'" 
Glenbrook, 1. 



0* Mus. Vert. Zool. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

85 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Colo. Agr. College, 1. 
6' Mus. Vert. Zool., 41. 

8" Mus. Comp. Zool., 7; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Mus. Vert. Zool., 1. 

>« Mus. Comp. Zool., 1; Fish Camp is probably the same as Happy Camp, about 5 miles from the Mari- 
posa Grove. 
«» Mus. Comp Zool. 
«i Mus. Vert Zool., 3. 
" Mus. Vert. Zool. 

«3 Mus. Vert. Zool., 4; Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1. 
" Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
•5 Mus. Vert. Zool., 18. 



88 



NORTH AJMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No. 62 



EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS SEQUOIENSIS Howell 
Sequoia Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, h; 8, h) 

Eutamias speciosus sequoiensis Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 180, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected at Mineral King, east fork of Kaweah River, 
Calif, (altitude, 7,300 feet), September 12, 1891, by Vernon Bailey; 
9 adult, skin and skull; No. -Hrffj United States National Museum 
(Biological Survey collection); original number, 3259. 

Geographic distribution. — Upper slopes of the southern Sierra 
Nevada, CaHf., from San Joaquin River south to Tule River; east to 
Mount Whitney and Olancha Peak. Zonal range: Canadian and 
Transition; 5,000 to 11,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias quadrivittatus f rater but upper parts averaging 
slightly darker, the median pair of dorsal stripes less whitish and more mixed with 
cinnamon; tail and eai's averaging slightly longer, the tail much darker beneath, 
edged with a paler shade of buff and with more black at the tip. Compared with 
speciosus: Upper parts more brownish and less grayish in general tone, especially 
in summer pelage; median pair of dorsal stripes more mixed with cinnamon; rump 
and hind feet more buffy (less grayish); tail decidedly longer. Compared 
with callipeplus: Upper parts and sides more extensively tawny, the median 
pair of dorsal stripes less whitish; shoulders darker; tail with much more black 
at the tip; hind feet, ears, and tail longer. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August and September) : Crown and occiput mixed 
smoke gray and cinnamon, becoming fuscous on the nose; sides of crown bor- 
dered with a stripe of fuscous black, shaded with sayal brown; sides of nose 
washed with cinnamon buff; ocular stripe black, washed posteriorly with mikado 
brown; submalar stripe fuscous black, mixed with mikado brown; light facial 
stripes white; dark dorsal stripes mikado brown or pale russet, shaded with 
fuscous black, the median one blackish in the center; median pair of light 
dorsal stripes smoke gray, strongly mixed with mikado brown or sayal brown; 
outer pair white; sides tawny, shading to russet next to the dorsal stripes; shoul- 
ders washed with cinnamon or ochraceous tawny; rump and thighs mixed cinna- 
mon buff and smoke gray; feet pinkish buff; tail above mixed tawny and blackish, 
becoming clear black toward the tip, and edged on the sides with pinkish buff; 
tail beneath tawny, bordered with black and edged with pinkish buff, the black tip 
about 25 millimeters long; underparts grayish white, washed with pale pinkish 
buff. Worn winter pelage (May) : Similar to the summer pelage, but colors less 
intense, the sides about sayal brown; tail edgings tilleul buff. 

Molt. — A breeding female specimen from Mount Whitney, Calif, (head of Big 
Cottonwood), August 5, is in worn winter pelage, the new summer pelage appear- 
ing on the head; another female from the same locality shows the new pelage on 
the head and on the middle of the back. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of speciosus. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from east fork Kaweah River and 
Sequoia National Park: Total length, 224.5 (214-241); tail vertebrae, 97.7 
(92-114); hind foot, 34.5 (33-36); ear from notch, 16.2 (15-18). Skull: Average 
of 10 adults from same localities: Greatest length, 36 (35.3-36.8); zygomatic 
breadth, 19.4 (18.7-19.8); cranial breadth, 15 (14.4-16.6); interorbital breadth, 
8.2 (7.9-8.7); length of nasals, 11.7 (10.7-12.5). 

Remarlcs. — The Sequoia chipmimk is the most richly colored race 
in the species; it is related to both f rater and speciosus, but differs 
from both in its more tawny upper parts, especially in summer pelage. 
Merriam (1897, p. 200, 202), referred the series from "the eastern crest 
of the High Sierra from Olancha Peak and Mount Whitney north- 
ward" to speciosus and the series from "the western slope of the 
Sierra from the headwaters of Tule River northward nearly to the 



" In a small proportion of the specimens examined all the dark dorsal stripes are chiefly black, but be- 
coming brownish anteriorly. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



89 



Yosemite Valley " to caUipeplus. With a much larger series than was 
then available, the present reviser can detect no constant differences 
between these two colonies, but as a whole they show marked differ- 
ences from all the other races, as pointed out above. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 300, as follows: 

California: Alta Peak, Sequoia National Park, 4; AtweU MiH (Sequoia 
National Park), 6; Bubbs Creek, Fresno County (9,500 feet altitude), 
2; 8^ Cannell Meadow, Tulare County, 18; Cottonwood Lakes, 2; " 
Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park, 10; Horse Corral Meadows, 
Fresno County, 28; " Hume, Fresno County, 19;'^ Jackass Meadows, 
Tulare County, 21; " Jordan Hot Springs, Tulare County, 3; " Kaweah 
River (east fork, 6,200 to 8,900 feet altitude), 6; Kings River (5,000 to 
5,800 feet altitude), 8; Little Cottonwood Creek, Inyo County (9,500 
feet altitude), 4; Manter Meadows, Tulare County, 1;" Monache 
Meadows, Tulare County, 15;^' Middle Tule River (headwaters), 6; 
Mineral King (east fork Kaweah River) 5; Mount Whitney, 25; Mulkey 
Meadows (15 miles south of Mount Whitney), 3; North Tule River 
(headwaters), 5; Olancha Peak, 4; Ramshaw Meadows, Tulare County, 
4; Redwood Mountain, Tulare County (near northwest corner of 
Sequoia National Park), 10; Round Valley, Inyo County (12 miles 
south of Mount Whitney), 1; Sequoia National Park, 30;' Siretta 
Meadow, Tulare County, 11;"^ Summit Meadow (at head of Kern 
River, near Olancha Peak), 2; Taylor Meadows (Tulare County), 18; " 
Twin Lakes, Tulare County, 2; Whitney Creek, Tulare County 
(10,650 to 11,000 feet altitude), 9; " Whitney Meadows, Tulare County, 
18." 

EUTAMIAS QUADRIVITTATUS SPECIOSUS (Merbiam) 
San Bernardino Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, j; 8, j) 

Tamias speciosus Merriam, in Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 86, June, 
1890. 

Eutamias speciosus Memam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, 202, July 1, 
1897. 

Type. — Collected at head of Whitewater Creek, San Bernardino 
Mountains, Cahf. (altitude, 7.500 feet), June 22, 1885, by F. Stephens; 
c? adult, skin and skull; No. 186462, United States National Museum 
(No. tMI) Merriam collection). 

Geographic distribution. — Upper slopes of the San Jacinto, San 
Bernardino, and Piute Mountains, Cahf. Zonal range: Canadian 
and Transition; 7,000 to 10,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

C/iaraciers.— Similar to Eutamias quadrivittatus inyoensis, but somewhat 
darker, the median pair of light dorsal stripes narrower and more mixed with 
cinnamon or tawny, the outer pair very broad and conspicuous and slightly more 
creamy in tone; sides a darker shade of brown, but more washed on shoulders 
with buff and smoke gray; dark facial stripes darker, more strongly contrasted 
with the alternating white stripes; tail shorter and darker both above and below 
and with more black on terminal portion; ear longer and more pointed. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Sides of nose cinnamon buflf ; top of head 
smoke gray, faintly shaded with cinnamon, bordered on each side with a stripe 
of fuscous black; ocular stripe broad, fuscous black, shaded with mikado brown; 
submalar stripe mikado brown, shaded with, fuscous black; ears fuscous or 
fuscous black, with a broad band of grayish white on posterior margin, and a 



»' Mus. Vert. Zool. 
»8 Mus. Vert. Zool., 4. 



s« Mus. Vert. Zool., 12. 
1 Mus. Vert. Zool., 9. 



90 



NORTH A.MERICAJS[ FAUNAl 



[Wo. 62 



tawny patch at anterior base; postauricular patches white — large and conspic- 
uous; median dorsal stripe black, edged with mikado brown; outer dark stripes 
mikado brown, sometimes mixed with fuscous black; median pair of light stripes 
rather narrow, grayish white; outer pair broad, pure white; lateral stripes obsolete; 
sides ochraceous tawnj^ shading to russet next the white stripes; shoulders, 
rump, and thighs smoke gray, washed with pinkish buff ; feet pale smoke gray 
sometimes faintly washed with pinkish buflf; tail above, mixed black and tawny, 
becoming pure black for about 30 millimeters of terminal portion; tail beneath, 
cinnamon or tawny, bordered with black and edged with cinnamon buflf or 
pinkish buff, the terminal portion for about 25 millimeters pure black or fuscous 
black; underparts white. Winter pelage (October): Similar to the summer 
pelage, but upper parts more washed with grayish, the dark dorsal stripes more 
brownish, the median stripe fuscous black heavily washed with mikado brown. 

Molt. — A male specimen from San Bernardino Mountains, Calif., June 10, 
has the new summer pelage covering the head and most of the back; a female 
from San Jacinto Mountains (7,500 feet altitude), June 25, shows the summer 
molt just beginning in the middle of the back; another breeding female from 
an altitude of 10,200 feet on the same range is still in worn winter pelage, with 
no indications of molting; a breeding female from San Bernardino Mountains 
(9,000 feet altitude), August 21, has the new summer pelage covering the head 
and fore back, the rest of the bodj^ being in greatly worn winter pelage. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of inyoensis; the variation in size is 
considerable. 

Measurements. — Average of 16 adults from type locality: Total length, 211.4 
(202-220); tail vertebrae, 85.7 (80-91); hind foot, 33.4 (32-35); ear from notch, 
15.7 (15-17.5). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type locality: Greatest 
length, 35.5 (34.6-36.7) ;' zygomatic breadth, 19.3 (19-20); cranial breadth, 
15 (14.3-15.4) ; interorbital breadth, 7.8 (7.5-8) ; length of nasals, 11.5 (10.4-12.3). 

Remarlcs. — This handsome chipmunk has a discontinuous range, 
occurring on the upper slopes of the San Jacinto, San Bernardino, 
San Gabriel, and Piute Mountains. The Piute colony is intermediate 
in characters between speciosus and sequoiensis, and although separated 
from the southern colonies of speciosus by the wide expanse of the 
Mohave Desert, itis apparently nearer to that race than to sequoiensis 
of the High Sierra, with which its range must be nearly continuous. 
A considerable series in unworn winter pelage agree with speciosus in 
the grayness of the neck, shoulders, and rump, pale head, and short 
tail, but approach sequoiensis in having more buffy (less grayish) feet. 
The differences between these two races are comparatively sHght 
in winter pelage, though well marked in summer pelage. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 407, as follows: 

California: Converse Flats, 1; Piute Mountains, 27; ^ San Bernardino 
Mountains, 269 (including Alpine City, 1; Fawnskin Park, 1;* Bear 
Lake, 8; ^ Bear VaUey, 7; ^ Bluff Lake, 66; » Dry Lake, 3; * Fish Creek, 
3; ' San Gorgonio Peak, 2; ^ Santa Ana River, 13; ^ Sugarloaf, 16 f 
San Bernardino Peak, 15; Little Bear Valley, 14 8); San Gabriel Moun- 
tains, 12; San Jacinto Mountains, 98 (including Round VaUey, 21;' 
Tahquitz VaUey, 20 «) . 



2 Mus. Comp. Zool., 19; Univ. Mich., 2. 
> Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
< E. R. Warren coll. 

» Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 3; E. R. Warren coll., 3; Colo. Agr. College, 1. 

« Mus. Vert. Zool,, .08; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Colo. Agr. College, 2; Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, 1; E. R. Warren coll., 1. 
' Mus. Vert. Zool., 2; Aracr. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
8 Mus. Comp. Zool., 10. 

« Mus. Vert. Zool., 20; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 



1929] 



EE VISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



91 



EUTAIMIAS CALLIPEPLUS (Mereiam) 
Mount Piffos Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, k; 8, k) 

Tamias callipeplus IMerriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasiiington 8: 136, December 28, 
1893 

Eutamias speciosus callipeplus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, 202, 
July 1, 1897. 

j'ype —Collected on Mount Pifios, Calif., October 20, 1891, by E.W. 
Nelson; <? adult, skin and skull; No. fHM> United States National 
Museum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 1344. 

Geographic distribution. — Moimt Pinos, Calif. Zonal range: Cana- 
dian and high Transition. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias quadrivittatus speciosus, but tawny of upper 
parts slightly paler; head more washed with cinnamon (less clear gray) ; sides of 
nose more extensively washed with cinnamon buff; sides of neck, also rump and 
thighs more buffy (less grayish); hght dorsal stripes and postauricular patches 
more creamy (less clear white) in tone; tail with less black, both above and below; 
feet m.ore buffy (less whitish). Compared with E. q. frater: Tail darljer beneath, 
and edged on sides with a lighter shade of buff ; rump and thighs more buffy (less 
grayish); dark dorsal stripes averaging more blackish; outer pair of light stripes 
averaging more creamy in tone; hind feet paler (less bufl'y). 

Color.— Summer pelage (July): Top of head pinkish cinnamon, mixed with 
pals smoke gray; ocular stripe black; other facial stripes fuscous mixed_ with 
mikado brown; ears fuscous anteriorly, buffy white posteriorly; postauricular 
patches large, creamv white; median dorsal stripe narrow, blackish, bordered 
with mikado brown; outer dark stripes mixed fuscous black and mikado brown; 
median pair of hght stripes grayish white; outer pair broad, creamy white; sides 
sayal brown or cinnamon, shading above to mikado brown and on shoulders to 
pinkish buff; rump and thighs cinnamon buff mixed with smoke gray; feet 
grayish white, washed with pinkish buff; tail above, tawny, mixed with black or 
fuscous black and overlaid with warm buff; tail beneath, tawny bordered with 
fuscous black and edged with warm buff; underparts creamy white. Winter 
pelage (October 20): Similar to the summer pelage, but sides paler, shoulders 
and fore back washed with pale smoke gray; rump and hinder back more strongly 
cinnamon buff; dark dorsal stripes slightly more brownish (less blackish); and 
median light stripes slightly more grayish (less clear white) . 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of E. quadrivittatus speciosus. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from type locality: Total length, 213 
(203-231); tail vertebra, 90.6 (84-100); hind foot, 33.8 (33-35); ear from notch, 
15 4 (14 5-16). Skull: Average of seven adults from type locality: Greatest 
length 35.4 (34.6-36); zygomatic breadth, 19 (18.6-19.4); cranial breadth, 14.7 
(14.4-15); interorbital breadth, 8.4 (8.2-8.9); length of nasals, 11.9 (11.6-12.3). 

Remarlcs. — This chipmimk apparently is restricted to the slopes of 
Mount Pifios, where it is completely isolated from its nearest relatives. 
The nearest pomt at which any other members of this group are 
known to occur is in the Piute Mountains lying about 60 miles to the 
northeastward. In general callipeplus is most like E. quadriviitatus 
frater of the northern Sierra Nevada, agreeing with that race in the 
small amount of black on the tip of the tail; it differs from it, however, 
in other characters (as pointed out above) and the ranges of the two 
forms are widely separated. Although the characters which separate 
this form from the races of quadrivittatus are relatively slight, they 
are constant, and there is no overlapping. Hence it seems best to 
give callipeplus the rank of a species. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 85, as follows: 
California: "Canon de las Uvas," l;'" Mount Pinos, 84." 

10 This specimen, collected many years ago by Xantus, probably came from the slopes of Mount Pifios. 
" Mus. Vert. Zool., 17; E. R. Warren coll., 2; Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1; Amer. Mus. Nat. Uist., 1. 



92 



NORTH AMERIC/^ F^UNA. 



[No. 62 



EUTAMIAS PALMERI Merriam 
Palmer's Chipmunk 

Eutamias palmeri Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 208, July 1, 1897. 

Type. — Collected on Charleston Peak, Nev. (altitude, 8,000 feet), 
February 13, 1891, by E. W. Nelson; c? adult, skin and skull; No. 
-Ifiif) United States National Museum (Biological Survey collec- 
tion); original number, 432. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from Charleston Peak, Nev. 
Zonal range: Canadian. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar in summer pelage to Eutamias quadrivittatus inyoensis 
but ocular stripe and dark dorsal stripes paler (more brownish) and tail more 
blackish above; in winter pelage more grayish above, the dorsal stripes much 
less distinct. Compared with E. q. speciosus: In summer pelage facial stripes 
paler and reduced in extent; dark dorsal stripes paler; median pair of light stripes 
broader and more grayish (less buffy); feet darker (more buffy); tail beneath 
with less black at tip; in winter pelage decidedly more grayish, the light dorsal 
stripes (4) of nearly equal width and less creamy or buffy; facial stripes paler 
and much reduced; tail averaging more blackish above iDut less extensively 
tipped with black below. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July 1): Sides of nose light pinkish cinnamon; top 
of head smoke gray mixed with light pinkish cinnamon and bordered on sides of 
crown with fuscous; facial stripes sayal brown, shaded with fuscous, the median 
stripe with some fuscous black in front of and behind the eye; ears sayal brown on 
anterior portion, buffy white on posterior portion, clouded with fuscous in the 
middle portion; postauricular patches grayish white or creamy white; median 
dorsal stripe narrow, fuscous black, bordered with mikado brown, outer pair of 
dark stripes mikado brown, faintly shaded with fuscous; median pair of light 
stripes pale smoke gray; outer pair creamy white; no lateral stripes; sides tawny 
or cinnamon, shading to pale russet; rump and thighs cinnamon buff, shaded 
with fuscous and smoke gray; feet pinkish buff or pinkish cinnamon; tail above, 
fuscous black (the bases of the hairs cinnamon), edged with pinkish buff; tail 
beneath, ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black and edged with pinkish 
buff; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (February): Upper parts much 
more extensively grayish than in summer and the dark dorsal stripes less distinct; 
sides of nose clay color; dark dorsal stripes sayal brown, the median one fuscous 
black in the center; light dorsal stripes pale smoke gray; the outer pair slightly 
more whitish; nape and shoulders extensively washed with pale smoke gray; 
rump and thighs smoke gray, washed with cinnamon buff; sides sayal brown, 
shading to cinnamon buff on sides of neck; feet and tail as in summer. 

Molt. — In a specimen (cf adult) from Charleston Peak, July 1, the new summer 
pelage is appearing on the head and in irregular patches on the back. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of inyoensis. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type locality: Total length, 219.5 
(210-223); tail vertebras, 94.6 (86.5-101); hind foot, 33.1 (32.5-34); ear from 
notch, 14.6 (13.5-15.5). Skull: Greatest length, 35.9 (34.9-36.5); zygomatic 
breadth, 19.6 (19.1-19.9); cranial breadth, 15.4 (15.1-15.8); interorbital breadth, 
8.3 (8-8.8) ; length of nasals, 11.3 (10.7-12). 

RemarTcs. — Palmer's chipmunk is most nearly related to Eutamias 
quadrivittatus inyoensis, which it much resembles in summer pelage; in 
winter pelage, however, it is very different and more nearly resembles 
E. dorsalis utaTiensis in the color of the dorsal area, although differing 
from the latter in its much darker tail. On account of its pronounced 
characters and isolated habitat, it seems best to treat it as a full 
species. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 22, as follows: 
Nevada: Charleston Peak, 22. 



1929] REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS OS 

EUTAMIAS ADSITUS Allen 
Beaver Mountain Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, p; 8, p) 

Eutamias adsitus Allen, Brooklyn Inst. Mus. Science Bui. 1: 118, March 31, 1905. 

Type. — Collected at "Brigg's" [Britt's] Meadows, Beaver Moun- 
tains, Utah (altitude, 10,000 feet), August 20, 1904, by George P. 
Engelhardt; adult (not sexed) sldn and skull; No. 28728, American 
Museum of Natural History (formerly No. 452, Museum of the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences). 

Geographic distribution. — Beaver Mountains, Utah, and the Kaibab 
Plateau in northern Arizona. Zonal range: Canadian (8,000 to 11,000 
feet altitude). (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias umbrinus, but colors in summer pelage 
more contrasted, the dark dorsal stripes more blackish and the light stripes 
more whitish; in winter pelage sides and back more intensely tawny, and head 
more grayish; tail shorter, slenderer, more blackish and less tawny above and 
paler beneath, edged with a paler shade of buff or witli smoke gray. Compared 
with quadrivittatus and inyoensis: Color of back and sides decidedly darker; outer 
dorsal stripes more blackish; tail more blackish (less tawny) above and paler 
beneath, edged with paler shade of buff or with gray; ears smaller. Compared 
with hopiensis: Colors above much darker, the dark stripes more blackish, the 
light stripes more whitish; tail shorter and slenderer, decidedly more blackish 
above and paler beneath. Compared with cinereicollis: In summer pelage 
sides darker brown; shoulders without a grayish collar; head more grayish (less 
tawny); light stripes more whitish (less grayish); dark stripes more blackish; 
tail more blackish above, the edgings paler and more grayish. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Head grayish white mixed with cinnamon, 
bordered on the sides by a stripe of verona brown or bister; ocular stripes fuscous 
black, shaded with sayal brown; submalar stripe sayal brown — rather narrow; 
ears fuscous, broadly edged posteriorly with smoke gray or white, and washed 
on anterior margin with sayal brown; postauricular patches conspicuous, white; 
dark dorsal stripes black, the outer pair sometimes fuscous black, shaded with 
russet; lateral dark stripes obsolete or nearly so; median pair of light stripes 
rather narrow, grayish white, narrowly edged with mikado brown; outer pair 
broad, pure white; sides russet, shaded with ochraceous tawny or cinnamon; 
rump and thighs mixed smoke gray and cinnamon buff, sometimes shaded with 
fuscous black; front feet cinnamon buff or light pinkish cinnamon; hind feet 
cinnamon buff or pinkish buff; taU above, fuscous black mixed with cinnamon, 
and overlaid with tilleul buff or pinkish buff ; tail beneath, sayal brown, cinnamon, 
or tawny; underparts white. Winter pelage not seen. 

Molt. — A breeding female from Beaver Mountains, Utah, August 15, is in 
worn winter pelage, with the new summer pelage just beginning to appear in 
the stripes on the middle of the back. Another female taken August 26, has 
nearly completed the molt, the fresh pelage covering aU but the rump and hinder 
back. 

_ Skull. — Closely similar to that of E. umbrinus but averaging slightly larger; 
similar to that of quadrivittatus but averaging slightly smaller, with narrower 
rostrum and smaller brain case; similar to that of cinereicollis but smaller. 

Measureinents. — Average of 11 adults from type locality: Total length, 217.5 
(209-229); tail vertebrae, 91.6 (86-99); hind foot, 32.3 (31-33); ear from notch, 

13.2 (12-14). Skull: Average of nine adults from type locality: Greatest 
length, 35.2 (34.5-36.2); zygomatic breadth, 19.3 (18.7-20); cranial breadth, 

15.3 (14.4-15.7); interorbital breadth, 8.2 (7.6-8.9); length of nasals, 11.2 
(10.5-12.2). 

RernarJcs. — This chipmunk is most nearly related to E. umbrinus; 
material now available indicates that it is a distinct species, but with 
the acquisition of more material from central Utah it may prove to 
intergrade with that species. It is very much darker than E. quad- 
rivittatus hopiensis and intergradation ^vith that race seems unlikely, 



94 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



FNo. 62 



though their ranges must nicet somewhere in southeastern Utah, 
Its distribution is pecuhar in that it is foimd in two apparently 
isolated colonies — one on the Beaver Mountains, Utah, the other on 
the Kaibab Plateau, Ariz., whereas the chipmunks on the Parawan 
and Pine Valley Mountains are referable to E. q. inyoensis. The 
series from Kaibab Plateau are nearly typical, diflering from the 
topotypes only in having more bushy tails with shghtly darker edgings. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 35, as follows: 

Arizona: Bright Angel Spring, Kaibab Plateau, 3; De Motte Park, Kaibab 

Plateau, 10. 
Utah: Beaver Mountains, 22. 12 

EUTAMIAS UMBRINUS (Allen) 
Uinta Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, o; 8, o) 

Tamias umbrinus AUen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 96, June, 1890. 
Eutamias umbrinus Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30: 45, 
December 27, 1901. 

Type. — Collected on Blacks Fork, Uinta Moimtains, Utah (altitude 
about 9,500 feet), September 19, 1888, by Vernon Bailey; c? adult, 
skin and skull; No. 186463, United States National Museum (No. 
|-|-|-^, Merriam collection); original number, 228. 

GeograpMc distribution. — Uinta and Wasatch Mountains in north- 
eastern Utah and southwestern Wyoming; also mountains of western 
Wyomiag (Salt River, Teton, Wind River, Absaroka and other 
ranges) and eastern Idaho (Big Hole Mountains); north to the 
Beartooth Moimtains, Mont.; southern limits not definitely known. 
Zonal range: Canadian; 7,000 to 11,000 feet altitude. 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias q. quadrivittatus but dorsal area and sides 
darker; dark dorsal stripes less blackish (more brownish), light dorsal stripes 
duller (less clear white); head more drabby (less cinnamon); hind foot shorter; 
skull averaging smaller. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July-September): Head pale smoke gray, shaded 
with fuscous and cinnamon and bordered on each side with a stripe of fuscous or 
bister; ocular stripe fuscous black; submalar stripe snuff brown or bister (often 
rather indistinct); ears fuscous or fuscous black, broadly margined posteriorly 
with grayish white; postauricular patches grayish white, rather faintly indicated; 
median dorsal stripe black, edged with sayal brown; outer pair fuscous black, 
much mixed with sayal brown; light dorsal stripes white, the median pair slightly 
narrov/er and often clouded with sayal brown; lateral stripes nearly or quite 
obsolete; sides sayal brown, shaded Vi^ith clay color or cinnamon; rump and thighs 
sayal brown, shaded with smoke gray; feet cinnamon buff or pinkish buff; taU 
above, fuscous black mixed with tawny or sayal brown and overlaid with cinna- 
mon buff or pinkish buff; tail beneath, tawny, ochraceous tawny, or saj^al brown- 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with pinkish buff or cinnamon buff'; under- 
parts creamy white. Winter pelage: Not appreciably different from the summer 
pelage. 

Molt. — A specimen (9 adult) from Lake Fork, Wind River Mountains, 
Wyo., August 23, has nearly completed the summer molt, only the rump and 
hinder back retaining worn winter pelage; no specimens showing the faU molt 
have been seen, but an adult female from Uinta Mountains, Utah, September 19, 
apparently has acquired the full winter pelage. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. q. quadrivittatus, but averaging appreciably smaller. 



" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1 (the type) . 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AJVIERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



95 



Measurements. — Average of 14 adults from Uinta and Wasatch Mountains, 
Utah: Total length, 225.9 (216-240); tail vertebrae, 101.1 (92-113); hind foot, 
32.3 (31-33.5); ear from notch, 14.4 (13-15.2); Skull: Average of seven adults 
from Uinta Mountains (Utah and Wyoming) : Greatest length, 34.7 (33.4-35.6) ; 
zygomatic breadth, 18.8 (18.3-19); cranial breadth, 15.1 (14.5-15.4); interorbital 
breadth, 8 (7.6-8.2): length of nasals, 10.8 (10.3-11.6). 

Bemarks. — The Uinta chipmunk is clearly a member of the quadri- 
vittatus group and may yet be shown to intergrade with hopiensis; no 
specimens are available, however, from the eastern or southern slopes 
of the Uinta Mountains, where their ranges are most likely to meet. 
The difference in color between umbrinus and Jiopiensis is considerable, 
but between umbrinus and quadrivittatus is much less; however, the 
ranges of umbrinus and quadrivittatus are widely separated and 
there seems to be no possibility of physical intergradation between 
them. 

Material is lacldng, also, to determine the relationship of umbrinus 
with adsitus, but until intergrading specimens are secured, it seems 
best to consider them distinct species. The present form, as compared 
with its three relatives to the southward, adsitus, hopiensis, and 
quadrivittatus, is darker and duller colored, with less contrast between 
the light and dark dorsal stripes. In the Uinta and Wasatch Moun- 
tains, E. umbrinus occupies in part the same area as E. minimus 
consobrinus and in northwestern Wyoming occurs with both con- 
sobrinus and E. amoenus luteiventris ; but it is readily distinguished 
from either of these species by its larger size and darker coloration 
and from luteiventris also by its white imderparts. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 95, as follows: 

Idaho: Big Hole Mountains (near Irwin), 1. 
Montana: Beartooth Mountains, 2. 

Utah: Barclay, 2; Park City, 1; Uinta Mountains (south of Fort Bridger, 
Wyo.), 14; Wasatch Mountains, near Ogden, 2; Wasatch Mountains, 
16 miles east of Salt Lake City, 1. 

Wyoming: Beartooth Lake, 1; Big Sandy, 3; Bull Lake, Wind River Moun- 
tains, 3; Clark Fork (near source), 1; Fremont Peak, 6; Gros Ventre 
Range (12 miles northwest of Kendall), 4; Henry Fork (5 miles west of 
Lonetree), 2; Jackeys Creek (4 miles southwest of Dubois), 3; La Barge 
Creek (Wyoming Range), 2; Lake Fork, Wind River Mountains, 9; 
Lonetree, 5; Merna, 1; Needle Mountain (Park County), 1; Pahaska 
(north fork Shoshone River), 7; Salt River Mountains, 4; Stanley (8 
miles west), 4; Teton Mountains (south of Moose Creek), 4; Valley, 
Shoshone Mountains, 3; Whirlwind Peak (near Pahaska), 9. 

EUTAMIAS RUFICAUDUS Howell 
[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Characters. — Size medium (about as in quadrivittatus) ; hind foot, 32-36; skull 
length, 33.9-36.2; skull similar to that of quadriviUatus but averaging slightly 
smaller, with narrower rostrum and interorbital region; in coloration similar to 
Eutamias q. quadrivittatus and E. uvibrinus but upper parts and sides deeper 
tawny; head cinnamon or ochraceous tawny, mixed with fuscous; dark dorsal 
stripes black or fuscous black; light dorsal stripes grayish white, often mixed 
with ochraceous tawny; rump and thighs hair brown, drab, or cinnamon buff, 
mixed with fuscous; sides tawny or ochraceous tawny; under surface of tail 
ochraceous tawny to Sanford brown; hind feet pinkish cinnamon. 



96 



NORTH MtERIC^ FA-UNA. 



[No. 62 



•EUTAMIAS RUFICAUDUS RUFICAUDUS Howell 

RUFOITS-TAILED ChIPMUNK 

(Pls. 4, m; 8, m) 

Eutamias umbrinus felix Bailey, Wild Animals of Glacier National Park, p. 42, 
1918 [ = January 10, 1919] (not Tamias quadrivitiatus felix Rhoads). 

Eutamias ruficaudus Howell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 91, December 30, 
1920. 

Type. — Collected at Upper St. Marys Lake, Mont., May 30, 1895, 
by A. H. Howell; c? adult, skin and skull; No. 72294, United States 
National Museum (Biological Sui'vey collection) ; original number, 27. 

Geographic distribution. — Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountain 
divide in western Montana, from the Canadian boundary south to 
Deer Lodge County. Zonal range: Canadian; 4,000 to 8,000 feet 
altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias umbrinus, but coloration of upper parts and 
sides decidedly more tawny ; head and face more ochraceous (less grayish) ; post- 
auricular patches more buffy (less whitish); dark dorsal stripes more blackish 
(less brownish) ; Ught dorsal stripes less whitish and more mixed with ochraceous 
tawny; underside of tail deeper red. Skull averaging larger, the zygomata more 
abruptly expanded posteriorly. 

Color. — Winter pelage (May and June):" Sides of nose pinkish cinnamon or 
cinnamon buff; top of head mixed cinnamon and fuscous, sprinkled with grayish 
white and bordered with an indistinct fuscous stripe; light facial stripes grayish 
white, shaded with buff; submalar stripe fuscous or bister mixed with tawny; 
ocular stripe fuscous black; ears fuscous black, the posterior margin with a broad 
band of buffy white or pinkish buff; inside of ears clothed with cinnamon hairs; 
postauricular patches buffy white, rather small and inconspicuous; dark dorsal 
stripes black or fuscous black; median pair of light stripes grayish white, mixed 
with cinnamon or tawny and shading anteriorly into the color of the crown; 
outer pair of hght stripes creamy white; lateral stripes fuscous black, overlaid 
with tawny — often very indistinct; rump and thighs mouse gray, mixed with 
cinnamon; sides ochraceous tawny; feet pinkish cinnamon; tail above, fuscous 
black mixed with orange cinnamon; tail beneath, amber brown, bordered with 
fuscous black and edged with light pinkish cinnamon; underparts creamy white, 
faintly washed with pale pinkish buff. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. umbrinus but averaging larger, with the zygomatic 
portion of the squamosal heavier, the zygomata more widely expanded posteriorly. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from the type locality: Total length, 
231.2 (223-244); tail vertebras, 106.2 (101-118); hind foot, 35 (33.5-36); ear from 
notch, 14.4 (13-15.5). Skull: Greatest length, 35.3 (34.5-36.2); zygomatic 
breadth, 19.5 (19.1-20.1); cranial breadth, 15.1 (14.5-15.6); interorbital breadth, 
7.8 (7.5-8.2); length of nasals, 11.1 (9.6-11.7). 

RemarTcs. — The rufous-tailed chipmunk is an inhabitant of the 
heavy coniferous forests in the mountains of western Montana 
where its range overlaps in part the ranges of E. amoenus luteiventris on 
the lower slopes and of E. minimus oreocetes on the upper slopes near 
timber line. Its nearest relative is E. umbrinus and additional 
material from the region between the Imown ranges of these two 
species may show that they intergrade; at present, however, there is 
no evidence of such intergradation, and the rather pronounced char- 
acter in the shape of the zygomata indicates specific distinction. 

The species has been recognized by the author and other members 
of the Bureau of Biological Survey staff for many years, but until 
closely studied was referred to E. amoznus Jelix, which it resembles 
rather closely iu superficial characters; it may be distinguished from 



" Limits of range imperfectly known. 
" Summer pelage not represented. 



1929] 



RSVISION OF THE AJMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



97 



that form by its whiter belly, more reddish tail, more whitish dorsal 
stripes, and particularly by its larger skull, with longer rostrum. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 54, as follows: 

Montana: Bass Creek, Bitterroot Mountains (northwest of Stevensville) , 8; 
Bear Creek, Flathead County (near Marias Pass), 8; Belton, 1; Cor- 
vaUis (in mountains, 15 miles east), 1; Deer Lodge County, 2; Fish 
Creek, Glacier Park, 1; Florence (mountains west, 5,000 to 7,200 feet 
altitude), 5; " Glacial Lakes (Swift Current River), 1; Lake McDonald, 
1: Lolo Hot Springs, 2; Paola, Flathead County, 1; Summit, Teton 
County (Great Northern Railroad), 2; Upper Stillwater Lake, 3; 
Upper St. Marys Lake, 14; Willow Creek (10 miles east of Corvallis), 1. 

Alberta: Waterton Lake Park, S.^^ 

EUTAMIAS RUFICAUDUS SIMULANS Howell 
CcEUR d'Alene Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, n; 8, n) 

Eutamias ruficaudus simulans HoweU, Journ. Mamm. 3: 179, August 4, 1922. 

T?/pe.— Collected at Coeiir d'Alene, Idaho, June 1, 1891, by Clark 
P. Streator; 9 adult, skin and skull; No. f|-||i. United States 
National Museum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 
881. 

Geographic distribution. — Mountains of northwestern Montana 
(west of the main divide), northern Idaho, northeastern Washington, 
and southeastern British Columbia. Zonal range: Transition and 
Canadian; 2,400 to 6,300 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias ruficaudus ruficaudus but color of sides (at 
least in winter pelage) , under surface of taU, and tail edgings paler; skull with 
relatively broad brain case and rostrum. Compared with E. amcenus felix: Size 
slightly larger; tail averaging longer; underparts clearer white; head more tawny; 
sides slightly paler. Compared with E. a. ludibundus: Size slightly larger; tail 
and ears longer; upper parts in summer more tawny, especially the head, shoulders, 
and rump. 

Color. — Summer -pelage (August) : Top of head cinnamon or ochraceous tawny, 
mixed with fuscous and white, bordered on each side with a fuscous stripe; 
ocular stripe fuscous black, shaded posteriorly with ochraceous tawny; submalar 
stripe fuscous, washed with cinnamon or clay color; sides of nose and face washed 
v/ith clav color; ears chtetura drab, broadly m%>rgined posteriorly with pinkish 
buff; dark dorsal stripes black or fuscous black; median pair of light stripes 
grayish white, more or less mixed with ochraceous tawnj^; outer pair creamy 
white; lateral stripes fuscous or fuscous black; shoulders and sides ochraceous 
tawny (sometimes nearly tawny) ; rump and thighs mixed clay color and fuscous; 
hind feet pinkish cinnamon; front feet light pinkish cinnamon; tail above, fuscous 
black, overlaid mth pinkish buff ; tail beneath, ochraceous tav/ny, bordered with 
fuscous black and tipped with pinkish buff; underparts grayish white, washed with 
pale pinkish buff. Winter -pelage (April): Similar to the summer pelage but 
upper parts paler and more grayish (much less tawny); sides cinnamon or pale 
ochraceous tawny; tail edged with tilleul buff or pale smoke gray. 

Molt. — An adult male specimen from Thompson Pass, Idaho, August 5, 
has nearly completed the summer molt, the new pelage covering the anterior 
half of the body and nearly all of the sides to the flanks. 

Skidl. — Similar to that of ruficaudus but brain case and rostrum averaging 
broader; similar also to that of E. amcenus felix but averaging larger and rela- 
tively narrower with longer nasals; similar to that of E. a. ludibundus, but aver- 
aging slightly larger, with larger audital bullse. 

i» Kans. Univ. Mus. Nat. Hist. " Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" Mont. State College, 2. " Nat. Mus. Canada. 

40279°— 29 7 



98 



NORTH AMERICAJSr FAUNA 



[170.52 



Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from northern Idaho and northeastern 
Washington: Total length, 238.2 (224-248); tail vertebra?, 112.5 (103-121); 
hind foot, 33.6 (32-35); ear from notch, 13.9 (13-14.5). Skull: Average of 10 
adults from northern Idaho: Greatest length, 34.7 (33.9-35.3); zvgomatic 
breadth, 19.4 (18.7-20); cranial breadth, 15.3 (14.7-15.8); inter orbital" breadth, 
7.5 (6.9-7.8) ; length of nasals, 11.1 (9.7-12.1). 

Remarks. — This race, occupying the western slopes of the main 
Rocky Moimtaiii divide in northern Montana and Idaho, may be 
distinguished from typical ruficaudus by the paler colors of body and 
tail. It bears a strildng resemblance to E. amoenus Jelix of the coast 
region of British Columbia, but may be distinguished by its slightly 
larger skull, longer tail, and more tawny head. E. a.jelix is a member 
of the amcenus group, intergrading with ludibundus, and its range 
does not touch that of simulans; moreover, simulans occurs in the 
region occupied by luteiventris, which is a member of the same group 
with felix. The resemblance between simulans and Jelix, therefore, 
is clearly accidental and does not indicate close relationship. 

The range of simulans also meets and slightly overlaps the range of 
E. amcenus canicaudus in northeastern Washington; externally the 
two are readily separable by the more ta^^^ly coloration of simulans, 
especially of the underside of tail, but the skulls are in many cases 
difncult to separate; that of simidans, however, averages broader 
across the zygomata, rostrmn, and brain case. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 120, as follows: 

British Columbia: Salmon River, Kootenay district (near United States 
boundary), 1; Nelson, 5; Toad Mountain, 6 miles south of Nelson, 
15. 

Idaho: Bonners Ferry, 2; Cabinet Mountains, 1; Cogur d'Alene, 7; Kingston, 
1; McKinnis, Shoshone County (7 miles east), 14;" Mission, Kootenai 
County, 2; Moscow, 1; 22 Mullan, 5; Murray, 2; Osburn, 2; Packer's 
Meadow (south of Lolo Hot Springs), 3; Priest Lake, 6; Thompson 
Pass, 9. 

Montana: Silver [Saltese], 1; Thompson Pass, 4; Prospect Creek (near 

Thompson Falls), 5. 
Washington: Calispell Lake, Pend Oreille County, 2; Calispell Peak (9 

miles west of Locke), 2; Colville, 4; Loon Lake, Stevens County, 6; 

Marcus, 1; Metaline (9 miles north), 5; Sullivan Lake, Pend Oreille 

County, 14. 

EUTAMIAS CINEREICOLLIS (Allen) 
[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Characters. — Size medium to large; hind foot, 32-36; skull length, 35.1-38.4; 
skull averaging longer than that of quadrivittatus; coloration similar to that of 
quadrivittaius but general tone more grayish (less tawny) especially on the 
shoulders; head cinnamon, cinnamon buff, or sayal brown, mixed with smoke 
gray or grayish white; shoulders with a more or less distinct wash of smoke 
gray; dark dorsal stripes black or fuscous black, shaded with mikado brown; 
median pair of light dorsal stripes smoke graj', sometimes sparingly sprinkled with 
cinnamon; outer pair grayish white; rump and thighs mixed smoke gray and 
cinnamon buff or pinkish buff; sides cinnamon buff, pinkish buff, cinnamon, 
sayal brown, or ochraceous tawny; hind feet smoke gray or pinkish buff; tail 
beneath, ochraceous tawny or sayal brown. 



i« Nat. Mus. Canada. 

" Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 



21 D. R. Dickey coll. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



1929] 



KE VISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



99 



EUTAMIAS CINEREICOLLIS CINEREICOLLIS (Allen) 
Grat-collared Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, a; 9, a) 

Tamias cinereicollis Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 94, June, 1890. 
Eutamias cinereicollis Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist. 30: 40, De- 
cember 27, 1901. 

Type.—QoW^&cieA. on San Francisco Mountain, Ariz., August 2, 
1889, by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon Bailey; 9 adult, sldn and 
skull; No. ^irs¥k> United States National Museum (Biological 
Survey collection) ; original number, 260. 

Geographic distribution. — Mountain and plateau region of central 
Arizona from San Francisco Mountains southward across the Mogol- 
lon Plateau to the White Mountains and the Prieto Plateau; east to 
the San Francisco Range, N. Mex. Zonal range: Canadian; 6,500 
to 11,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias q. quadrivittatus but general tone of upper 
parts more grayish (less tawny), the nape and shoulders usually with a distinct 
wash of smoke gray; sides of nose more strongly washed with clay color; facial 
stripes averaging broader; sides slightly darker; hind feet paler buff and averaging 
slightly longer. Compared with adsitus: Tail longer; hind foot and ears larger; 
coloration paler and more grayish (less tawny), especially on shoulders; tail 
darker. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August) : Top of head sayal brown, mixed with 
grajash white, strongly shaded on top and sides of nose with clay color or cinna- 
mon buff; crown bordered on each side with a stripe of fuscous or warm sepia; 
ocular stripe blackish, shaded with sayal brown; submalar stripe sayal brown, 
shaded with bister; ears fuscous or chsetura drab, broadly margined posteriorly 
with grayish white and washed on anterior margin with sayal brown; inside 
surface washed with saj'al brown; nape and shoulders with a more or less distinct 
wash of smoke gray, mixed on sides with pinkish buff or pinkish cinnamon; 
dorsal stripes black, bordered on each side with sayal brown; median pair of 
light stripes pale smoke gray; outer pair white; lateral stripes fuscous black, 
mixed with sayal brown or russet; rump and thighs smoke gray, mixed with 
cinnamon buff; sides sayal brown; feet pinkish buff or light pinkish cinnamon, 
shaded with clay color or sometimes with grayish white; tail above, fuscous black 
(the bases of the hairs cinnamon) overlaid with pinkish buff or cinnamon buff; 
tail beneath, tawny or ochraceous tawny (fading to clay color), bordered with 
fuscous black and edged with pinkish buff or cinnamon buff; underparts creamy 
white, often tinged with pinkish buff. Winter pelage (October) : Similar to the 
summer pelage but sides paler (light sayal brown) ; tail edgings slightly paler, 
and upper parts usually more extensively washed with grayish. 

Molt. — The spring molt takes place early in this species; three male specimens 
from Flagstaff, Ariz., May 15, 16, and 17, are in greatly worn winter pelage, with 
the new summer pelage appearing in irregular patches over the upper parts. 

Skull. — Practically indistinguishable from that of E. q. quadrivittatus. 

Measurements. — Average of 13 adults from type locahty: Total length, 224.5 
(212-242); tail vertebra;, 102 (95-109); hind foot, 35 (34-36); ear from notch, 
15.3 (14.3-16). Skull: Average of eight from type locality: Greatest length, 
35.9 (35.1-36.6); zygomatic breadth, 19.7 (19.4-20.2); cranial breadth, 14.9 
(14-15.4); interorbital breadth, 8.1 (7.9-8.6); length of nasals, 11.2 (10.5-12.3). 

RemarTcs. — This species is very closely related to E. quadrivittatus 
but may be distinguished by a number of constant, though slight, 
characters. Their ranges apparently are separated by a considerable 
area unsuited to their habitat, so there is no chance for physical 
intergradation. The present form is also quite distinct from E. 
adsitus, the range of which lies to the northward of the Grand Canyon 
in northwestern Arizona and southern Utah. Intergradation v/ith 
subspecies cinereus occurs in western New Mexico. Over a portion 



100 



NORTH A.MERICiVN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



of its range (the White Moiiutains and Prieto Plateau) cinereicoUis 
occurs with a smaller species, E. minimus arizonensis, which it 
resembles so closely in coloration chat the two are easily confused; 
in fact, they have been confused ever since collections were first 
made in that region. The small species {arizonensis) may be distin- 
guished by paler sides, smaller ears, and hind feet, and much smaller 
skull. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 175, as follows: 

Arizona: Alpine, 3; Anderson Mesa, 2; Baker Butte, 6; Bill Williams 
Mountain, 2; Blue River, 1; Camp Apache, 1; Coleman Lake, 3; 
Flagstaff, 46; 2* Horseshoe Cienega (White Mountains), 2; Little 
Spring, 2; Mayer, 1; Mount Agassiz, 1; Mount Thomas (White Moun- 
tains), 2; Prieto Plateau (south end of Blue Ptange), 10; Quaking Asp 
Settlement, 1;23 San Francisco Mountain, 29; Springerville, 17; White 
Mountains, 42; Williams, 4. 

EUTAMIAS CINEREICOLLIS CINEREUS Bailet 
Magdalbna Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, b; 9, b) 

Eutamias cinereicoUis cinereus Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 26: 130, 
May 21, 1913. 

Type. — Collected in Copper Canyon, Magdalena Moimtains, N. 
Mex. (altitude, 8,200 feet), September 1, 1909, by E. A. Goldman; 
c? adult, skin and skull; No. 167029, United States National Museimi 
(Biological Survey collection); original number, 20435. 

Geographic distribution. — Mountains of southwestern New Mexico 
(Magdalena, San Mateo, Mimbres, and MogoUon Ranges). Zonal 
range: Transition and Canadian; 6,700 to 10,000 feet altitude. 
(Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias c. cinereicoUis but paler and more grayish, 
especially on nape, shoulders, and rump; gray wash on anterior sides more ex- 
tensive and less mixed with buff; ears less tawny; sides slightly paler; tail slightly 
shorter. 

Color. — Summer pelage (September) : Top of head pale smoke graj^, mixed 
with cinnamon, and bordered on each side with fuscous black; sides of nose 
faintly washed w"ith light pinkish cinnamon; ocular stripe fuscous black, shaded 
with mikado brown; submalar stripe mikado brown, shaded with fuscous; ears 
chgetura drab, broadly margined postei'iorly with grayish white and washed 
anteriorly with mikado brown; postauricular patches large, grayish white; nape 
and shoulders extensively washed with smoke gray; varied on sides with pale 
pinkish buff; dark dorsal stripe black, margined with mikado brown, the outer 
pair sometimes mainly brownish; lateral stripes fuscous black shading to mikado 
brown; median pair of light stripes grayish white; outer pair white; rump and 
thighs smoke gray, sparingly mixed with pinkish buff; sides between sayal brown 
and pale clay color; feet pinkish buff or pinkish cinnamon, shaded v/ith pale smoke 
gray; tail above, fuscous black (the bases of the hairs pinkish cinnamon) overlaid 
v/ith pinkish buff; tail beneath, sayal brown, bordered with fuscous black and 
tipped with pinkish buff; underparts creamy white, faintly tinged with pale bufif. 
Winter -pelage (October 25) : Closely similar to the summ.er pelage. 

Skull. — Practically identical with that of cinereicoUis. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from San Mateo and Magdalena Moun- 
tains, N. Mex.: Total length, 221.5 (208-231); tail vertebrsa, 94.8 (90-101); 
hind foot, 34.5 (33-36); ear from notch, 14.8 (14-15.3). Skull: Average of six 
(adult and subadult) from same localities: Greatest length, 36.1 (35.5-36.7); 
zygomatic breadth, 19.6 (19.4-19.8); cranial breadth, 15.3 (14.8-15.6); inter- 
orbital breadth, 7.9 (7.8-8); length of nasals, 11.2 (10.5-11.6). 



« D. R. Dickey coll., 2. 
" D. R. Dickey coll., 2; Univ. Mich., 3. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. 

2« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 22; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A1IERIC A.N CHIPMUNKS 



101 



Remarl:s. — This subspecies is a pale gray form, nearest to cinerei- 
collis, with which it iniergrades in the Mimbres and Mogoilon Moun- 
tains of southwestern New Mexico. It is markedly paler than 
canipes, from the JicarUla and White Mountains to the eastward, and 
there is little evidence of intergradation vnth that form. It is also 
widely different from E. quadrivittatus of northern New Mexico, and 
their ranges apparently are not contiguous. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 31, as follows: 

New Mexico : Datil Range (22 miles northwest of Fort Tularosa) , 1 ; Kings- 
ton, 3; Magdalena Mountains, 5; Mimbres River (head), 1; Mimbres 
Mountains, 4; Mogoilon Mountains, 5; Organ Mountains, 6; " San 
Mateo Mountains (Socorro County), 6. 

EUTAMIAS CINEREICOLLIS CANIPES Bailbt 
Grat-footed Chipmunk 

(Pls. 5, c; 9, c) 

Eutamias cinereicollis canipes Bailey, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 15: 117, 
June 2, 1902. 

Type. — Collected at head of Dog Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, 
Tex. (altitude, 7,000 feet), August 24, 1901, by Vernon Bailey; 9 
adult, skin and skull; No. 109229, United States National Museum 
(Biological Survey collection) ; original number, 7827. 

Geographic distrihution. — Mountains of southeastern New Mexico 
and western Texas (Jicarilla, Capitan, White, and Guadalupe Moun- 
tains). ZoTiaZ mngre; Canadian and Transition; 7,000 to 12,000 feet 
altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias c. cinereicollis, but sides paler; outer pair 
of dorsal stripes more brownish (less blackish) ; sides of nose and face less heavily 
washed with buff; feet more grayish (less buffy); tail edgings paler and more 
grayish (less buffy) ; hind foot averaging shorter. Compared with E. q. quadrivit- 
tatus: General tone of upper parts more grayish (less tawny); shoulders with 
a rather indistinct grayish wash (the same region tawny in quadrivittatus); 
ocular stripe broader and more blackish; head darker and more grayish (less 
buffy); dark dorsal stripes averaging broader, the outer pairs more brownish 
(less blackish); feet more graj'ish (less buff}-). 

Color. — Summer pelage (August and September) : Top of head mixed 
sayal brown and grayish white, bordered on each side with a stripe of fuscous 
black, shaded with sayal brown; ocular stripe black, edged with sayal brown; 
submalar stripe sayal brov.'n, shaded with fuscous; ears chcetura drab, broadly 
margined posteriorly with grayish white and washed on anterior margin with 
sayal brown; postauricular patches pale smoke gray; shoulders, rump, and thighs 
with a rather indistinct wash of smoke gray, sprinkled with pinkish buff ; median 
dorsal stripe broad, black, bordered with sayal brown; outer pair of dark stripes 
fuscous black, sprinkled -with mikado brown or sayal brown; lateral stripes 
distinct, mikado brown; sides sayal brown or pale clay color; median pair of 
light stripes grayish white or pale smoke gray; outer pair white; tail, above, 
fuscous black (the bases of the hairs pinkish cinnamon) overlaid with pinkish buff, 
tUleul buff or pale smoke gray; hind feet smoke gray, faintly shaded with pinkish 
buff; taU Ijeneath, ochraceous tawn}-, bordered with fuscous black and edged 
with pihkish buff, tiUeul buff or pale smoke gray; underparts creamy white. 
Winter pelage (May): Very similar to the summer pelage but averaging slightly 
more grayish above and paler on the sides. 

Molt. — An adult male specimen from Mount Capitan, N. Mex., June 15, is in 
worn v.-inter pelage, with the new summer pelage just beginning to appear in 
patches on the back. 

Skull. — Similar to that of cinereicollis but averaging slightly larger; similar to 
that of E. q. quadrivittatus but averaging larger, with relatively longer and slen- 
derer rostrum. 



^ Mus. Comp. Zool. , 6; State College N. Mez, 1. 



102 



NORTH AMERICAJSr FAUNAi 



[No. 62 



Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Guadalupe Mountains, Tex., and 
White Mountains, N. Mex.: Total length, 22S.1 (210-250); tail vertebra), 
99.9 (92-115); hind foot, 33. 5 (32-35); ear from notch, 15.2 (14-17). Skull: 
Average of six adults from same localities: Greatest length, 36.9 (36.1-38.4); 
zvcomatic breadth, 19.8 (19.3-21); cranial breadth, 15.5 (14.7-17.1); interorbital 
breadth, 8.2 (7.9-S.6); length of nasals, 12.1 (11.7-12.3). 

Remarlcs. —This chipmunk is a strongly marked form and might 
almost be considered a distinct species. It is more different from 
cinereus (whose range approaches nearest to that of canipes) than from 
cinereicollis, and there is little evidence of intergradation with that 
race. The most constant character separating it from its near rela- 
tives is the paler and more grayish edging of the tail, but an occasional 
specimen of canipes has the tail edged with cinnamon buff, as in 
cinereicollis. 

The present race shows approach toward E. bulleri in the broadening 
and blackening of the ocular stripe and in the large size of the skull; 
however, the hind foot is shorter and the dorsal stripes less blackish 
than in either hulleri or cinereicollis. 

Two specimens in the series from the White Moimtains, N. Mex., 
have larger skulls than the typical series from Guadalupe Mountains, 
Tex.; indeed, one skull from there is larger than the average of 
bulleri. 

This race, although separated from the range of Eutamias q. quadri- 
vittatus by a comparatively narrow gap, shows no evidence of inter- 
gradation with the latter; indeed it is more different from quadri- 
vittatus than is E. c. cinereicollis of Arizona. It may be distinguished 
from quadrivittatus by a number of constant characters (as pointed 
out above), particularly the more grayish (less tawny) shoulders, hind 
feet, and tail edgings. The skulls average distinctly longer, but some 
specimens are scarcely distinguishable from those of quadrivittatus. 

Specimens examined. — Total nimiber, 82, as follows: 

New Mezico: Capitan Mountains, 46; Cloudcroft, 13; Jicarilla Mountains, 
10; Mescalero, 2; 28 Ruidoso, 5; 2» White Mountains (12,000 feet alti- 
tude), 1. 

Tezas: Guadalupe Mountains (head of Dog Canyon), 5. 

EUTAMIAS BULLERI (Allen) 

[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Characters. — Size large; hind foot, 34-38; skull length, 35.7-39.6; skull similar 
to that of cinereicollis but averaging larger; coloration similar to that of cinerei- 
collis but facial markings broader and more blackish; graj'ish collar present in 
some forms, nearly obsolete in others; head fuscous, sayal brown, or bister, 
mixed with grayish white; dark dorsal stripes black, shaded witli mikado brown; 
median pair of light dorsal stripes grayish white or cinnamon; outer pair creamy 
white, or shaded with buff; sides cinnamon, cinnamon buff, or sayal brown; rump 
and thighs cinnamon buff, mixed with smoke gray; hind feet pinkish buff or 
grayish white; under surface of tail pinkish buff, cinnamon, ochraceous tawny, 
or russet. 

EUTAMIAS BULLERI BULLERI (Allen) 
SiERKA Madre Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, e; 9, e) 

Tamias asiaticus bulleri Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 2: 173, October 21, 
1889. 



« Aea'I. Nat. Sti. Philadelphia, 1; State College N. Mex., 1. 
" Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia. 



10291 



EEVISION OF THE A.MERICA.N CHIPMUNKS 



103 



Tamias bulleri Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 92, June, 1890. 
Eutamias bulleri Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30: 40, December 
27, 1901. 

Cotypes. — Collected in the Sierra de Valparaiso, Zacatecas, Mexico, 
August 2, 1889, by Audley BuUer; adult females, skins and skulls; 
Nos. -fl^X) ifii) American Museum of Natural History. 

Geographic distribution. — Southern end of the Sierra Madre, in 
the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Zonal range: Transition; 8,000 to 
8.700 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias cinereicollis canipes, but sides paler; head 
darker; ocular stripe broader; submalar stripe and sides of nose darker; median 
dorsal stripe between ears broader and more blackish; outer pair of dark stripes 
darker (more blackish); feet averaging slightly more buffy; tail paler beneath; 
hind foot much larger; skull larger; ears averaging broader and less pointed. 
Compared with cinereicollis: Head darker; ocular stripe broader and more 
blackish; sides of body and underside of tail paler; hind feet slightly paler. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July and August) : Top of head fuscous or bister, 
sparingly mixed with grayish white; sides of crown bordered with fuscous black; 
ocular stripe broad, black, edged with mikado brown; submalar stripe mikado 
brown, mixed mth fuscous black; ears chajtura drab, broadly margined posteriorly 
with grayish or buffy white and edged on anterior margin with sayal brown; 
postauricular patches prominent, grayish white; grayish collar indistinct or 
obsolete; dorsal stripes black, margined with mikado brown; lateral stripes 
mikado brown, rather indistinct; median pair of light stripes grayish white, outer 

Eair white; sides dull cinnamon buff, shaded with sayal brown, becoming pinkish 
uff on shoulders; rump and thighs mixed cinnamon buff and smoke gray; 
feet pinkish buff or clay color, shaded with grayish white; tail above, fuscous 
black, overlaid with pinkish buff; tail beneath varying from cinnamon buff to 
sayal brown or ochraceous tawny; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage 
(November and December) : Similar to the summer pelage but dorsal stripes less 
contrasted in color; median pair of light stripes mixed with sayal brown, the 
outer pair creamy white; outer pair of dark stripes much mixed with mikado 
brown. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. cinereicollis canipes but averaging larger. 

Measurements.— Avereige of 10 adults from type locality: Total length, 235.4 
(222-247) ; tail vertebrae, 103.7 (93-113); hind foot, 36.8 (36-38); ear from notch, 
14.4 (13.2-16.5). Skull: Average of nine adults from type locality: Greatest 
length, 38.3 (37.2-39.6); zygomatic breadth, 20.5 (20-21); cranial breadth, 15.9 
(15.4-16.3); interorbital breadth, 8.4 (8-9.1); length of nasals, 12 (11.2-12.5). 

Bemarlcs. — The Sierra Madre chipmunk clearly belongs in the 
guadrivittatus group, having rather close relationship to both cinerei- 
collis and canipes. So far as known, however, there is a considerable 
gap between the ranges of the subspecies of hulleri and of cinereicollis; 
Eutamias hulleri durangx is not loiown from farther north than San 
Julian, in extreme southern Chihuahua, nor E. cinereicollis canipes 
from south of the Guadalupe Mountains, Tex. 

Typical hulleri apparently has a rather restricted range, being 
known at present only from the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; a short 
distance to the northward in the mountains near Durango City, it 
gives place to the subspecies durangx. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 36, as follows: 

Zacatecas: Sierra Madre [southwest of Sombrerete], 9; Valparaiso Moun- 
tains, 25; 3" no definite locality, 2.3i 



°° Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 5. 
" Mus. Comp. Zool. 



104 



NORTH AMEBIC A.N FA.UNA 



[No. 62 



EUTAMIAS BULLERI DURANGiE Allen 
DuRANGO Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, f; 9, f) 

Euiamias durangse Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19: 594, November 12, 1903. 
Tamias nexus Elliot, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 18: 233, December 9, 1905 
(Coyotes, Durango). 

Type. — Collected at Arroyo de Bucy, Sierra de Candella, Durango, 
Mexico (altitude, about 7,500 feet), May 29, 1903, by J. H. Batty; 
9 adult, skin and skull; No. 21410, American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Geographic distrihution. — Sierra Madre of Mexico from southern 
Dui'ango north to southern Chihuahua. Zonal range: Transition; 
6,500 to 8,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Euiamias b. bulleri but upper parts much more brown- 
ish, the dorsal stripes (except the median one) brownish instead of black, and 
light dorsal stripes duller white and much mixed with cinnamon; head paler, 
tail much darker beneath; ears averaging larger. 

Color. — Summer pelage (El Salto specimens, July) : Top of head mixed sayal 
brown and grajash Vvhite, bordered on each side with fuscous; ocular stripe black, 
mixed with verona brown between e3"e and ear; submalar stripe verona brown; 
ears fuscous anteriorly, the posterior tliird grayish or buffy white, tliis color 
forming a band about 4 millimeters broad; postauricular spots larger, grayish 
white; shoulders with a more or less distinct graj'ish wash; median dorsal stripe 
black, bordered with mikado broT\Ti, becoming paler and less distinct on nape 
and occiput; outer dorsal stripes broad, mikado brown, the lateral stripes of 
same color and ■Ridth as the inner pair; Mght dorsal stripes dull buffy white, 
mixed with cinnamon; sides dull cinnamon or cinnamon buff, shaded on shoul- 
ders ydth smoke gray; rump and thighs cinnamon buff mixed with smoke gray; 
feet pinkish buff; taU above, fuscous (the bases of the hairs pinkish cinnamon) 
overlaid with pale pinkish buff; taU beneath, dark tawny or russet, bordered 
with fuscous and tipped with pale pinkish buff; underparts creamy white tinged 
xnth pale buff. Worn winter pelage (topotj'pe series. May) : Similar to the sum- 
mer pelage, but upper parts less strongly suffused with brownish, the outer pair 
of dorsal stripes more blackisli. 

Skull. — Practicallj' identical with that of bulleri. 

Measurements. — Average of nine adults from El Salto, Durango: Total length, 
237.4 (228-248); tail vertebra;, 102.7 (96-110); hind foot, 37.1 (36-38); ear from 
notch, 16.3 (15-17.5). Skull: Average of six adults from type locality: Greatest 
length, 38.5 (37.9-39); zvgomatic breadth, 20.8 (20.3-21); cranial breadth, 16.2 
(15.8-16.7); interorbital breadth, 9 (8.4^9.8); length of nasals, 12.1 (11.6-12.5). 

Remarlcs. — Although there is apparently no barrier between the 
range of this race and that of hulleri there is a striking difference 
between the two forms in coloration. The characters are sho^vn in 
both pelages but are most pronounced in summer, v/hen the strong 
brownish suffusion on the back and the dark undersurface of the taH 
are in striking contrast with the blackish colors and pale tail of 
hulleri. The present form shows no approach toward E. cinereicollis. 

The type series of E. "nexus" has been examined and found to agree 
perfectly v/ith the series in summer pelage from El Salto, which is 
very close to the type locality of durangas.^^ 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 58, as follows: 

Chihuahua: Sierra Madre, near Guadalupe y Calvo, 26. 
Durango: Arroyo de Bucy (Sierra de Candella), 11; Ciudad, 2; *^ Coyotes, 
6; 25 El Salto, 13. 



" The piact location of Coyotes, whence came the type of nexus, is not known to the writer. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
»' Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 6. 



1829] 



REVISION OF THE AIvlERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



105 



EUTAMIAS BULLERI SOLIVAGUS Howell 
CoAHUiLA Chipmunk 
(Pls. 5, d; 9, d) 

Eutamias hulleri solivagus Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 179, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected in the Sierra Guadalupe, Coahuila, Mexico, 
May 1, 1902, by E. W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman; ? adult, skin 
and skull; No. 116882, United States National Museum (Biological 
Survey collection) ; original number, 15169. 

Geographic distribution. — Known only from the type locality. Zonal 
range: Transition; 8,500 to 9,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 6.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias h. hulleri, but sides and rump slightly darker; 
head sUghtly paler (more grayish); tail darker beneath and edged with a darker 
shade of buff; hind foot shorter; skuU smaller. Compared with E. cinereicollis 
canipes: Outer pair of dorsal stripes more blackish; sides and rump darker; 
postauricular patches less distinct; feet more bulfy (less grayish); tail darker 
beneath and edged with a darker shade of buff. 

Color. — Unworn summer (?) pelage (May 1): Top of head fuscous, overlaid 
with grayish white, shaded on front of face with snuff brown and bordered on 
sides of «rown with fuscous; sides of nose cinnamon buff; ocular stripe fuscous 
black, shaded posteriorly with verona brown; submalar stripe fuscous, mixed 
with verona brown; ears fuscous, margined posteriorly with grajdsh white and 
washed on anterior margin with mikado brown; postauricular patches small and 
indistinct, buffy white; shoulders faintly and indistinctly washed with smoke 
gray, mixed with dull cinnamon buff; dorsal stripes rather broad, black, margined 
with mikado brown; light dorsal stripes dull white, the median pair slightly more 
grayish; lateral stripes bister, broad, but not sharply defined; sides cinnamon 
and sayal brown, washed on shoulders with smoke gray and cinnamon buff; 
rump and thighs smoke gray, shaded with cinnamon buff; feet pinkish buff, 
shaded with grayish; tail above, fuscous (the bases of the hairs pinkish cinnamon), 
overlaid with pinkish buff; tail beneath, ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous 
and tipped with pinkish buff; underparts creamy white. Worn winter pelage: 
Similar to the fresh summer pelage, but dorsal stripes snuff brown faintly shaded 
with fuscous black, the median one often blaciv on hinder back. 

Skull. — Similar to that of hulleri, but smaller; very similar to that of E. cinerei- 
collis canipes. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type locality: Total length, 233.4 
(225-239); tail vertebrse, 106.5 (100-112); hind foot, 35 (34-36); ear from notch, 
15.4 (14.3-17). Skull: Greatest length, 36.3 (35.7-37.3) ; zygomatic breadth, 19.8 
(19.4^20.7); cranial breadth, 15.7 (15.1-16.1); interorbital breadth, 8.2 (7.9-8.7); 
length of nasals, 11.7 (11.3-12.1). 

RemarJcs. — This race apparently is confined to an isolated mountain 
range in southern Coahuila; it most resembles typical hulleri in color, 
but is readUy distinguished by the darker color of the underside of the 
taU; ia this character it resembles durangse, but differs from that 
race ia the absence of a huSj wash on the upper parts. 
^ In the series of 15 specimens from the type locahty, taken May 1-3, 
six are in a worn and faded winter pelage, while the remainder ap- 
parently are in a fresh summer pelage; the m.olt apparently begins on 
the hinder back and sides and spreads in both directions. Nelson and 
Goldman found this chipmunk common in the coniferous forest on top 
of the Sierra Guadalupe, above La Concordia. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 15, as follows: 

Coahuila; Sierra Guadalupe, 15. 



106 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



fNo. 62 



EUTAMIAS TOWNfiENDn GROUP 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII (Bachman) 

[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Characters. — Size large; hind foot, 34-39; slcull length, 36.8-40.8; skull similar 
in general to that of Eutamias bulleri, E. speciosus, and other members of the 
quadrivittatus group, but larger; zygomata more widely expanded at posterior end; 
audital bulla? relatively smaller; rostrum short and broad; coloration very variable, 
but tail edgings uniformly smoke gray or pale tilleul bufif (never deep buff) ; general 
tone of sides and upper parts varying from tawny, antique brown or Saccardo's 
umber to tawny olive, sayal brown, orange cinnamon, or clay color; dark dorsal 
stripes black or fuscous black, more or less mixed with sayal brown, mikado 
brown, or russet; median pair of light dorsal stripes varying from grayish white or 
smoke gra.v to ochraceous tawny and tawny olive; outer pair of light dorsal 
stripes varying from grayish white or creamy white (senex) to ochraceous tawny 
(townsendii) , in some races much obscured by cinnamon, tawny, or olivaceous tips; 
rump and thighs varying from smoke gray (senex) to ochraceous tawny (town- 
sendii) or Saccardo's umber (ochrogenys) ; hind feet varying from cinnamon buff or 
clay color to sayal brown, cinnamon, or tawny olive; underparts grayish white, 
creamy white, pinkish buff, pinkish cinnamon, or light ochraceous buff; under 
surface of tail varying from clay color or sayal brown to mikado brown, tawny, 
and hazel. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII TOWNSENDII (Bachman) 

Townsend's Chipmunk 

Tamias townsendii Bachman, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: pt. 1, p. 68, 
1839; Townsend, Narr. Journ. across Rocky Mts., etc., p. 321, 1839 (Colum- 
bia River). 

Tamias hindei (typ. err. for hindsii) Gray, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 10: 264, 
December, 1842. 

Tamias hindsii Gray, List Spec. Mamm. British Mus., p. 145, 1843 (not of Allen, 

Merriam, and other recent authors) .^^ 
Tamias quadrivittatus townsendii Allen, Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist. 16: 290, 1874. 
Tamias asiaticus var. townsendi Allen, Monog. North Amer. Rodentia: Report, 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 11: 794, 1877. 
Eutamias townsendi Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194-195, 1897. 
Tamias townsendi littoralis Elliot, Field Columbian Mus. Pub. Zool. 3: 153, 

April, 1903 (Marshfield, Oregon). 

Type (lecto type). —Collected on the Lower Columbia River, near 
lower mouth of Willamette River, Oreg., in 1834, b}^ J. K. Townsend 
(1839, p. 177); mounted skin (with skull inside); No. 241, collection of 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast region of southern British Col- 
umbia, Washington, and part of Oregon, from the lower Fraser River, 
British Columbia, south to Coos County, Oreg. (Myrtle Point), east to 
Church Mountain ("Mount Baker Range"), British Columbia, 
Alount St. Helens, Wash., and western base of Cascade Range in 
northern Oregon. Zonal range: Transition and Lower Canadian; 
sea level to 6,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters. — Size large (hind foot averaging 35 mm.); ears of moderate length, 
broadly rounded at tip; colors dark, the upper parts and sides rich tawny; post- 
auricular patches indistinct, or often obsolete; dark dorsal stripes distinct, black 
or brownish black; light dorsal stripes strongly ochraceous — never clear white; 
underparts whitish; tail edged with grayish; skuU similar in general shape to that 
of ruficaudus, but decidedly larger. 



" For the identification of this name, see Howell, 1922, p. 181-182. 



1929) 



REVISION OF THE AMERICA.N CHIPMUNKS 



107 




PiGURE 7. — Distribution of the subspecies of Eviamias townsendii and of E. alleni. 1, E. townsendii 
toiunsendii; 2, E. townsendii cooperi; 3, E. townsendii Siskiyou; i, E. townsendii senex; 5, E. town- 
sendii ocliTogenys; 6, E. townsendii sonomz; 7, E. alleni 



108 



[No. 52 



Color. — Tawny phase: General tone of upper parts antique brown or ochra- 
ceous tawnj-; top of head sayal brown or cinnamon, heavily clouded with fuscous 
black, and bordered on each side with a fuscous black stripe; sides of nose cinna- 
mon or sayal brown; stripe from eye to ear and submalar stripe fuscous black, 
often strongly shaded with sayal brown; eyelids bordered above and below with 
pinkish buff; light facial stripes rather indistinct, sometimes pinkish buff, but 
often much obscured with a wash of dull ochraceous buff; ears fuscous or fuscous 
black anteriorl}', the posterior third or fourth pale smoke gray; dark dorsal 
stripes black or fuscous black, the median one extending from crown to rump, 
the others becoming obsolete anteriorly; lateral stripe fuscous, always narrow 
and often nearly obsolete; light dorsal stripes ochraceous tawny, moderately 
shaded with buffy white and in worn pelage fading to soiled whitish, the four 
stripes usually of uniform tone, but outer pair sometimes slightly more whitish; 
sides, rump, and thighs ochraceous tawny to antique brown, the thighs slightly 
paler and more olivaceous; hind feet sayal brown, the toes cinnamon buff; front 
feet cinnamon buff, washed with fuscous; tail above fuscous black, overlaid with 
pale smoke gray; tail beneath, tawny or ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous 
black and tipped with pale smoke gray; underparts creamy white, often faintly 
shaded with pale pinldsh buff. Olivaceous phase (June and November, Portland, 
Oreg.) : General tone of upper parts and sides between tawny olive and Saccardo's 
umber; top of head similar to sides, but sprinkled with whitish; sides of head 
practically without tawny or sayal brown, the light facial stripes duU whitish, 
faintly edged with cinnamon; dark dorsal stripes fuscous black, the median one 
usuallA' darker; median pair of light stripes similar to sides; outer pair faintly 
washed with dull whitish; hind feet tawny olive, shaded with cinnamon buff; 
toes cinnamon buff, shaded with whitish; taU as in the ochraceous phase. 

Molt. — Very few specimens are available showing the molt in this race; one 
from Sumas, British Colum_bia, June 23, and one from Tenino, Wash., June 30 
(both males) , have a fresh tawny pelage covering the anterior half of the body 
to the middle of the back, the hinder parts being much faded, with whitish dorsal 
stripes. 

A specimen from Newport, Greg., August 5, shows a new pelage investing the 
rump and thighs; this molt apparently corresponds to the fall molt in other 
species, but no other specimens showing this molt have been seen. A specimen, 
however, from Empire, Oreg., October 13, and one from Mapleton, Oreg., October 
23, in the olivaceous phase are clearly in a fresh pelage. The winter pelage fades 
very decidedly in the spring, so that in many specimens taken in June or early 
July the tawny stripes of autumn have become buffy white in color. 

Skull. — Size larger; rostrum broad and heavy; nasals broad, terminating on a 
line with posterior border of premaxiUaries or slightly beyond. 

Measurements.' — Average of 10 adults from Portland, Oreg. : Total length, 249 
(235-263) ; tail vertebrss, 109.6 (96-125); hind foot, 35.1 (34-36); ear from notch, 
16.1 (15-17.5). Skull: Greatest length, 38.7 (38-39.5); zygomatic breadth, 
21.6 (21.2-21.9); cranial breadth, 16.5 (16.2-17); interorbital breadth, 8.6 (8-9); 
length of nasals, 12.2 (11.6-12.6). 

Remarks. — Townsend's cMpmunk occupies the humid, heavily 
forested coast region of Washington, southern British Columbia, and 
Oregon south about to Cape Blanco; in this region it is the only 
chipmunk found. Along the western base of the Cascades it grades 
into the subspecies cooperi and in the vicinity of Myrtle Point, Oreg., 
into the subspecies ochrogenys. A series of eight from_ the latter 
place is clearly referable to fonmsendii, although one specimen shows 
approach to ochrogenys in having buffy underparts. 

A large series froni Marshneld, Oreg., comprising both winter and 
summer pelages shows no appreciable differences from typical 
tovmsendii; therefore the form described by EUiot from that locality 
as "littoralis" is placed in synonymy. 

In the original description by Bachman, no type was designated 
and no mention is made of any particular specimen. Witmer Stone, 

^ It seems impossible to characterize summer and winter pelages of this race, since unworn specimens 
representing two phases of color but showing no pronounced seasonal differences are found througliout 
the year, and the very few specimens showing molt leave one in doubt as to the normal periods of pelage 
thange. 



1529] 



EEVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



109 



of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, informs the 
writer that there is but one specimen of this species, collected by 
Townsend, entered in the Academy's catalogue, and this specimen 
(No. 241, mounted skin with skull inside) through the kindness of 
Doctor Stone is now before the present reviser. It agrees perfectly 
with recently collected specimens from the type region but does not 
correspond in all details with the original description. Although it 
is not possible definitely to fix this specimen as a "type," doubtless 
it served in part at least as the basis of Bachman's description and it 
is hereby designated as a lectotype. Another of Bachman's speci- 
mens came into the possession of the United States National Museum, 
where it was entered as No. 92, a mouated skin with skull inside. 
Many years later the specimen was dismounted and the skull removed ; 
the skin has disappeared, but the skull was reentered imder the 
number 3S797, and is now in the collection (lacking the audital 
bullse and part of the brain case). 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 470, as follows: 

British Columbia: Chilliwack, 6; Chilliwack Lake, 1;38 Douglas, 3;" 
Esquimalt, 1; Huntingdon, 1;^" Langley, 8; Mount Baker Range 
(Church Mountain), 2; Mount Lehman, 9; " Skagit, 2; Sumas, 15; 
Tami Hy Creek, 2; so Vedder Mountain (near Chilliwack), 1;« West- 
minster, 1.^ 

Oregon: Astoria, 10; Beaverton, 4; Bissell, Clackamas County, 1; Blaine, 
7; " Clackamas County, 4; Columbia River, 2; Drain, 2; East Port- 
land, 2; Elk Head, 1; Empire, 4; Eugene, 2; Florence, 12; Forest Grove, 
7; Gardiner, 4; Grand Ronde, 4; Hood River, 1; Logan, 3; Mapleton, 
3; Marshfield, 27; « Myrtle Point, 8; Netarts, 1; Newport, 9; Oakland, 
1; 50 Oregon City, 2; Philomath, 5; Portland, 36; " Rainier, 1; ^2 Salem, 
19;^* Seaside, 15; Seaton (Mapleton), 5; Scottsburg, 3; Sellwood, 2; 
Smith River (near Gardiner), 1; Tillamook, 27; ^ Tualatin, 1; ^ Wilson 
River, Tillamook County, 1; Yaquina Bay, 6. 

Washington: Aberdeen, 2; Blyn, Clallam County, 1; Boulder Creek, 
Olympic Mountains, 6; Boulder Lake, Olympic Mountains, l;*"" 
Canyon Creek, Olympic Mountains, 1; Cape Disappointment, 4; 
Carson, 5; Cathlamet, 3; Cedarville, 2; Chehalis, 6; Chilliwack Creek, 
Whatcom County, 1;" Clinton, Whidbey Island, 3; Elwha River (at 
Boulder Creek, £60 feet altitude), 3; Elwha River (at Hays River, 2,000 
feet altitude); Elwha P. O., 2; Everett, 5; Forks, Clallam County, 3; 
Fort Steilacoom, 1; Granville (Tahola), 2; Hamilton, 1; Happy Lake, 
Olympic Mountains, 9; ''O Hwaco, 2; Kalama, 2;** Kirkland, 5; Lake 
Cushman, Olympic Mountains, 5; Lapush, 3; Mount Ellinor, Olympic 
Mountains (4,000 feet altitude), 3; Mount St. Helens, 3; Mount Vernon, 
4; Neah Bay, 22; NisquaUy, 2; North Bend, 7; Oakville, 1; Olympia, 
1;52 Olympic Mountains, 2; Ozette Lake, Clallam County, 2; Pacific 



88 Mus. Comp. Zool. 

Nat. Mus. Canada. 

Kenneth Racey coll. 
« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
" Mus. Comp. Zool., 8; Acad. Nat. Sci. PhUadelphia, 2. 
« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
" D. R. Dickey coll., 6; Univ. Mich., 1. 

" J. K. Townsend's specimens: U. S. Nat. Mus., 1; Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1. 

Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
" Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 8; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
" D. R. Dickey coU. 
M A. H. Helme coU. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 11; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1; E. R. Warren coll., 2. 
'2 Univ. Michigan. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6; A. H. Helme coll., 11. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 12; D. R. Dickey coll., 5. 
»5 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 5; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 
" Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 
" State College Wasfe. 

^ Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 3; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
™ Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 8; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1, 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 



110 



NORTH AMERICAJSr FAUNA 



INo. 62 



Countv, 2; Port Townsend, 1; Potlatch, Mason County, 1; " Puvallup, 
1;S8 Quinault Lake, 7; Rochester, 2; Roy, 1; Seattle,'l; «' Shelton, 5; 
Shoalwater Bay, 2; Silver Lake, 7 miles east of Castle Rock, 3; Skamania, 
1; Solednck Hot Springs, Clallam County, 1; Steilacoom, 5; Stevenson, 
Skamania County, 2; Taholah, Chehalis County, 1; Tenino, 3; Tokeland, 
2; Toledo, 3; Vancouver, 1. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII COOPERI (Baird) 



Tamias cooperi Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 334, 1855; Mamm. 

North Amer.: Expl. and Surv. R. R. Pac, p. 301 (footnote), 1857. 
Tamias toionsendii var. cooperi Baird, Mamm. North Amer., pi. 5, fig. 2, 1857, 
Eutamias cooperi Lyon, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 50: 89, 1907. 

Cotypes. — Collected at Klickitat Pass, Cascade Mountains, Ska- 
mania County, Wash, (altitude, 4,500 feet)'''%July, 1853, by J.G. Cooper; 
No. tVA) United States National Museum; adult (unsexed), skin and 
portion of skull; No. 4754, Museum Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
University (formerly No. -rrwj! United States National Museum); 
adult, sldn only. 

Geographic distribution. — Cascade Range (both slopes) in Wash- 
ington and Oregon and higher parts of the Olympic Mountains, 
Wash.; north to southwestern British Columbia (near Hope); south 
in the Cascades to Three Sisters, Oreg., and in western Oregon to 
southern Douglas County (Glendale); east to Lake Chelan and 
Wenatchee, Wash., west to Reston, Oreg. Zonal range: Canadian; 
1,100 feet (Lake Chelan) to 6,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias t. townsendii but decidedly paler and less 
taT\my; light dorsal stripes distinctly whitish; sides of face paler buff; feet paler 
(less ochraceous); tail paler beneath; skull slightly smaller. 

Color. — Summer pelage (August): Top of nose fuscous black; top of head 
mixed pinkish buff, smoke gray, and fuscous, bordered on each side with an 
indistinct line of fuscous; light facial stripes cream white; dark facial stripes 
cinnamon buff, shaded with fuscous; ears fuscous anteriorly, smoke gray poster- 
iorh'; dark dorsal stripes black or fuscous black, the outer pair usually paler, 
becoming indistinct anteriorly, aU moderately sprinkled with cinnamon buff; 
light dorsal stripes graj-ish white, the median pair washed with cinnamon buff; 
sides pale cinnamon buff; rump and thighs similar but more drab in tone; hind 
feet pinkish buff, clouded with fuscous; front feet similar but paler; tail above, 
fuscous black, sprinkled with grayish white; tail beneath, clay color, bordered 
with fuscous black and tipped with grayish white; underparts grayish white, 
tinged \\ith. cream color. Winter pelage (April 1, Mount Hood, Oreg.): Similar 
to the summer pelage, but slightly darker, the dorsal surface more washed with 
ochraceous tawny and the dorsal stripes less clear white. 

Molt. — A specimen ($ adult) from Entiat River, Wash., July 9, and one (c? 
adult) from Glendale, Oreg., June 12, show the summer pelage just beginning to 
appear on the head and fore back. In a .specimen from Anchor, Oreg., August 7, 
the fresh simimer pelage covers the anterior half of the back and most of the 
sides. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. t. townsendii but averaging smaller, with narrower 
rostrum. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Cascades of southern Washington 
(Mount Adams, Signal Peak, and McAllister Meadows, Tieton River) : Total 



Cooper's Chipmunk 



(Pls. 3, g; 7, g) 



2' Mus. Comp. ZooL 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" D. R. Dickey coll. 



«i Kans. Univ. Mus. 

« Cf. Cooper, Amer. Nat. 2: 531, 1869. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



111 



length, 250.3 (238-263); tail vertebra, 112.2 (102-120); hind foot, 35.7 (34-38); 
ear from notch, 16.8 (15-18). Skull: Greatest length, 37.9 (36.8-38.7); zygomatic 
breadth, 21.3 (20.6-22); cranial breadth, 16.2 (15.7-16.5); interorbital breadth, 
8.3 (8-8.7); length of nasals, 11.9 (11.4-12.4). 

RemarTcs Cooper' s chipmunk in its typical form is a well- 
marked, paler race of tomisendii, as is usually the case with the forms 
occupjdng the Cascades, in contrast to the richly colored forms 
hving in the humid coast region. 

Intergradation with tovynsendii takes place all along the west base 
of the Cascades; intermediate specimens have been examined from 
Roab's Ranch, near Hope, British Columbia; from the vicinity of 
McKenzie Bridge, Oreg. ; and from many other localities in Oregon 
and Washington. 

The series from Mount Rainier and the Olympic Mountains, Wash., 
are somewhat darker than typical coo-peri, but are best referred to 
that form; on the north slopes of the Olympics, this race descends to 
very low altitudes, specimens from 4 miles southwest of Port Angeles 
at an altitude of 800 feet, being much nearer to cooperi than to 
to^vnsendii. 

A large series in winter pelage from Glendale, Oreg., is intermediate 
between cooperi and townsendii, but apparently nearer to the former; 
although this series might be expected to show approach to siskiyou, 
which occurs on the slopes of the Siskiyou Range, less than 30 miles 
southwest of Glendale, such is not the case, and apparently the two 
races do not intergrade at this point. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 333, as follows: 

British Columbia: Chilliv.'ack Lake, 6; Chilliwack Vallev,2; '^^ Cultus Lake 
1;«3 Hope, 18; 64 Huntingdon, 11; Lihumption Park, l.^s 

Oregon: Anchor, 7; Bald Mountain, head of Clackamas River, 1; Blue 
River, 2; Cascade Mountains (east base, southeast of Mount Hood), 2; 
Detroit, 7; Glendale, 33; McKenzie Bridge (including O'Leary Moun- 
tain, 10 miles south), 16; Mount Hood, 9; Parkdale, 3; Permelia Lake, 
west base of Mount Jefferson, 11; Reston, 2; Vida, 3; Wapinitia, 1. 

Washington: American Lake, Pierce County, 1;^ Barron (5,000 feet 
altitude), 3; Beaver Creek, Whatcom County (2,500 feet altitude), 3; 
Beaver Pass, Whatcom County, 1; Blewett Pass, Kittitas County, 1; 
Buck Creek Pass (head of Suiattle River, Snohomish County, 1; Bump- 
ing Lake, Yakima County, 5; Canyon Creek, Clallam County, 2; Cas- 
cade Mountains, Skamania County (60 miles east of Toledo), 1; Cascade 
Tunnel, Chelan County, 2; Chilliwack Creek, Whatcom County (30 
miles east of Glacier), 5; Dosewallips River, Jefferson County ("head- 
waters, 4,500 feet altitude), 3; Easton, 6; Elwha, Olympic Mountains, 
1; ^6 Elwha River, Jefferson County (2,750 feet altitude), 4; Entiat River 
(20 miles from mouth), 11; Fort Simcoe (9 miles southwest), 1; Glacier, 
Whatcom County, 1; Goose Prairie, Bumping River, 1; Hoh River, 
Clallam County (5,000 feet altitude), 1; Husam, 2; Index, 1; Index 
Peak (2,700 feet altitude), 5; Keechelus Lake, 11; Klickitat Pass, 
Skamania County, 2; " Lake Chelan (head), 10; Longmire, 1; <"> Martin, 
Ettitas County, 3; McAllister Meadows, Tieton Paver, 5; Mount 
Adams (Gotchen Creek, 3,500 feet altitude), 6; Mount Aix (head Hindoo 
Creek, 6,500 feet altitude), 2; Mount Angeles (6,000 feet altitude), 4; 
Mount Rainier (2,000 to 6,000 feet altitude), 39; Mount Stuart, l;"* 
Nooksak River (14 miles east of Glacier), 2; Port Angeles (4 miles south- 
west, on Frazier Creek), 3; Quinault River (head of north fork, 4,000 
feet altitude), 4; Ruby Creek, Whatcom County, 3; Scenic, King County, 
3; Seven Lakes Basin, Clallam County, 1; Snoqualmie Pass, King 



" Nat. Mus. Canada. 

x Mus. Comp. Zool., 13; Nat. Mus. Canada, 5. 
«s Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelpliia. 



85 state College Wash. 
«' Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 



112 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA. 



[No.e2 



County, 1; Stehekin, 12; Stevens Pass (King and Chelan Counties), 4; 
Swamp Creek, Nooksak River, 1 Teanaway River (north fork, 6 miles 
south of Mount Stuart), 4; Trout Lake, Klickitat County, 3; Twin 
Sister Lakes (near Cowlitz Pass, Yakima County), 1; Wenatcliee 
(mountains near), 5; Wenatehee Lake, 1; White Salrnon, 1; Winchester 
Mountain, Whatcom County (5,200 feet altitude), 1; Signal Peak, 
Yakima Indian Reservation, 2. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII OCHROGENYS Merriam 
Redwood Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, h; 7, h) 

Eutamias townsendi ochrogenys Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 195, 206, 
July 1, 1897. 

Tamias townsendi ochrogenys Elliot, Field Columbian Mus. Pub. Zool. 3: 182, 
1903. 

Tyj)e. — Collected at Mendocino, Calif., July 17, 1894, by J. E. 
McLellan; 9 adult, skin and skull; No. 67182, United States National 
Museum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 1015. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast region of southern Oregon and 
northern California, from Port Orford, Oreg., south to Freestone, 
Sonoma County, Calif., east to Gasquet and Willits, Calif. Zonal 
range: Transition; sea level to 2,700 feet altitude. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters.- — Similar to Eutamias t. townsendii, but larger; general tone of 
upper parts and sides in winter pelage less tawny and more olivaceous; light 
dorsal stripes more whitish; postauricular patches larger; underparts strongly 
washed with pinkish buff. 

Color. — Winter -pelage (November) : General tone of upper parts dark tawny 
oUve; sides of nose and cheeks deep cinnamon bu£f or pale ochraceous tawny; 
dark facial stripes fuscous, not sharply defined; light stripes grayish, washed 
with pinkish cinnamon; ears fuscous, broadly margined posteriorly with pale 
smoke gray; postauricular patches pale smoke gray; dark dorsal stripes fuscous 
black, scarcely reaching to the rump, the outer pair becoming indistinct ante- 
riorly; median pair of hght stripes tawny olive, often w"ashed with grayish; outer 
pair grayish white, sometimes clouded vWth ochraceous tawny; sides tawny olive; 
rump and thighs Saccardo's umber; hind feet pinkish cinnamon or clay color, 
more or less shaded with tawny ohve; front feet similar but paler; tail above, 
fuscous black, sprinkled with smoke gray; tail beneath, mikado brown or sayal 
brown, bordered with fuscous black and edged with smoke gray; underparts 
grayish white, strongly washed Vvdth pinkish buff or light pinkish cinnamon. 
Summer pelage (July-September) : General tone of upper parts more tawn}' than 
in winter; median pair of light dorsal stripes usually wliitish, Hke the outer pair; 
sides of nose and cheeks between cinnamon and tawny; sides of body tawny; 
underparts c'nna.mon buff. 

Molt. — The beginning of the summer molt is shown by a specimen ( c? adult) 
from Cazadero, Calif., July 4, 1894, in which the new pelage has appeared on 
the head and in an irregular shaped patch on the nape and fore back. In a 
specimen (the type, S adult) from Mendocino City, Calif., July 17, 1894, the 
new pelage covers the anterior portion of the body to the middle of the back, 
except for a patch on the right shoulder, where an area of old pelage still persists. 
On the underparts the new pelage extends a little farther back than on the upper 
parts, and an isolated patch of new hair shows on the right groin. The fall molt 
is well shown by a specimen from Mendocino City, November 7, in which the 
winter pelage is coming in thickly on the rump and hinder back. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. t. townsendii but averaging larger, with slenderer 
rostrum. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from type locality: Total length, 265.2 
(252-277); tail vertebrae, 116.2 (107-126); hind foot, 37.7 (37-39); ear from 
notch, 17 (15-18). Skull: Average of seven adults from type locality: Greatest 
length, 40.1 (39-40.8); zygomatic breadth, 22.1 (21.7-22.4); cranial breadth, 
16.8 (16.4-17.2); interorbital breadth, 8.8 (8.4-9.6); length of nasals, 12.6 
(11.9-13.7). 



M State CoUege Wash. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMEMCAJ^ CHIPMUNKS 



113 



Bemarks. — The Redwood chipmunk is the largest and darkest mem- 
ber of the genus, occupying a narrow strip of humid forest along the 
coast of southern Oregon and northern California. A short distance 
back from the coast, it passes into the subspecies siskiyou. Speci- 
mens intermediate between these two races have been exam.ined from 
Gasquet and Dyerville, Calif. The present form apparently does 
not intergrade, however, with either alleni or sonomse. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 319, as follows: 

California: Areata, 1;^' Alton Junction, Humboldt County, 2; Bayside, 
Humboldt County, 1; Cahto, 2; Camp Meeker, 9; Carlotta, Humboldt 
County, 2; ™ Carson Camp, Humboldt Bay, 20; Cazadero, 17; Cres- 
cent City, 26; Cuddeback, Humboldt County, 5; Dyerville, 3; Eureka, 
7; 89 Fair Oaks, Humboldt County, 17; Freestone, 11; Freshwater, 
Humboldt County, 2; Gasquet, Del Norte County (at junction of 
Smith River and Stony Creek), 11; Gualala, 34; Hardy, Mendocino 
County, 2; Humboldt Bay, 4; Lake Leonard, Mendocino County, 1; 
Laytonville (6 miles southwest) , 2 ; Mad River, Humboldt County, 1; 
Mendocino, 72; Orick, Humboldt County, 5; Philo, 2; " Rio Dell, 3; 
Sherwood, 33; '2 Smith River, Del Norte County, 3; Trinidad, 4; 69 
Upper Mattole (20 miles southeast), 1; Willits, 1.^9 

Oregon: Goldbeach, 11; port Orford, 3; Rogue River Mountains, 1. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII SISKIYOU Howell 
Siskiyou Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, j; 7, j) 

Eutamias townsendii sishiyou Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 180, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected near siunmit of White Mountain, Siskiyou 
Mountains, Cahf. (altitude, 6,000 feet), September 16, 1909, by Ned 
Hollister; ? adult, skin and skull; No. 161033, United States Na- 
tional Museum (Biological Survey collection); original number, 3432. 

Geographic distribution. — Siskiyou Moimtain region of northern 
Cahfornia and southern Oregon; north to southern Douglas County 
(east of Drew), Oreg.; south to Van Dusen River, Humboldt County, 
Cahf. Zonal range: Canadian. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters. — Nearest to Eutamias townsendii senex, from which it differs 
in darker coloration of the upper parts and sides, the rump and thighs especially 
being much more brownish (less grayish). Compared with ochrogenys: Colora- 
tion much more grayish (less brownish) ; light dorsal stripes grayish white instead 
of tawny olive; sides of head and face much less ochraceous; underparts more 
whitish, only faintly washed with pinkish buff; tail paler beneath. ' Compared 
with sonomse: Coloration in winter pelage paler and more grayish (less tawny); 
in summer pelage general tone of upper parts more brownish, lacking the bright 
cinnamon wash on back and sides of sonomx; ears with distinct whitish patches on 
posterior border. 

Color. — Winter -pelage (October) : Top of head fuscous sprinkled with pinkish 
cinnamon and grayish white; sides of nose pinkish cinnamon; dark facial stripes 
sayal brown, shaded with fuscous; light facial stripes buffy whitish; ears fuscous 
black, the posterior half grayish white; postauricular patches pale smoke gray; 
median dorsal stripes black; outer pair fuscous black, overlaid with sayal brown; 
light dorsal stripes grayish white, the outer pair usuaUy purer white; sides sayal 



8' Gasquet is on Smith River at the mouth of Stony Creek, and about 5 miles east of the eastern limit of 
the redwood forest; these intermediate specimens, therefore, were taken very close to the edge of this forest. 
89 Mus. Vert. Zool. 

™ D. R. Dickey coll., Pasadena, Calif. 

" Mus. Vert. Zool., 12. 

n Mus. Vert. Zool., 23. 

" Mus. Vert. Zool., 1; D. R. Dickey coll., 1. 

Mus. Vert. Zool., 22. 
" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. 
'»<■ Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 9. 

40279°— 29 8 



114 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



bro\\'n or clay color; rump and thighs mixed saj^al brown and smoke gray; hind 
feet tawnj' olive or clay color, the toes cinnamon buff; front feet similar, but 
paler; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with pale smoke gray; tail beneath, 
ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black and edged with pale smoke gray; 
underparts gra3-ish white, faintly washed with pinkish buff. Summer pelage 
(Siskiyou, Oreg., October) : General tone of upper parts more tawny (less grayish) 
than in winter pelage; outer pair of light dorsal stripes clear grayish white; inner 
pair much clouded with cinnamon; sides ochraceous tawny; otherwise, as in 
\s-inter pelage. 

Molt. — The fall molt is well shown by a male specimen from Siskiyou, Oreg., 
September 29, and a female from Shelley Creek, Siskiyou Mountains, Calif., 
October 18, in each of which the rump and hinder back are covered with the 
fresh winter pelage. 

Shdl. — Similar to that of ochrogenys but averaging smaller. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Siskiyou Mountains (Preston 
Peak), Calif.: Total length, 255.3 (250-268); tail vertebraj, 110.8 (98-117); 
hind foot, 36.5 (35-38); ear from notch, 16.6 (15-18). Skull: Average of 10 
adults from Siskivou Mountains: Greatest length, 38.9 (38.1-39.5); zygomatic 
breadth; 21.5 (207-21.9); cranial breadth. 16.2 (16-16.5); interorbital breadth, 
8.4 (8.1-8.7); length of nasals, 12.9 (12.1-13.6). 

Remarks. — The Siskiyou chipmunk is a connecting hnk between 
ochrogenys and senex, intergrading with the former along the west 
base of the mountains near the coast and with the latter on the west 
slopes of the Cascades of southern Oregon. Although, of course, it 
is intermediate in characters betv/een the two races, it nevertheless 
has well-defined characters distinguishing it from either and occupies 
an area of considerable breadth. It apparently intergrades also \vith 
sonomx, as indicated by a series of specimens from Hoopa Valley, 
Cahf. (See imder sonomse, p. 118.) 

Three specimens from Van Dusen River, Hmnboldt County, Calif., 
are apparently typical sisTciyou, but material is lacking to show just 
how this form reaches this point from its main range in the Sisldyou 
Mountains. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 174, as follows: 

California: Salmon Mountains (west of Etna Mills), 9; Salmon Mountains 
(west of forks of Salmon), 3; Siskiyou Mountains, 92 (Preston Peak, 35; 
Shelley Creek, 24; White Mountain, 33); Van Dusen River, Humboldt 
County (12 miles east of Bridge ville) , 3. 

Oregon: Agness, 1;'^ Ashland Peak (Mount Wagner, south of Ashland), 
13; Drew ("halfway between Drew and Crater Lake"), 4; Farren 
Ranger Station (on Briggs Creek, 18 miles southwest of Galice), 8; 
Siskiyou, 40; Three Sisters (west base, 5,000 feet altitude), 1. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII SENEX (Allen) 

Large Mountain Chipmunk 

(Pls. 3, i; 7, i) 

Tamias senex Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 83, June, 1890. 

Eutamias senex Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, 196, July 1, 1897. 

Type. — Collected at Summit of Donner Pass, Placer County, 
Calif., July 1, 1885, by L. Belding; adult, skin and skull; No. 186461, 
United States National Museum (formerly No. 1133, Merriam 
collection). 

Geogro.pliic distribution. — Higher parts of the Sierra-Cascade 
system, from the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oreg., south to 
the headwaters of the Merced River, Yosemite National Park, Cahf.; 



" Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 



1929], 



REVISION OF THE AMEBIC A.N CHIPMUNES 



115 



east to the Big Valley Mountains, Lassen County, and the Warner 
Mountains, Modoc County, Calif. ; west to the Salmon Mountains, on 
the line between Siskiyou and Trinity Counties, Calif. ; and south in 
the interior coast range to southern Tehama County (head of Grind- 
stone Creek). Zonal range- Canadian; 3,300 " to 9,000 ^^ feet 
altitude. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias townsendii siskiyou but paler and more 
grayish, especially on the rump and thighs. Compared with coo-peri: General 
tone of upper parts much more grayish (less ochraceous); sides brighter (more 
tawny) especially in summer pelage; light dorsal stripes clearer white; dark dorsal 
stripes more mixed with tawny. 

Color. — Winter -pelage (October to May) : Top of head mixed pinkish cinnamon 
and fuscous, sprinkled with grayish white, bordered on each side with a stripe of 
fuscous; sides of nose cinnamon; dark facial stripes sayal brown, shaded with 
fuscous, with a blackish patch behind the eye; light facial stripes grayish white, 
tinged with buff ; ears fuscous or fuscous black, bordered posteriorly with grayish 
white; postauricular patches grayish white; shoulders usually washed with 
smoke gray; dark dorsal stripes fuscous black, more or less mixed with mikado 
brown, the median stripe usually darkest; light dorsal stripes grayish white, the 
median pair sometimes faintly clouded with cinnamon; lateral stripes mikado 
brown; sides clay color; rump and thighs dark smoke gray or mouse gray; hind 
feet clay color or pale ochraceous tawny; the toes cinnamon buff; front feet 
cinnamon buff; taU above, fuscous black, overlaid with pale smoke graj'^; tail 
beneath, sayal brown or pale ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black 
and edged with pale smoke gray; underparts creamy white. Summer pelage 
(July-September) : Similar to the winter pelage, but sides darker (about sayal 
brown) and general tone of upper parts more ochraceous, lacking the grayish wash 
on shoulders and rimip; median pair of light dorsal stripes often strongly mixed 
with pinkish buff. 

Molt. — The summer molt may occur at any time during July or August, and 
exceptionally in September. An adult male from Sierra Buttes, Calif., June 27, 
and another from Mount Shasta, July 16, have the new pelage covering about 
two-thirds of the anterior portion of the body. A male from Summit [Donner], 
Calif., August 4, and a female from the same locality, August 12, have a little 
more than half the body covered by the new pelage. A breeding female from 
Wildwood, Trinity County, Cahf., August 26, has the anterior half of th,e body 
covered by new pelage, the posterior half in much worn winter pelage. Another 
breeding female from Bear Creek, near Fort Crook, Calif., September 19, 1893, 
is apparently molting into summer pelage, although this is about the date to 
expect the fall molt into winter pelage. Specimens from Beswick, Calif., Sep- 
tember 17 and 22, show the winter pelage beginning to invest the rump. 

Skull. — Closely simUar to that of siskiyou but averaging sUghtly smaller; 
practically identical with that of townsendii; larger than that of cooperi with 
broader rostrum. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type region (Donner, PrattviUe, 
and Lake Tahoe): Total l,ength, 243.3 (229-258): tail vertebraj, 102.9 (9&-112); 
hind foot, 36.3 (35-38); ear from notch, 17.2 (15-19). Skull: Average of 11 
adults from type locahty: Greatest length, 38.4 (37.3-39.8); zygomatic breadth, 
21.4 (20.5-22.2); cranial breadth, 16.3 (15.6-16.8); interorbital breadth, 8.4 
(7.8-9); length of nasals, 12.3 (11.6-12.7). Weight: Average of 31 specimens, 
89.6 grams (70.3-123.2). 

Remarlcs. — The large mountain chipmunk is the palest and grayest 
of the races of tovonsendii. It has an extensive range in California 
and Oregon and shows comparatively Httle variation over its entire 
range in the Sierra-Cascade system. In northwestern California and 
southwestern Oregon it grades into the dark form recently described 
as sisJciyou; large series of specimens in both pelages from the Trinity 
and Salmon Mountains are variously intermediate between these two 
forms, but nearer on the whole to senex; the darkest specimens are 



" Specimens from Greenville, Plumas County. 

" Specimens from south fork American Eiver (head) and from Cloud's Rest Trail, Yosemite Park. 



116 



NORTH A.MBRICAN FA.UNA. 



(No. 62 



from Wildcat Peak and Jackson Lake, near the north end of Salmon 
Mountains, some individuals from these places being almost as dark 
as sisidyou, while others are nearer senex; in all of those from the 
Trinity region the underside of the tail is darker than in typical senex. 
The series from South Yolla BoUy Mountain is nearest to senex but 
several specimens apparently show approach to sonomx in having 
more ochraceous mixed in the dorsal stripes and the hind feet paler. 
Specimens examined. — Total number, 720, as follows: 

California: South fork American River (near head), 2; Aspen Valley, 
Yosemite National Park, 1;^' Baird, 1; Battle Creek Meadows, Tehama 
County (10 miles south of Lassen Peak), 1; Bear Creek, Shasta County, 
4; Bear Creek (near head), Trinity County (Mount Eddy), 26; 
Beswick, 21; Big Valley Mountains, Lassen County, 15; Buck Ranch, 
Plumas County (5 miles north of Mount Ararat), 5; Burney (12 miles 
west), 1; CampbeU Hot Springs (near Slerraville) , 1; Canby (20 miles 
northwest), Modoc County, 1;'" Canby (10 miles north), 1; Canyon 
Creek, Trinity County, 6; Carberry Ranch, Shasta County (12 miles 
west of Burney), 44; Cascade Creek, Yosemite National Park, 1;™ 
Castle Lake, Siskiyou County, 35; Chaparral, Butte County (about 23 
miles southwest of Prattville), 21; Cisco, Placer County, 32; Cloud's 
Rest Trail, Yosemite National Park, l;'^ Coffee Creek (north fork) 
Trinity County, 8; Crane Flat, Mariposa County, 1;'" Donner, 22; 
Donner Pass, 1; ''^ Echo, Eldorado County, 2; Echo Creek Basin, 
Yosemite National Park, 1; Eagle Lake, Lassen County, 1; " Emerald 
Bay, Lake Tahoe, 11; Fallen Leaf Lake, 3; Fall River Mills, Shasta 
County, 1; Fall River Valley, 1; Fort BidweU, Modoc County, 8; 8^ 
Fort Crook, Shasta County, 25; Glen Alpine Springs, Eldorado County, 
1; " Glenn Aulin, Tuolumne River, Yosemite National Park, 2; "Goose 
Nest Mountain, Siskiyou County, 3; Greenville, 11; Grizzly Creek, 
Trinity County, 4; Grizzly Mountains, Plumas County, 4; Grindstone 
Creek, Tehama County (6,500 feet altitude), 3; Hermit Valley, 
Calaveras County, 2; Hat Creek Valley, Shasta County, 2; Hot 
Springs Valley, Plumas County, 1; Independence Lake, Nevada 
County, 6; ™ Indian Canyon, Mariposa County, 10; Jackson Lake, 
Siskiyou County (Salmon Mountains), 14; " Johnson Pass, Placer 
• County, 1; " Johnsville, Plumas County, 2; " Kangaroo Creek, Siskiyou 
County, 1; " Lake Tahoe, 6; Lassen Creek, Modoc County, 1; Little 
Yosemite, 1; Lyonsville, Tehama County, 4; MarkleeviUe, 2; McCloud, 
6; McCloud River (near Bartle), 5; McKinney, Lake Tahoe, 5; Merced 
Lake, Yosemite National Park, 11;" Merced River (near head), 5; 
Mohawk, Plumas County, 3; Mono Meadows, Yosemite National 
Park, 10; Mount Shasta, 61; Mount Tallac, 24; Parker Creek, Warner 
Mountains, 1; " Picard 1; Prattville, 5; Plumas County, 1; Porcupine 
Flat, Yosemite National Park, 1; Pyramid Peak, Eldorado County, 
6; Quincy, 28; Paish Creek, Siskiyou County (Salmon Mountains), 3; " 
Salmon River, Siskijrou County (south fork, at 5,000 feet altitude), 2;" 
Shasta County, 1; Shasta Valley, 1; Shingletown, Shasta County, 1; Sierra 
Buttes, Sierra County, 2: Sierra City, 1; Sierra Valley, Plumas County, 1; 
Silver Creek, Alpine County, 1; Silver Lake, Amador County, 5;^ 
Sisson, 13; Slippery Ford Eldorado County, l;8i South Yolla BoUy 
Mountain, 10; " Squav/ Creek Valley, Shasta County, 6; Stanislaus 
River, Calaveras County (north fork, at 6,700 feet altitude), 1; Sugar 
HiU, Modoc County, 6; " Susanville, 4; " Tallac, Eldorado County, 2; 
Tamarack Flat, Mariposa County, 1;" Tuolumne River, Yosemite 
National Park, 2; " V/arner Creek, Shasta County (southeast base of 
Mount Lassen), 1; V/ashburn Lake, Merced River, Yosemite National 
Park, 2; " Wildcat Peak, Siskiyou County (Salmon Mountains,) 3; ™ 
Wildwood, Trinity County, 1; Chinquapin, Yosemite National Park, 5; 



'« Mus. Vert. Zool. 

6« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 19; Colorado Agr. College, 2. 

*' Mus. Comp. Zool. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

88 Kans. Univ. Mus. 

^ Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 7; Mus. Comp. Zool., 7; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 

Carnegie Mus. 
65 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 6; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1. . 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



117 



Yosemite Valley, l;'^ Yosemite Creek, Yosemite National Park, 1; 
Yosemite Falls, 1; Yosemite Point, 7; Willow Creek Valley, l;^^ 
Woodfords, Alpine County, 2. 
Nevada: Glenbrook, 2. 

Oregon: Arnold Ice Cave, 2; Bend, 3; Crater Lake, 15; Fort Klamath, 
18; Klamath Falls, 2; Klamath Marsh, 1; Lakeview, 1; Mount 
Mazama (Anna Creek), 2; Naylox, 2; Paulina Lake, 3; Prospect, 12; 
Silverlake (west Silver Creek, 4,650 feet altitude), 1; Warm Springs 
(20 miles west, on Mill Creek), 7; Yamsay Mountains, 2. 

EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII SONOMA Gkinwell 
Sonoma Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, l; 7, l) 

Eutamias sonomse GrinneU, Univ. California Pub. Zool. 12: 321, January 20, 1915. 
Eutamias townsendii sonomse Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 184, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected at Giiemeville, Sonoma County, Calif., July 12, 
1913, by Joseph and Hilda W. GrinneU; $ adult, skin and skull; 
No. 20825, Mus. Vert. ZooL, Univ. of California; original number, 
2250. 

GeograpJiic distribution. — "Inner coast ranges and intervening 
valleys [of northern California] lying between the narrow coastal 
Redwood fauna on the west and the Sacramento fauna on the east" 
(GrinneU, 1915, p. 324); north to the Scott Moxmtains, Sisldyou 
County; south to Freestone and Vacaville; east to eastern slopes of 
the Coast Range; west to Briceland, Willits, and Guerneville, Zonal 
range: Transition; 900 to 4,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias townsendii siskiyou, but coloration in summer 
pelage brighter tawny; median pair of light dorsal stripes heavily mixed with 
pinkish cinnamon; head paler (more grayish); sides of nose paler buff; facial 
stripes clearer white; hind feet paler; in winter pelage head and upper parts more 
brownish (less grayish); sides darker tawny; tail darker both above and below. 
Compared with ochrogenys: Size smaller; upper parts in winter pelage decidedly 
more tawny (less oliva-ceous) ; sides of face less extensively washed with buff; 
light dorsal stripes more whitish; underparts whitish instead of buff; taU darker 
beneath; in summer pelage, upper parts and sides much paler tawny; sides of 
head and face without ochraceous wash; the facial stripes white instead of buff; 
top of head much paler; hind feet paler; underparts whitish instead of buff. 
Compared with senex: Upper parts much darker and more tawny (less grayish), 
especially in winter pelage; head darker in winter, but more grayish (less buffy) 
in summer; hind feet less buffy (more grayish) especially in summer; tail longer, 
the under surface darker, especially in winter. 

Color.- — Summer pelage (July-September) : Top of head pale smoke gray, 
mixed with sayal brown and bordered with fuscous; light facial stripes grayish 
white; postocular streak fuscous, shaded with sayal brown; submalar stripe 
similar but paler, and shading anteriorly to cinnamon; ears sayal brown ante- 
riorly, mouse gray posteriorly; postauricular patches creamy white; shoulders 
and fore back betvi^een pinkish cinnamon and cinnamon buff, shaded with fuscous; 
median dorsal stripe blackish, bordered with cinnamon; outer pair of dark dorsal 
stripes black or fuscous black, more or less overlaid with ochraceous tawny; 
median pair of light stripes smoke gray, sprinkled with cinnamon and largely 
overlaid with a wash of that color on anterior back; outer pair of light stripes 
clear creamy white; lateral stripes nearly obsolete; sides ochraceous tawny; rump 
and thighs mouse gray, mixed with cinnamon buff; hind feet cinnamon buff, 
shading on inside of legs to light pinkish cinnamon; tail above, fuscous black, 
sprinkled with pale buff; tail beneath, between tawny and ochraceous tawny, 
bordered with fuscous black and edged with tilleul buff ; underparts creamy white, 
sometimes faintly tinged with pale pinkish cinnamon. Winter pelage (Christine, 
Calif., November 18) : Similar to the summer pelage but darker; head vandyke 



" Mus. Vert. Zool. 



83 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



6« Carnegie Mus. 



118 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



mo. r>2 



brown, sprinkled with g:raYish white; dark facial stripes vandyko brown, shaded 
with blackish; ears fuscons anteriorly, smoivC gray posteriorly; median dorsal 
stripe blackish, edged with russet; outer dorsal stripes russet, shaded with 
blackish; sides dull tawny sprinkled with fuscous and sliading above to russet; 
light dorsal stripes pale smoke gray, the median i)air faintly washed with tawny; 
thighs hair brown, sprinkled with grayish white; hind feet cinnamon bulT, shaded 
with fuscous; tail above, sayal brown, overlaid witli blackish and sprinkled with 
grayish white; tail beneath, hazel bordered with blackish and edged with grayish 
white; uuderparts creamy white. 

Moll. — The change from summer to winter pelage is shown by several speci- 
mens from Lower Lake, Calif., October 24 to 27, in which the new pelage covers 
the posterior half of the body. 

SA-uiL— Similar to that of siskiyou but averaging narrower across zygomata, 
and nasals averaging shorter; decidedly smaller than that of ochrogenys. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Sonoma and Mendocino Counties: 
Total length, 250.1 (220-264); tail vcrtebra\ 116.3 (100-126); hind foot, 37 
(35.5-39); ear from notch, 17.2 (15.5-19). Skull: Average of 10 adults from 
Sonoma and Lake Counties: Greatest length, 38.7 (38-39.7); zygomatic breadth, 
20.8 (19.4-21.3); cranial breadth, 16.1 (15.4-16.5); interorbital breadth, 8.9 
(8.4-9.2); length of nasals, 11.9 (11.3-12.7). 

Remarks. — The Sonoma cliipraiink is one of the brightest and 
handsomest forms in the townsendii group. Its subspecific relation- 
ship to the townsendii group is proved by a series from Hoopa Valley, 
which shows intergradation with sislciyou in having darker feet than 
typical sonomse, less of an ochraceous wash on the upper parts, and 
whitish patches on the ears. More than half of this series show 
intermediate characters; three agree closely with sonomx, and one 
with sislciyou. 

In the Salmon Mountains, west of Etna Mills, however, the ranges 
of sonomse and sislciyou meet and the two forms remain distinct. In 
the series of 20 from this locality, 11 taken in the valley are clearly 
referable to sonomse, while 9 taken near the summit of the mountains 
at about 6,000 feet altitude, are just as certainly sislciyou. On the 
west slope of the same range, at an altitude of 3,300 feet, 1 specimen 
of sonomse and 3 of sislciyou were taken at the same or near-by points. 

Intergradation with senex is suggested (if not proved) by the series 
from South Yolla Bolly Mountain. Farther cast, however, sonomse 
seems to intrude into the range of senex, notably at Dana and Fort 
Crook, Shasta County, from which localities 13 practically typical 
specimens have been examined; whereas a large series from Fort 
Crook and from Big Valley Mountains, east of Dana, are clearly 
referable to senex. 

Specimens in winter pelage from Christine and Eel River (Mendo- 
cino County) are somewhat darker on the upper parts of body and 
on underside of tail, perhaps indicating gradation toward ochrogenys. 
A specimen in winter pelage from Philo, Mendocino County, Cahf., 
agrees closely in color with typical sonomx; its skull, however, is 
shghtly larger than that of sonomx. Two specimens of typical 
ochrogenys also have been examined from this locality. At Freestone 
and at a point 7 miles west of Cazadero, both sonomx and ochrogenys 
occur in their typical forms, and Grinncll states (1915, p. 324) that 
the two races were taken in the same line of traps. 

Sjjecimens examined. — Total number, 240, as follows. 

California: Berger Creek (near Sherwood), 1; Briceland, Humboldt 
County, 1; Cahto, 8; Calpclla, 1; Ca.stlc Peak, Mendocino County, 
1;" Cazadero (7 miles west), 15;" Christine, Mendocino County, 1; 



" Mus. Vert. Zool, 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



119 



Cloverdale, 6; Coast Range, Tehama County (17 miles west of Paskenta) 
1; Cold Creek (between Ukiah and Blue Lakes), 2; Covelo, 9; " Dana, 
11; Eel River, southwest of South Yolla Bolly Mountain, 1; Eel River 
(ridge between Eel River and Berger Creek) 1; Etna Mills, 3; Fort 
Crook, Shasta Countv, 2; Freestone, Sonoma County, 2; Guerneville, 
6; 8' Harris (20 miles" south), 1; Hermitage, 1; Hoopa, 2; Hoopa Valley 
8; Kunz, Trinity County, l;^' Lakeport, 8; Laytonville, 5; Lierley's 
Ranch, Sanhedrin Mountain, Mendocino County, 1; Long Valley, 
Mendocino County (near Sherwood), 1; Lower Lake, 30; Mad River, 
Trinity Countv, 1; Mount St. Helena, 18; Mount Veeder (6 miles north 
of Sonoma), 4"; Philo, 1; Post Creek, Trinity County, 1; Redding, 3; 
Rumsey, Yolo County, 3; 8' St. Helena, 1; Salmon Mountains, Siskiyou 
County (near Etna Mills), 11; Sanhedrin Mountain, Mendocino County 
(4,500 feet altitude), 24; 87 Scott River, Siskiyou County (near Callahan), 
10; 8' Scott Mountains (west of Gazelle), 1; Scott Valley (4 miles south 
of Fort Jones), 1; Sheetiron Mountain, Glenn County, 2; Sherwood, 10; 
Snow Mountain, Colusa County, 5; " Vacaville, 5; Weaverville, 2; 
WiUits, Mendocino County, 7. 

EUTAMIAS ALLENI Howell 
Marin Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, k; 7, k) 

Tamias townsendii hindsii Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 75, June, 1890 

(not Tamias hindsii Gray). 
Eutamias hindsi Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 196, July 1, 1897, and 

of recent authors generally (not Tamias hindsii Gray). 
Eutamias townsendii aUeni Howell, Journ. Mamm. 3: 181, August 4, 1922. 

Type. — Collected at Inverness, Marin County, Calif., November 
16, 1904, by N. HoUister; c? adult, sldn and skull; No. 135177, United 
States National Museum (Biological Survey collection), original 
number, 1378. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast region of Marin County, Calif., 
from Point Reyes east to Mount Tamalpais (Grinnell, 1915, p. 324). 
Zonal range: Transition. (Fig. 7.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias townsendii sonomie but slightly smaller; head 
and upper parts distinctly darker in both pelages; outer pair of light dorsal 
stripes usually strongly washed with buff ; underparts averaging more buff y (less 
whitish); hind feet darker; tail averaging darker beneath; skull similar to that of 
sonomse but averaging smaller. Compared with E. t. ochrogenys: Size much 
smaller; upper parts much brighter tawny (less olivaceous), especially in winter 
pelage; dorsal stripes more distinct, the dark stripes much more blackish, the 
light stripes more buffy; sides of face less extensively washed with ochraceous. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July 30-September 5) : Top of head fuscous sprinkled 
with smoke gray and cinnamon; dark facial stripes fuscous or fuscous black, 
shaded with cinnamon or tawny; light facial stripes grayish white, clouded with 
pinkish cinnamon; shoulders, foreback, and median pair of light dorsal stripes 
tawny or ochraceous tawny, the stripes mixed with whitish on posterior back; 
outer pair of light dorsal stripes dull whitish, washed with cinnamon buff; dark 
dorsal stripes black (rarely fuscous) ; lateral stripes fuscous black, often indistinct 
and obscured by color of sides; sides deep tawny; rump ochraceous tawny, more 
or less mixed with cinnamon; thighs mixed fuscous and cinnamon buff, sprinkled 
with grayish white; hind feet cinnamon or cinnamon buff, shaded with fuscous; 
front feet cinnamon buff; tail above, fuscous black, mixed with tawny; tail 
beneath, tawny, bordered with fuscous black and tipped with a small amount of 
pale tilleul buff ; underparts grayish white moderately washed with light ochra- 
ceous buff or pinkish buff, shading around root of tail to cinnamon. Winter pelage 
(November-June) : Similar to summer pelage but duller and more brownish (less 
tawny); dark dorsal stripes sometimes fuscous black; shoulders and sides ochra- 
ceous tawny, shaded with russet; median pair of light dorsal stripes grayish 



87 Mus. Vert. Zool. 

M J. 11. Fleming coll., 6. 

«e Mus. Comp. Zool., 9. 



00 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

»i Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Mus. Comp. Zool., 4. 



120 



NORTH MIBRICAN F4.UNA. . 



[No. 52 



white, obscured on foreback with tawny; rump and thighs tawny olive, shaded 
with ocliraceous tawny; underparts grayish white, faintly washed with tilleul 
buff or heavily washed with cinnamon buff. 

Moll. — The beginning of the summer molt is shown by a specimen ( c? adult) 
from Olema, Calif., July 8, 1897, in which the new pelage covers about the 
anterior two-thirds of the dorsal surface and about one-third of the ventral 
surface. The fall molt is well shown by a specimen from Marin County, Calif., 
October 6, 1888, and one from Inverness, October 22, 1904, in both of which 
the new winter pelage has invested the rump and about half of the posterior 
back. In neither case is there a sharp line of demarcation between the pelages, 
but the color and character of the fur make the pelages easily recognizable. 

Skull. — Similar to that of sonom^, but averaging smaller. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Marin County, Calif.: Total 
length, 239.0 (231-250); tail vertebrse. 106.8 (100-113); hind foot, 35.6 (34-37); 
ear from notch, 16.1 (15-18) . Skull: Average of nine adults from Marin County: 
Greatest length, 37.9 (36.8-39.3); zygomatic breadth, 20.3 (19.2-20.9); cranial 
breadth, 15.5 (15-16.2); interorbital breadth, 8.5 (8.1-9); length of nasals, 11.9 
(11.2-12.4). 

Remarks. — This race has been recognized for many years under 
the name Eutamias hindsii. The ■v^'xiter has recently shown (Howell, 
1922, p. 181) that the latter name is a synonym of E. t. townsendii 
and has renamed the present form. 

The Marin chipmunk has a very restricted range, confined, ac- 
cording to Grinnell, to Marin County, and "separated from the ranges 
of both ochrogenys and sonomx by a belt of coimtry apparently unfit 
associationally for the existence of any one of this group of chip- 
munks" (Grinnell, 1915, p. 324). Like the other races occupying 
the humid coast belt, it is a dark and richly colored form, being, 
indeed, the reddest of them all. It differs widely from ochrogenys, its 
nearest neighbor on the coast to the northward, both in size and color, 
but is more like sonomx, which occupies the interior valleys and 
foothills. These two forms, although evidently closely related, 
apparently do not intergrade, but occasional specimens in the two 
series are separated with difficulty. For example, a specimen of 
aUeni from Lagimitas (United States National Museum, No. 177405, 
September 16) is closely matched by one of sonomx from 
LaytonvHle (United States National Museum, No. 98542, Sept- 
ember 11), the latter being shghtly paler on the head and feet 
but almost identical in the color of the upper parts and the belly, 
which is creamy white. Similar close agreement is shown also 
by two specimens in winter pelage, one of alleni from Inverness 
(United States National Museum, No. 135177, November 16) and 
one of sonomx from Philo (United States National Museum, No. 
96168, November 23). Originally described as a subspecies of 
townsendii, it is now considered a distinct species. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 111, as follows: 

California: [San] Geronimo, Marin County, 1 Inverness, 17; La- 
gunitas, 2; MaiUiard, Marin County, 2; «^ Marin County, 3; Nicasio, 70; 
Olema, 15; Point E-eyes, 1."^ 



Mus. Comp. Znol. 
« Mus. Vert. Zool., 12. 
" Mus. Vert. Zool. 

»' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 25; Mus. Comp. Zool., 8. 



19291 



BEVIBION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



121 



EUTAMIAS QUADRIMACULATUS (Gray) 

LONG-EAEED ChIPMUNK 

(Pls. 3, m; 7, m) 

Tamias quadrimaculatus Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 20 (ser. 3): 435, 
December, 1867. 

Tamias macrorhabdoles Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 3: 25, January 27, 

1886 (Blue Canyon, Placer County, Calif.). 
Eutamias quadrimaculatus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 203, July 1, 

1897. 

Type. — Collected at Michigan Bluff, Placer Coxinty, Calif., Novem- 
ber 1, 1862, by F. Gru- 
ber; sldn, with skull i ..j^^-^-- 

inside; No. 64.7.19.8, 
British Museum; orig- 
inal number, 1024. 

Geographic distri- 
bution. — Upper Trans- 
ition Zone along west 
slope of the Sierra 
Nevada, CaUf., from 
Mariposa County 
(Fish Camp, near 
Mariposa Big Trees) 
north to northern 
Plumas County 
(Greenville); east to 
Glenbrook, Nev. (one 
specimen). Zonal 
range: Transition and 
Lower Canadian; 
3,200 to 7,500 feet 
altitude. (Fig. 8.) 

Characters. — Similar to 
Eutamias tovmsendii son- 
omx, but ears and post- 
auricular patches larger; 
general tone of head, up- 
per parts, and sides in 
winter pelage paler; rump 
and thighs distinctly gray- 
ish (not brownish or och- 
raceous) ; light dorsal and 
facial stripes clearer 
white; tail paler, both above and below; hind feet brighter buff; in summer 
pelage upper parts very similar in tone, but dark stripes less blackish and rump 
distinctly grayish rather than ochraceous; tail similar beneath but more over- 
laid with grayish above; hind feet darker. 

Compared with E. townsendii sencx: Ears averaging slightly longer and nar- 
rower at tip; light facial stripes and postauricular patches clearer white and thus 
more conspicuous, strongly contrasting with the dark facial stripes, which are 
decidedly darker than in senex; whitish ear patches more extensive and more 
sharply defined; general tone of upper parts and sides in summer pelage darker 
tawny, the anterior portion of the median pair of grayish stripes more mixed 
with cinnamon or tawny; rump and thighs clearer gray (less ochraceous); tail 
darker beneath. 




Figure 8.— Distribution of Eutamias quadrimaculatus 



" Near Qulncy, Plumas County. 



122 



NORTH AMERICA.N FA.UN\ 



|No. fi2 



Compared with E. J7}rrriatt}i mcrriami: Ears murli larpcr, with distinct whitish 
patches on posterior border; postauriciihir patclies hirgcr and nuich more cUslinct; 
dark facial stripes more bhxckish; upper parts in summer jiclagc more lawny 
(less ptrayish), the light dorsal stripes more creamy (less clear white), and median 
pair more mixed with tawny; rump darker and more grayish; hind feet darker 
cinnamon; tail slightly paler beneath, edged with gray instead of buff. 

Color. — \Y inter -pelage (topotypes, October 28- May 24): Top of head sayal 
lirown mixed with grayish white and fuscous (the general tone near cinnamon 
drab), bordered on sides with fuscous; sides of nose clay color or sayal brown; 
dark facial stripes fuscous black, the submalar stripe shaded with mikado brown, 
very broad and reaching back beneath the ear to the postauricular patch; light 
facial stripes grayish white, the malar stripe extending beneath the ear and con- 
necting with the large and prominent creamy white, postauricular patches; cars 
fuscous or fuscous black on anterior half, grayish white on posterior half; median 
dorsal stripe fuscous black; other dark stripes fuscous, all mixed with mikado 
brown; median pair of light stripes grayish white, frequently mixed with sayal 
brown; outer pair creamy white; sides sayal brown to snutf brown; rump and 
thighs neutral gray mixed with fuscous and sprinkled with grayish white; hind 
feet deep pinkish cinnamon or pinkish buff; front feet similar but paler; tail above 
fuscous black, overlaid with grayish wliite (the ochraceous bases of the hairs 
sometimes showing prominently); tail beneath, ochraceous tawny or mikado 
b^o\^Tl, bordered with fuscous black and edged with pale smoke gray; underparts 
grayish white. Summer pelage (August) : Closely similar to the winter pelage, but 
upper parts more ochraceous (less grayish) in general tone, the foreback espe- 
cially (including the median pair of light stripes) nearly always strongly washed 
M'ith cinnamon; sides sayal brown to mikado brown; rump and thighs slightly 
more bufFy (less grayish), with a faint wash of cinnamon buff. 

Moll. — The summer molt apparently takes place rather late; an adult male 
specimen from Grizzly Mountain (Plumas County), Calif., August 12, and an 
adult female from Mohawk, Calif., August 10, have nearly completed this molt, 
the rump being the only part of the body showing the worn winter pelage. Two 
breeding females from Nevada City, Calif., taken August 8 and one from Fish 
Camp, Mariposa County, August 13, are still in worn winter pelage, with scarcely 
anj' indication of the beginning of the molt. 

The fall molt occurs in October, as shown by a specimen from Nevada, Calif., 
No. 193222, United States National Museum, taken by E. W. Nelson in 1872 
(exact date not recorded), in which the winter pelage has covered the tail and is 
investing the rump. A specimen ($ adult) from Blue Canyon, Calif., October 
9, 1885, is in full winter pelage. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. townsendii senex but averaging smaller, with 
narrower brain case, but slightly broader interorbitally; zygomata less widely 
expanded at posterior end; molars and incisive foramina smaller. Compared 
with sonomse: Averaging smaller, but with relatively broader brain case and 
longer nasals. Compared with E. merriami merriami: Smaller and relatively 
broader, with shorter, broader rostrum. 

Measuremenls. — Average of 12 adults from type locality: Total length, 238.7 
(230-250); tail vertebra;, 104.3 (98-112); hind foot, 36 (35-37); car from notch, 

18.8 (17-20). Skull. — Average of nine adults from tyj)e locahty: Greatest 
length, 37.4 (36.3-38.5); zygomatic breadth 20.3 (19.8-21.1); cranial breadth, 

15.9 (15.5-16.6); intcrorbital breadth, 8.7 (8.3-9.5); length of nasals, 12.5 (11.3- 
13.4). Weighl: Average of 22 specimens, 81.1 grams (73-105). 

Remarlc.s.— This handsome species clearly belongs in the tovmsendii 
group but apparently is not closely related to any of the species. Its 
closest affinity seems to be with sonomx, as shown by the rather close 
resemblance in their skulls and by the general similarity in the color 
of the back in summer pelage; they arc distinguished, however, as 
already shown, by many constant differences and in winter pelage are 
quite unlike. Their ranges, moreover, do not approach nearer than 
0-0 miles. The range of fjuadrimaculatus overlaps that of E. tovmsendii 
senex at many places along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; 
and that of E. merriami merriami for a short distance in Mariposa 
County, but without any evidence of intergradation with those species. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE .AJVIERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



123 



Specimens examined. — Total number, 225, as follows: 

California: South fork American River (at 5,000 feet altitude), 2; Aspen 
Valley, Yosemite National Park, 6; Blue Canyon, Placer County, 
77; Camptonville, 1; Chinquapin, Yosemite National Park, 12;" 
Cisco, 8;«7 Damascus, Placer County, 1; Echo, Eldorado County, 7; 
Emigrant Gap, Placer County, 3; Fish Camp, Mariposa County (near 
Mariposa Big Trees), 3; Forest Hill, Placer County, 1; Fyflfe, Eldorado 
County, 6; ^ Greenville, 3; Grizzly Mountain, Plumas County, 7; 
Hodgd'on Ranch, Tuolumne County, 1; Hope Valley, Alpine County, 
2; " Indian Canyon, Mariposa County, 1 Markleeville, 6; Merced 
Grove Big Trees, Mariposa County, 16; " Merrimac, Plumas County, 
1; Michigan Bluff, 17; ^ Mohawk, Plumas County, .2; Nevada City, 
10; Philipp's Station, Eldorado County, 1; " Placerville, 1; Pyramid 
Peak, Eldorado County, I; ^ Quincy, 10; Red Point, Placer County, 2; * 
Riverton, 2; Sequoia, 'Tuolumne County, 4; Slippery Ford, Eldorado 
County, 1; North fork Stanislaus River, Calaveras County (6,500 feet 
altitude), 2; Gentry's, Yosemite National Park, 6; Junction of Sunrise 
Trail and Cloud's Rest Trail, Yosemite National Park, 1." 

Nevada: Gienbrook, 1. 

EUTAMIAS MERRIAMI (Allen) 

[Synonymy under subspecies] 

Characters.- — Size medium to large; hind foot, 33-39 millimeters; skull length, 
35.5-40.1; skull similar to that of townsendii, but rostrum narrower (laterally 
compressed at base) ; coloration similar in general to that of certain races of town- 
sendii {senex, siskiyou, and sonomae) ; ears more buffy (less grayish) and lacking the 
distinct grayish white border found in most of the races of townsendii; post- 
auricular patches indistinct or obsolete; tail edgings more buffy (never distinctly 
grayish) ; top of head varying from pale smoke gray mixed with pinkish cinnamon 
to snuff brown or warm sepia; dark dorsal stripes snuff brown, mikado brown, 
sayal brown, russet, fuscous black, or black; light dorsal stripes grayish white or 
pale smoke gray, more or less shaded with cinnamon or brownish; rump and 
thighs varying from smoke gray or neutral gray to snuff brown; hind feet varying 
from pinkish buff to cinnamon or tawny olive; under surface of tail tawny, 
ochraceous tawny, or pale russet, edged with pinkish buff or tilleul buff; under- 
parts creamy v/hite, sometimes washed with pinkish buff. 

EUTAMIAS MERRIAMI MERRIAMI (Allen) 

Merriam's Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, n; 7, n) 

Tamias asiaticus merriami Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 2: 176, October 
21, 1889. 

Tamias merriami Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 84, June, 1890. 
Eutamias merriami Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 1 1 : 194-195, July 1, 1897. 
Eutamias merriami mariposse Grinnell and Storer, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool. 17: 

no. 1, p. 4, August 23, 1916 (El Portal, 2,000 feet altitude, Mariposa County, 

Calif.). 

Type. — Collected in the San Bernardino Mountains, Calif., due 
north of San Bernardino (altitude, 4,500 feet), June 13, 1887, by 
F. Stephens; adult, sldn and skull; No. VjV> American Museum 
of Natural History ; original number, 482. 

Geographic distribution. — Mountains of southern California, from 
Monterey and San Benito Counties south to the Mexican border in 



" Mus. Vert. Zool. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 18; Mus. Vert. Zool., 32; Mus. Comp. Zool., 8; Colo. Agr. College, 1; E. R. Warreu 
coll., 2. 
»» Mus. Comp. Zool. 

' Mus. Comp. Zool., 5; Mus. Vert. Zool., 1. 
2 Mus. Vert. Zool., 4. 
' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

* Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., 1. 



124 



NORTH AMERICANS FAUNA 



(No. 62 



San Diego County; also north thi-ough the Tehachapi and Piute 
Mountains and along the western footlarlls of the Sierra Nevada to 
Mariposa County (Coulterville and Yosemite Valley); east to Onion 
Valley, on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. Zonal range: 
Upper Sonoran and Transition; sea level ^ to 9,000 feet altitude." 
(Fig. 9.) 




Figure 9. — Distribution of the subspecies of Kutamias mcrriami and of E. dorsatis. 1, E. mcTriami 
pricei; 2, E. merriami merriami; 3, JE. mcrriami herncnais; -1, E. mcrriami obscurus: 5, E. mcrriami 
niridionalis; 6, E. dorsalia tUahensia; 7, E. dorsalis doraaLis 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias townsendii senex, but tail and hind foot 
averaging longer and skull longer and narrower; head and upper parts in summer 
pelage averaging paler and more grayish; sides of nose paler; sides of head grayish 
instead of buffy; facial stripes paler and narrower; postauricular patches smaller 
and less distinct; ears paler, usually without the contrasting grayish white and 
fuscous patches; hind feet paler (less tawny); tail darker beneath and edged 
v/ith gray instead of buff. In winter pelage, there is less difference, but mcrriami 



' Reported by A. Brazier Howell as occurring near Santa Barbara (Monteeito) and at Pasadena, Calif. 
• Specimens from Onion Valley, Sierra Nevada, and from Mount Pifios at 8,500 feet altitude; from Round 
Valley, San Jacinto Mountains, at 9,000 feet. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAJ^ CHIPMUNKS 



125 



differs in being more grayish on the sides of head and shoulders, more buffy (less 
grayish) on the rump and thighs, the dark dorsal stripes often much reduced in 
intensity and the light stripes less clear white; feet paler and tail darker. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July to early October) : Top of head cinnamon, 
sprinkled v/ith grayish white, bordered on the sides with fuscous; sides of nose 
cinnamon buff; light facial stripes pale smoke gray or grayish white; dark facial 
stripes mikado brown, often blackish near the eye; ears mouse gray often more 
or less washed with pinkish buff and shading to grayish white at posterior base; 
postauricular patches pale smoke gray, small and indistinct; light dorsal stripes 
rather narrow, grayish white, the outer pair usually a little clearer white; dark 
dorsal stripes black or fuscous black, the median one darkest and all more or 
less shaded with sayal brown, the outer pair sometimes clear sayal brown; sides 
sayal brown, shaded with pinkish buff; shoulders washed vdth smoke gray and 
pinkish buff; rump and flanks mixed pinkish buff and smoke gray; hind feet 
pinkish buff, cinnamon buff or cinnamon; front feet pinkish buff; tail above, 
fuscous black overlaid with pinkish buff or cinnamon buff; tail beneath, tawny, 
ochraceous tawny, or pale russet, bordered with fuscous black and edged with 
pinkish buff or cinnamon buff; under parts creamy white, often washed on flanks 
with pinkish buff. Winter -pelage (normal phase, November) : Colors duller and 
less contrasted than in summer pelage; dark dorsal stripes fuscous or fuscous 
black, moderately shaded with sayal brown; light dorsal stripes dull grayish 
white, the median pair clouded with cinnamon or sayal brown; sides pale sayal 
brown; shoulders, rump, and thighs mixed sayal brown and smoke gray; other- 
wise as in summer. A gray phase occurs in winter, in which the upper parts 
are chiefly smoke gray, moderately sprinkled with sayal brown, the sides pinkish 
buff, washed with sayal brown, the hind feet tilleul buff'. 

Molt. — The spi'ing molt takes place rather early in this species; a specimen 
((? adult) from Camp Badger, CaUf., May 17, 1894, has the anterior portion 
of the back covered with fresh summer pelage, with an irregular patch of new 
hair on each flank. A female from Smith Mountain, Calif., June 24, 1892, 
shows the new pelage just starting in patches on the nape and the middle of the 
back. The fall molt is shown by a specimen (adult 9) from Mount Pinos, 
September 28, 1903, in which the winter pelage is coming in on the rump and 
hinder back. 

Skull. — Similar to that of E. tovmsendii senex but averaging longer and nar- 
rower, with longer, slenderer rostrum, longer, narrower nasals, and narrower, less 
inflated brain case; incisive foramina smaller; molars shghtly smaller. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from San Bernardino Mountains: Total 
length, 247.2 (234-261); tail vertebra?, 114.2 (106-130); hind foot, 37.1 (36-39); 
ear from notch, 17.4 (17-19). Skull: Average of 10 adults: Greatest length, 
39 (38.3-40.1); zvgomatic breadth, 20.7 (20-21.6) ; cranial breadth, 16 (15.5-16.2); 
interorbital breadth, 9 (8.5-9.4); length of nasals, 12.7 (11.4-14). Weight: 
Average of 45 specimens, 69.8 grams (53-88). 

Sewar^:s.— Merriam's chipmunk has an extensive range in Cal- 
ifornia, occupying the greater part of the mountamous areas of the 
southern half of the State. It intergrades vnth pricei in Monterey 
County,^ with Icermnsis in the Piute Mountains, and wdth ohscurus 
in northern Lower California. The range of merriami meets or over- 
laps that of senex in the Yosemite Valley,^ but there is no indication of 
intergradation between them. Specimens of these two forms in 
summer pelage often resemble one another rather closely in general 
appearance, but merriami may readily be distinguished by a number of 
characters, particularly its paler ears without white patches, smaller 
postauricular patches, and grayish instead of buffy edgings to the tail. 

Cornp arisen of a considerable series from the Yosemite region 
(described as subspecies "mariposse") with typical merriami fails to 
reveal any appreciable constant difference between them. 

A series from Kings River shows slight approach to Jcernensis, 
and one specimen from Badger in summer pelage is clearly referable to 

' Specimens from Jolon are intermediate in color and length of tail between merriami and pricei. 
8 Specimens of merriami are at hand from the valley at altitudes of 4,000 to 6,000 feet: and of senex from 
4,600 feet (near Lady Franklin Eock) to 7,000 feet or more. 



126 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



that race, although a series from Camp Badger in worn spring pelage 
seem to be nearly typical merriami. A large series in winter pelage 
from Piute Mountains are somewhat intermediate between merriami 
and Iccniensis; the majority of them are nearly typical merriami but 
some are a httle paler, and the hind-foot measurements agree with 
those of Icernensis. 

Specimens examined.— Total number, 613, as follows: 

California: Bear Valley, head of Carmel River, Monterey County, 6; Big 
Pines, Los Angeles County (north of San Antonio), 1; » Big Pine Moun- 
tain, Santa Barbara County, 1; Camp Badger, Tulare County, 12; 
Canada de las Uvas, Kern County, 6; Carrizo Plains (head of Saii Juan 
River), 1; Chalk Peak, Monterey County, 6; Cone Peak, Monterey 
County, 5; Cook P. 0., Bear Valley, San Benito County, 4; Coulter- 
ville, 8; Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, 5; Dudley, Mariposa 
County, 6; ^° Dunlap, Fresno County, 1; El Portal, Mariposa County, 
3; " Fort Tejon, Kern County, 13; Frazier Mountaii-i, Ventura County, 
3; Fresno Flat, Madera County, 2; Gabilan Range, San Benito County 
(Laguna Ranch), 12; Glenville, 1; Idria Mines, San Benito County, 2; 
Jacumba, 1; Jamesburgh, 1; Jolon, 12; Julian, San Diego County, 
2; 1" Kaweah River (east fork, near Cain Flat), 3; Kings River, Fresno 
County (5,000 feet altitude), 19; i° Laguna Mountains, San Diego 
County, 33;" Little Onion Valley (Inyo County), 2;" Mansfield, 4; 
Matilija, Ventura County, 15; '° Milo, 5; Mountain Spring, San Diego 
County, 1; Mount Pinos, 37; Nachoguero Valley, San Diego County, 
2; Onion Valley (Inyo County), 4; i» Paso Robles", 2; Pine Flats, north 
fork San Gabriel River, Los Angeles County, 3; Pine Valley, head of 
Carmel River, 7; Piute Mountains, 23; " Posts, 4; Priest Valley, Monte- 
rey County, 3; Raymond, 8; Redwood Mountain (Tulare County), 
2; Salt Springs, Fresno River (east of Raymond), 7; San Antonio Can- 
yon, Los Angeles County, 2; Avila's Planch, San Antonio Creek, 
Monterey County, 3; Upper San Antonio Creek, Monterey County, 
2; San Bernardino Mountains, 92 (including Bear Vallev, 5; " Little 
Bear Vallev, 29; Santa Ana River, 4;"' Seven Oaks, 7; i" Sugarloaf, 6; 
Doble, 1; " Fish Creek, 7; Saragossa Springs, 1; Foreall Creek, 1; 
and Converse Flats, 5); San Emigdio Canyon, Kern County, 4; San 
Gabriel Mountains (2,800 to 5,800 feet altitude), 13; Strawberry Peak, 
San Gabriel Mountains, 1; Wilson Peak, San Gabriel Mountains, 30; 
San Jacinto Mountains, 94 (including Fuller's Mill, 10; Hemet Lake, 
2; 1" Hidden Lake, 1; Kenworthv, 9; '» Oak Vallev, 14; Poppet Flat, 
2; 1° Round Valley, 1; " Schain's Ranch, 6; Strawberry Valley, 20; 
and Tahquitz Valley, 2 ">); San Lorenzo Creek, Peachtree Valley, 1; 
San Luis Obispo, 2; Little Pine Canyon, San Rafael Mountains, 2; San 
Simeon (mountains near), 2; Santa Lucia Peak, 20; Santa Lucia 
Ranger Station (near Abbots, Monterey County), 1;^" Santa Mar- 
garita, San Luis Obispo County, 3: Santa Rosa Mountains, 7 (including 
Garnet Queen Mine, Santa Rosa Peak, and Toro Peak) ; Santa Ysabel, 
1; Sheep Creek, 2; Smith Mountain, San Diego County, 7; " Soquel 
Mill, north fork San Joaquin River (altitude, 5,500 feet), 1; Tassajara 
Springs (Church Ranch), 1; Tehachapi Peak, 8; Tejon Canyon, 2; Topa 
Topa Lodge, Ventura County, 2; ^ Volcan Mountain, San Diego County, 
2; 18 Warner Pass, San Diego County, 1; Yosemite Valley (4,000 to 
5,000 feet altitude), 9.<9 



« D. R. Dickey coll. 
w Mus. Vert. Zool. 

11 Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 8; Mus. Vert. Zool., 5. 

12 Mus. Vert. Zool., 22; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1; Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiladelphia, I; E. R. Warren coll., 2. 

13 Mus. Vert. Zool., Ifl; Univ. Mich., 2. 
i< Acad. Nat. Sci. Piiiladelphia. 

" Mus. Vert. Zool., G. 

i« Mus. Vert, Zool., 9. 

1' Araer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4. 

IS Mus. Vert. Zool., 1. 

» Mus. Vert. Zool., 4. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



127 



EUTAMIAS MERRIAMI PRICEI Allen 
Santa Cruz Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, o; 7, o) 

Tamias pricei Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 7: 333, November 8, 1895. 
Eutamias -pricei Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 30 : 43, December 27, 
1901. 

Type. — Collected at Portola, San Mateo County, Calif., April 12, 
1895, by J. Diefenbach; c? adult, skin and skull; No. -V^^> Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History; original number, 511. 

Geographic distribution. — Coast mountains of central California, 
from San Mateo County south to northern Monterey County. 
Zonal range: Transition and Upper Sonoran. (Fig. 9.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias m. merriami but tail averaging longer; 
coloration in both pelages darker and more tawny (less grayish); light dorsal 
stripes more mixed with tawny; ears and hind feet darker. Compared with E. 
townsendii sonomse: Tail averaging longer and ears shorter; upper parts in summer 
pelage more grayish, lacking the heavy wash of cinnamon found in sonomx; 
sides of bodj^ slightly darker, the shoulders washed with grayish (instead of 
bright cinnamon) ; head, hind feet, and tail darker, the tail edgings buffy rather 
than grayish; very similar in winter pelage to sonomse, but dark dorsal stripes more 
blackish (less tawny); light dorsal stripes usually less whitish; rump and thighs 
more ochraceous (less grayish); tail edgings more buffy (less grayish); ears 
averaging more bufify (less grayish) on posterior border. 

Color. — Summer pelage (September) : Top of head sayal brown, sprinkled with 
grayish white, bordered on the sides with a rather indistinct streak of russet; 
facial stripes russet, the ocular stripe blackish around the eye; light facial stripes 
smoke gray; sides of nose clay color; ears mouse gray, shaded on posterior margin 
with dull buffy white and with a patch of russet at anterior base; postauricular 
patches rather indistinct, grayish or buffy white; median dorsal stripe black; 
outer pair of dark stripes fuscous black, mixed with mikado brown; light dorsal 
stripes grayish white, the median pair considerably clouded with brownish; 
sides sayal brown shading to tawny, washed on shoulders with cinnamon buff 
or ochraceous buff; rump and flanks mixed smoke gray and cinnamon buff; 
feet cinnamon buff or pinkish buff, more or less shaded with fuscous; tail above, 
fuscous black overlaid with pinkish buff; tail beneath, tawny or ochraceous 
tawny, bordered with fuscous black and edged with pinkish buff or tilleul buff; 
under parts creamy white, faintly washed on abdomen with pinkish buff or light 
pinkish cinnamon. Winter pelage (November) : Similar to the summer pelage 
but darker, the rump and flanks about snuff brown in general tone; head snuff 
brown or warm sepia, sprinkled with whitish; dark dorsal stripes fuscous black 
shaded with russet; light dorsal stripes pale smoke gray; sides sayal brown, 
clouded with fuscous; hind feet tawny olive or cinnamon. 

Moll.- — No specimens are available showing the spring molt. The fall molt is 
shown by several specimens from Boulder Creek, CaJif.; one taken October 12 
has the new faU pelage investing the rump and flanks; another taken October 15 
has about half of the hinder back and sides covered with new pelage; and one 
taken October 12 has the whole body covered with short, new pelage. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of merriami but averaging slightly smaller, with 
slightly broader rostrum; very similar, also, to that of E. townsendii sono7nse, but 
rostrum averaging narrower and nasals longer. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from type region (Stanford University, 
Santa Cruz Mountains, and Black Mountain): Total length, 257.8 (248-277); 
tail vertebras, 125.2 (115-140); hind foot, 37.2 (37-38); ear from notch, 16.6 (IS- 
IS). Skull: Average of 11 adults from Portola, Boulder Creek, and Santa Cruz 
Mountains: Greatest length, 38.3 (37.1-39.3); zygomatic breadth, 20.5 (20.1-21); 
cranial breadth, 15.8 (15.3-16.7); interorbital breadth, 8.6 (8-9.4); length of 
nasals, 12.6 (11.9-13.7). 

Remarlcs. — The Santa Cruz chipmunk is a well-marked race of 
merriami occupying the humid coast belt from San Francisco Bay to 
Monterey Bay. It is closely related to E. townsendii sonomx, as 



128 



, NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



tNo.62 



shown by the similarity in tlie skulls, but differs constantl.y from it in 
characters of the summer pelage, and the ranges of the two are sepa- 
rated by San Francisco Bay and a belt of territory around the bay 
not suited for occupation by any chipmunks. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 84, as follows: 

California: Aptos, 1; Arroyo Quito, Santa Clara County, l;^'' Bear Valley, 
San Benito County (29 miles southeast of Hollister), 1; Big Basin, Santa 
Cruz Countv, 6; Black Mountain, Santa Clara County, 7; ^2 Boulder 
Creek, 21; Corralitos, 1; 2^ La Honda, 1; 2" Palo Alto, 1; 26 Palo Colorado 
Canvon, Monterey Countv, 7; 2c Pescadero Creek, San Mateo County, 
3; 2o'Portola, San Mateo County, 20; 20 Redwood [CityJ, 1; Santa Cruz, 
3; 27 Santa Cruz Mountains, 5; Sierra Morena, San Mateo County, 1; 28 
Stanford University, 3; Stevens Creek, Santa Clara County, 1.2" 

EUTAMIAS MERRIAMI KERNENSIS Grinnell and Storer 
Kern Basin Chipmunk 
(Pls. 3, p; 7, p) 

Eutamias merriami kernensis Grinnell and Storer, Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool. 17: 5, 
August 23, 1916. 

Type. — Collected at Fay Creek, 4,100 feet altitude, 6 miles north 
of Weldon, Kern County, Calif., July 13, 1911, by H. A. Carr and 
J. Grinnell; d adult, sldn and skull; No. 15022, Museum of Ver- 
tebrate Zoology ; original number, 266. 

Geographic distribution. — Kern Basin, Calif., from Havilah north 
to Kern Lakes; east to Walker Pass. Zonal range: Upper Sonoran 
and Transition; 2,400 to 7,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 9.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias in. merriami, but averaging slightly smaller, 
with shorter hind feet; coloration paler and more grayish (less tawny); median 
pair of light dorsal stripes averaging broader and more grayish; dark dorsal 
stripes (except the median one) paler and less distinct; hind feet averaging paler; 
tail paler, both above and below. 

Color. — Summer -pelage (July) : Top of head mixed pinkish cinnamon and 
grayish white, bordered on each side with snuff brown; sides of nose pale cin- 
namon buff; light facial stripes creamy white, shading to smoke gray; dark facial 
stripes snuff' brown or mikado brown, the ocular stripe fuscous black in front of 
and behind the eye; ears mouse gray, clouded v/ith pinkish buff and shaded on 
anterior margin with sayal brown; median dorsal stripe black in middle of back, 
shading anteriorly to sayal brown; outer dorsal stripes sayal brown, becoming 
obsolete on the rump; light dorsal stripes pale smoke gray, the outer pair more 
whitish; sides clay color or pinkish buff, shaded with cinnamon; shoulders pale 
smoke gray shaded with pinkish buff; flanks and rump smoke gray washed with 
pinkish buff; feet pinkish buff; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with pinkish 
buff; tail beneath, tawny or ochraceous tawny, bordered with fuscous black and 
edged v/ith pinkish buff; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage not seen. 

Molt. — An adult female from Walker Pass, Calif., July 2, 1891, is in greatly 
worn winter pelage, v/ith irregular patches of new summer pelage appearing on 
the head and back; the fall molt is shown by a specimen from Havilah, Calif., 
October 10, in which the new winter pelage covers the rump, flanks, and hinder 
back. 

Skull. — Very similar to that of merriami, but averaging slightly smaller. 
Measurements. — Average of 11 adults from vicinity of type locality: Total 
length, 241.5 (233-264); tail vertebra, 111.2 (102-119); hind foot, 35.4 (34-38); 



M Mus. Vert. Zool. 

n Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" Mus. Vert. Zool., i; E. R. Warren coll., 2. 

" Univ. Mich. 

« Amer. Mus, Nat. Hist. 

" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

M Mus. Comp. Zool., 4; Amer. Mua. Nat. Hist., 11; Mus. Vert. Zool., 4; D. R. Dickey coll., 1. 
" Kan. Univ. Mus.. 2. 
" E. E. Warren coU. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A.MERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



129 



ear from notch, 17.7 (16-20). Skull: Average of 10 adults from type locality: 
Greatest length, 38 (36.7-39.7); zygomatic breadth, 20.3 (20-20.8); cranial 
breadth 15.5 (15-16.1); interorbital breadth, 9.1 (8.4-9.8); length of nasals, 12.3 
(11.4-13.3). 

Bemarks. — This subspecies is a slightly differentiated form, re- 
stricted apparently to a rather small area in the Kern Basin, Calif. 
Intergradation with merriami occurs in the Piute Mountains and in the 
foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 86, as follows: 

California: Badger, 1; Bodfish, Kern County, 13; ^9 Fay Creek, 6 miles 
north of Weldon, Kern County, 18; 2' Havilah, 5; Jordan Hot Springs, 
Tulare County, 3; Kiavah Mountain (near Wallser Pass), 3; Kern 
River Lalies, Tulare County, 1 ; south fork Kern River (near mouth) , 1 ; 
Kernville, 12; Taylor Meadow, Tulare County [about 65 miles north of 
Weldon], 10; 2» Trout Creek, Tulare County, 7; 2» Walker Pass, 12.3" 

EUTAMIAS MERRIAMI OBSCURUS (Allen) 
San Pedro Martib Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, a; 8, a) 

Tamias obscurus AUen [Townsend, MS.], Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 70, June, 
1890. 

E.[utamias] obscurus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 194, July 1, 1897. 
E.[utamias] m.[erriami] obscurus Nelson and Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton 22: 23, March 10, 1909. 

Type. — Collected in the San Pedro Martir Mountains (near Val- 
lecitos),^^ Lower California, May 1, 1889, by C. H. Townsend; 
9 adult, skin and skull; No. United States National Museum; 

original number, 7. 

Geographic distribution. — San Pedro Martir and Hanson Lagima 
Moimtains, northern Lower California. Zonal range: Transition; 
7,000 to 8,500 feet altitude. (Fig. 9.) 

^ Characters. — Similar to Euiamias m. merriami, but averaging smaller, with 
distinctly shorter taU and hind feet, and smaller skull; dorsal stripes averaging 
more tawny (less fuscous) terminating more anteriorly, not extending onto the 
rump, and showing, a tendency to become obsolete, especially in winter pelage; 
rump more grayish; tail slightly darker in winter pelage with darker (more 
ochraceous) edgings. Compared with kernensis: General tone of upper parts 
darker, the dorsal stripes deeper tawny and more distinct; head more grayish (less 
cinnamon); rump and hind feet darker; tail darker beneath, with darker (more 
ochraceous) edgings. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July-September) : Top of head pale smoke gray, 
shaded with pinkish cinnamon and bordered on the sides with a narrow stripe of 
bister or snuff brown; sides of nose clay color or cinnamon bufif; dark facial 
stripes mikado brown, the ocular stripe fuscous black around the eye; light facial 
stripes pale smoke gray; ears mouse gray or chsetura drab, indistinctly washed on 
posterior half with pale buff or soiled whitish; postauricular patches grayish 
i white; dark dorsal stripes mikado brown or russet, the median one becoming 
j blackish for the posterior half; median pair of light stripes smoke gray or pale 
I smoke gray; outer pair grayish white; sides sayal brown; shoulders pale smoke 
gray, mixed with pinkish buff; rump and thighs grayish white mixed with clay 
color or cinnamon, giving a general tone near neutral gray; hind feet cinnamon 
buff or pinkish buff; front feet pinkish buff; tail above fuscous black, overlaid 
with pinkish buff; tail beneath, tawny, bordered with fuscous black and edged 
with pinkish buff; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (November) : Similar 
to the summer pelage, but general tone of upper parts darker and the dorsal 



» Mus. Vert. Zool. Mus. Vert. Zool., 6, « Information from O. H. Townsend. 

40279°— 29 9 



130 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 52 



stripes usually (?) much less distinct, often nearly obsolete; sides indistinctly 
M'ashed with pale sayal brown or cinnamon buff. 

Molt. — The winter pelage in this race is subject to much wear, so that late in 
spring or early in summer many specimens are extremely ragged and without 
any indication of stripes. The spring molt begins in June, as shown by a speci- 
men (d) from Hanson Laguna, Lower California, June 8, in which new summer 
pelage is appearing on the head and fore back. Another specimen ( 9 adult) 
from Vallecitos, Lower California, July 14, is in similar worn condition on the 
hinder back, with the new pelage covering the anterior half of the body. 

Skull. — Similar to that of merriami, but smaller. 

Measurements. — Average of 13 adults from vicinity of type locality: Total 
length, 227.9 (208-240); taU vertebrse, 105.7 (95-112)"; hind foot, 34.8 (33-37); 
ear from notch, 16.2 (15.5-17.5). Skull: Average of 10 adults: Greatest length, 
37.1 (36.3-37.8); zvgomatic breadth, 20 (19.'^20.7); cranial breadth, 15.4 
(14.7-16.3); interorbital breadth, 8 (7.6-8.3); length of nasals, 11.9 (11.5-12.6). 

Remarks. — The San Pedro Martir chipmunk is very closely related 
to merriami; in fact, many specimens, especially of those in summer 
pelage, are scarcely distinguishable, except by smaller size, from 
comparable specimens of merriami. In winter pelage the differences 
are somewhat more pronounced than in summer. The resemblance 
to Eutamias dorsalis suggested by the reduction of the dorsal stripes 
is accidental and not indicative of close relationship, as Doctor Allen 
was led to believe was the case when he described ohscurus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 131, as follows: 

Lower California: Hanson Laguna Mountains, 11 (including El Rayo, 3; 
Hanson Laguna, 8); San Pedro Martir Mountains, 120^2 (including 
La Grulla, 9;^' Rosarito Divide, 2; Santa Eulalia, 13;'^ Santa Rosa, 
2; 33 and Vallecitos, 1 33). 

EUTAMIAS MERRIAMI MERIDIONALIS Nelson and Goldman 

Peninsula Chipmunk 
(Plb. 4, b; 8, b) 

Eutamias merriami meridionalis Nelson and Goldman, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington 22: 23, March 10, 1909. 

Type. — Collected at Aguaje de San Esteban, about 25 miles north- 
west of San Ignacio, Lower Cahfornia, Mexico (altitude about 1,200 
feet), October 5, 1905, by E. W. Nelson and E. A. Goldman; ? 
adult, skin and skull; No. 139597, United States National Museum 
(Biological Survey collection); original number, 18268. 

GeograpTiic distribution. — Known only from the type locality and 
from San Pablo, Lower California. Zonal range: Lower Sonoran 
[probably also Upper Sonoran]; 1,000 to 1,200 feet altitude. (Fig. 9.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias merriami ohscurus, but paler on back, rump, 
and sides; taU paler, both above and below, bordered with a paler shade of buff; 
skull decidedly smaller and narrower. 

Color. — Summer pelage (type, October 5)3^: Top of head mixed pale smoke 
gray and cinnamon, bordered on sides with warm sepia; stripe from nose to eye 
pale cinnamon buff; from eye to ear warm sepia; submalar stripe sayal brown; 
light facial stripes grayish white; ears deep mouse gray, shading on posterior 
margin to dull smoke gray and with a patch of sayal brown at anterior base; 
postauricular patches small and indistinct grayish white; dark dorsal stripes pale 
snuff brown, the median one shading posteriorly to fuscous black, all the dorsal 
stripes scarcely reaching the rump; median pair of Hght stripes pale smoke gray; 
outer pair grayish white; sides pinkish buff; rump and thighs smoke gray, faintly 



" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 52. 

Field Mu.s. Nat. Hist. 
M Winter pelage apparently covering rump and tail. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



131 



washed with pinkish buff ; feet pinkish buff ; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with 
tilleul buff; tail beneath, tawny, bordered with fuscous black, and edged with 
tilleul buff; underparts creamy white. 

Skull. — Similar to that of obscurus but smaller; brain case rather narrow, the 
zygomata appressed; rostrum shorter and relatively broader. 

Measurements. — Type. (9 adult): Total length, 237; taQ vertebrae, 117; 
hind foot, 33; ear from notch, 14.5. Skull: Greatest length, 35.5; zygomatic 
breadth, 18.2; cranial breadth, 15.1; interorbital breadth, 8.4; length of nasals, 
11.1. 

Bemarks. — This is the smallest and palest of the races of merriami 
and is the only one known to range in Lower Sonoran Zone; the few 
individuals seen were in giant-cactus country, but it seems probable 
that further exploration of the region where they were taken will 
show that their habitat includes some of the low moimtain ranges in 
that vicinity. Apparently, however, there is a considerable gap 
between the range of this form and that of obscurus. 

Specimens examined. — Total number 2, as follows: 

Lower California: Aguaje de San Esteban, 1; San Pablo, 1. 

EUTAMIAS DORSALIS (Baird) 
[Synonymy under subspeciesl 

Characters. — Size medium to large; hind foot, 32-36 millimeters; skuU length, 
34.6-38.7 millimeters; skull similar to that of merriami, but brain case averaging 
shorter and deeper, and rostrum shorter and broader; general tone of upper parts 
smoke gray or neutral gray, the dorsal stripes (except the median one) usually 
(but not always) indistinct or obsolete; ears smoke gray or grayish white, mar- 
gined anteriorly with cinnamon; sides varying from light pinkish cinnamon to 
sayal brown; rump like back; thighs shaded with cinnamon; hind feet varying 
from pinkish buff to cinnamon buff or clay color; under surface of tail from 
pinkish buff to cinnamon or tawny, edged with grayish white or tilleul buff; 
underparts creamy white, sometimes tinged with buff. 

EUTAMIAS DORSALIS DORSALIS (Baird) 
Cliff Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, c; 8, c) 

Tamias dorsalis Baird, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 332, April, 1855. 
[Tamias quadrivitatus] var. dorsalis AUen, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 16: 290, 
June, 1874. 

Tamias asiaticus var. dorsalis Allen, Monog. North Amer. Rodentia, U. S. Geol. 

Surv. Terr. 11: 794, 1877. 
Eutamias dorsalis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 211, July 1, 1897. 
Eutamias canescens Allen, Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 208, May 27, 1904 

(Guanacevi, Durango, Mexico). 

Cotypes.^^ — Collected at "Fort Webster, Coppermines of the 
Mimbres, " near present site of Santa Kita, Grant County, N. Mex.,^* 
in 1851, by J. H. Clark; No. 120, United States National Museum, 
mounted skin with skull inside; No. 4759, Museum Comparative 
Zoology (formerly No. -jVA) United States National Museum, skin 
and portion of mandible (skull missing). 

Geographic distribution. — Plateau region of Arizona south of the 
Grand Canyon; western New Mexico; south in the Sierra Madre to 
northwestern Durango; east in New Mexico to the Rio Grande 
Valley; west in Arizona to Hualpai Mountains; north to the Grand 



" Listed by Baird, in Mammals of North America, p. 300, 1857. 

'» Baird gives the location of Fort Webster as latitude 32° 47' west, longitude 108° 4' north (Baird, 1857b, 
p. 709). 



132 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



Canj-on and Fort Defiance, Ai'iz. Zonal range: Upper Sonoran; 
2,500 feet (Ray, Ariz.) to 10,000 feet in Graham Mountains and Santa 
Catalina Mountains.^' (Fig. 9.) 

Characters. — Similar to Eutamias merriami oiscurus, but upper parts decidedly 
more grayish (less tawny), the dorsal stripes (except the median one) usually 
much less distinct and never tawny; ears paler, with more whitish patches; 
tail paler beneath, overlaid above and on sides mth smoke gray instead of buff. 

Color. — Sum77}er pelage (August and September) : General tone of upper parts 
pale smoke gray or pallid neutral gray; top of head similar to back but mixed 
with cinnamon and bordered on each side with a stripe of snuff brown or bister; 
sides of nose cinnamon buff or clay color; ocular stripe fuscous black, shaded 
with sayal brown; malar stripe sayal brown, mixed with fuscous; ears pale smoke 
gray, or grayish white, margined anteriorly with cinnamon or sayal brown, and 
with a broad patch of the same on postero-internal surface; postauricular patches 
creamy white, prominent; median dorsal stripe well defined, fuscous black faintly 
sprinkled Mith sayal brown; other dark dorsal stripes when present, mikado 
brown, shaded with fuscous black but usually obsolete or very faintly indicated; 
light dorsal stripes grajash white, the outer pair creamj' white, all of them usually 
indistinctly marked or obsolete; sides cinnamon or sayal brown; shoulders and 
rump smoke gray or pale smoke gray; thighs sayal brown or cinnamon; hind feet 
pinkish cinnamon, pinkish buff, or clay color; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid 
with grajish wliite or tiUeul buff; tail beneath, tawny, ochraceous tawny, or 
cinnamon, bordered with fuscous black and tipped with grajish white or tilleul 
bufi'; underparts creamy white, sometimes faintly tinged with pinkish buff. 
Winter pelage (November-May) : Much hke that of summer but colors brighter 
and slightly deeper, the facial stripes and anterior portion of ears sometimea 
russet. 

Molt. — The spring molt occurs in May or June; in a specimen (c? adult) from 
Walnut, Ariz., May 12, 1893, the new summer pelage covers the anterior portion 
of the dorsum to beyond the middle of the back and appears as a large patch 
on the breast; an adult male from San Luis Mountains, N. Mex., June 24, 1892, 
is in much worn winter pelage, with a small patch of new hair appearing in the 
middle of the back. The fall molt is shown by a specimen ( 9 ) from Gallup, 
N. Mex., September 28, 1908, in which new winter pelage covers the posterior 
half of the back; an adult female from SpringervUle, Ariz., October 24, 1890, is 
in complete winter pelage. 

Skull. — Closely similar to that of E. merriami obscurus but rostrum averaging 
broader. 

Measurements. — Average of 12 adults from Pinos Altos Mountains, N. Mex.: 
Total length, 236.2 (222-242); taU vertebra;, 107.5 (98-114); hind foot, 35.4 
34-36); ear from notch, 17 (16-18). Skull: Average of 10 adults from vicinity 
of type locality: Greatest length, 37.3 (36.5-38.7); zygomatic breadth, 20.4 
(20-21.1); cranial breadth, 15.9 (15.1-16.4); interorbital breadth, 8.3 (7.6-8.7); 
length of nasals, 11.7 (11.2-12.8). 

Remarks. — The chff chipmunk, one of the handsomest and most 
strikingly marked members of the genus, was recognized many years 
ago as a distinct species. It is clearly a member of the merriami group 
and bears a rather close resemblance to Eutamias merriami oiscurus 
as was pointed out by Doctor Allen when he described the latter 
form. It differs constantly from obscurus, however, in a number of 
details and the reduction of the dorsal stripes has proceeded even 
farther than in that race. The ranges of these two are separated, 
also, by the broad basin of the Lower Colorado River. 

The present form has a wide range in Arizona and New Mexico 
and southward in Mexico to northwestern Durango. It presents a 
wide range of individual variation in the intensity of the dorsal 
stripes, but the writer is unable to distinguish any geographic varia- 
tion of importance from that region. The series from Guanecevi, 
Durango, on which Allen based Eutamias canescens, together vnih a 
larger series from southern Chihuahua, has been carefully compared 



" Steep, hot slopes carry the Upper Sonoran Zone unusually high in these ranges. 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AJVIERICA.N CHIPMUNKS 



133 



with typical dorsalis and found to agree very closely. In the Mexican 
examples the dorsal stripes average slightly more distinct and none 
of them show as complete reduction of the stripes as is shown by 
many of the Arizona specimens, but since many individuals from 
Mexico are absolutely matched by others from Arizona, it is not 
possible to recognize a Mexican race. 

Specimens examined. — Total number, 424, as follows: 

Arizona: Anderson Canyon, 30 miles southeast of Flagstaff, 1; Apache 
Maid Mountain, 2; Blue (6 miles north), 1; Blue River (Cosper Ranch, 
at 5,000 feet altitude), 2; Canyon Padre, Coconino County, l;^^ Cherry 
Creek, Yavapai County, 1; Chiricahua Mountains, 77; *° Crown King, 
1; Fish Creek, Tonto National Forest, 4; Fort Apache, 1; Fort Defiance, 
2; Fort Grant, 2; Fort Verde, 3; 3« Fort Whipple, 11; Gila Mountains, 1_; 
Graham Mountains, 13; Grand Canyon (southern side), 5; Hualpai 
Mountains, 25; Juniper Mountains, 20 miles northwest of Simmons, 4; 
Mayer, 6; McMillenviUe (8 miles north), 1; Mingus Mountains, 6 miles 
southeast of Jerome, 2; Montezuma Well, 9; Mount Turnbull, 3; Nantan 
Plateau, 25 miles northeast of Rice, 6; Oak Creek, 18 miles southwest 
of Flagstaff, 1; Oracle, 2; Payson, 1; Peach Springs, 1; Pinal County, 
3; ^ Pine Creek, Tonto Basin, 1; Pine Spring, Hualpai Indian Reserva- 
tion, 3; Portal, 2; Prescott, 10; *2 Red Lake, 1; Rincon Mountains, 1; 
Roosevelt, 1; Salt River, 2 miles north of McMillenviUe, 1; Santa 
Catalina Mountains, 19; Sierra Ancha Mountains (Carr's Ranch), 11;** 
Springerville, 8; Stoneman Lake, Mogollon Mountains, 1;29 Supai Village, 
Cataract Creek, 1; ^9 Walnut (near Winona), 11; Weaver Mountains, 1; 
Whipple Barracks, 1 ; Winona, 4. 

Chihuahua: Colonia Garcia, 10; Minaca, 4; " Pacheco, 4; San Luis 
Mountains, 1; Sierra Madre, near Guadalupe y Calvo, 24. 

Durango: Guanacevi, 7.^' 

New Mexico: Animas Mountains, 6; Bear Spring Mountains, 5; Beaver 
Lake, Gila National Forest, 2; Bernalillo County, 1; Burro Mountains, 
2; Chloride (10 miles east), 2; Coppermines (near present site of Santa 
Rita), 2;*" Datil, 1; Datil Mountains, 11; El Moro, 1;*^ Pairview, 2; 
Fort Wingate, 9; Gallina Mountains, Socorro County, 3; Gallup, 
2; Guadalupe Canyon (Mexican Boundary), 1; Kingston, 1; Luna, 
Gila National Forest, 5; Magdalena Mountains, 4; Mimbres River 
(head), 8; Pinos Altos Mountains (north of Silver City), 20; Redrock, 
Grant County, 1; San Luis Mountains, Grant County, 10; San Mateo 
Mountains, Socorro County, 3; Silver City, 1; Riley, 2. 

EUTAMIAS DORSALIS UTAHENSIS Merriam 
Utah Cliff Chipmunk 
(Pls. 4, d; 8, d) 

Eutamias dorsalis utahensis Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 210, 
July 1, 1897. 

Type. — Collected at Ogden, Utah, October 9, 1888, by Vernon 
Bailey; adult, skin and skull; No. 186457, United States National 
Museum (No. ||-||, Merriam collection); original number, 289. 

Geographic distribution.-— Utah, northwestern Arizona, and southern 
Nevada; north to southern Idaho (Bridge), and southwestern Wyo- 
ming (Green River Valley); east to northwestern Colorado (Snake 

" XJniv. Mich. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

<» Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 42; Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; Mus. Oomp. Zool., 1. 

" Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 4; Mus. Comp. Zool., 2. 

" Mus. Vert. Zool. 

" Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 

" Mus. Comp. Zool. 

«« Cotypes; Mus. Comp. Zool., 1; U. S. Nat. Mus., 1. 



134 



NORTH AMERICA.N FA.UNA. 



[No. 62 



River Valley); south to the Grand Canyon, Arizona; west to cen- 
tral Nevada (Toquhna Range). Zonal range: Upper Sonoran; 3,000 
to 7,000 feet altitude. (Fig. 9.) 

Characters. — Similar to Euiamias d. dorsalis, but smaller, and averaging paler; 
postauricular patches smaller and less clear white; facial stripes paler, especially 
the submalar stripe, which is also narrower and tends to become obsolete anter- 
iorly; under side of tail paler; skull smaller. 

Color. — Summer pelage (July and August) : General tone of upper parts smoke 
gray or pale smoke gray; top of head similar to back but mixed with cinnamon, 
especially anteriorly, bordered on each side with a narrow line of fuscous; sides 
of nose clay color or cinnamon buff; facial stripes sayal brown shaded with fuscous 
or fuscous black; postauricular patches grayish white, poorly defined; median 
dorsal stripe fuscous to nearly black; outer dorsal stripes faintly indicated, often 
obsolete, pale fuscous, tinged with cinnamon; outer pair of light stripes faintly 
indicated, creamy wliite; sides pinkish cinnamon or Ught pinkish cinnamon; 
hind feet cinnamon buff; tail above, fuscous black, overlaid with tilleul buff; 
tail beneath, cinnamon buff or pinkish buff, bordered with fuscous black and 
edged -^ith tilleul buff; underparts creamy white. Winter pelage (October and 
November) : Very similar to the summer pelage but upper parts sUghtly darker, 
the cinnamon bases of the hairs more conspicuous, producing a general tone 
near light drab. 

Molt. — A specimen (d adult) from Beaverdam Mountains, Utah, May 11, 
1891, is in the midst of the spring molt, the new summer pelage covering about 
two-thirds of the dorsal area; a breeding female, however, from Ogden, Utah, 
taken July 20, 1893, is still in much worn winter pelage, with no sign of the molt 
beginning. 

Skull. — Similar to that of dorsalis but smaller. 

Measurements. — Average of 10 adults from Ogden and Provo, Utah: Total 
length, 222.3 (213-231) ; taU vertebrie, 101.4 (95-108); hind foot, 33 (32-35); ear 
from notch, 15.8 (15-17). Skull: Average of eight adults from type locality: 
Greatest length, 35.3 (34.5-36.2); zvgomatic breadth, 19.7 (19.2-20.2); cranial 
breadth, 15.3 (15-15.7); interorbital breadth, 7.9 (7.5-8.2); length of nasals, 11.1 
(10.4-11.8). 

Remarks. — This race shows the most extreme condition of pallor 
and reduction of the dorsal stripes. Its range is rather sharply cut 
off from that of dorsalis by the Grand Canyon, specimens from 
Trumbull Mountains on the north side of the Canyon being nearly 
typical utahensis. 

Specimens examined.— -Total number, 85, as follows: 

Arizona: Trumbull Mountains, 13. 

Colorado: Douglas Spring, Routt County, 20;" Escalante Hills (20 miles 
southeast of Ladore), 15; Snake River (between Snake River Bridge 
and Lilly), 1.** 

Idaho: Bridge, 9. 

Nevada: Manhattan, 2. 

Utah: Beaver Dam Mountains, 1; Clear Creek, Sevier County, 1; Hebron, 

1; Manti, 1; Ogden, 12; Pine Valley, 1; Provo, 3. 
Wyoming: Green River (4 miles northeast of Linwood, Utah), 5. 



« Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 2; Colo. Agr. College, 2; Mus. Vert. Zool., 2; E. R. Warren coll., 13. 
" E. R. Warren coll. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE A.MERICA.N CHIPMUNKS 135 

Table 2. — Cranial measurements of typical adults of Eutamias 









Crreat- 




Cra- 


Inter- 


Length 




bpocies and locality 


IN 0. 


oex 


est 


matic 


nial 


orbital 


01 


-r> 1 

Remarks 






length 


breadth 


breadth ' 


breadth 


nasals 




Eutamias alpinus: 


















Mount Whitney, Calif 


41210 


9 


30.3 


17.6 


14. 1 


7.8 


9. 5 




Do__ 


41211 


cT 


31.5 


17.3 


13. 7 


7.5 


10 




Eutamias minimus minimus: 


















Green River, Wyo 


65268 


& 


28.7 


16. 1 


13.3 


6.8 


8. 1 




Do__ __ 


147946 




30.4 


17.3 


14.6 


6.5 


8.7 




Eutamias m. pictus: 


















Kelton, Utah 


186459 


& 


29.4 


16.6 


13.1 


6.4 


9.5 


Type. 


Do 


193198 


9 


30.6 


16.6 


13.4 


6.5 


9.9 


Eutamias m. caryi: 


















Medano Ranch, Colo 


150740 


cf 


30 


17.2 


13.9 


6 


9. 1 


Do. 


Do 


150741 


d' 


30.8 


16.9 


14.3 


7 


9 




Eutamias m. paUidus: 


















Painted Robe Creek, Mont 


67581 


9 


34.2 


18.8 


15.5 


7.5 


10.3 




Terry, Mont 


161343 


cf 


32 


18.5 


14.5 


7.3 


10.2 




Eutamias m. cacodemus: 


















Cheyenne River, S. Dak... 


61451 





33.2 


18.3 


15 


6.7 


10.3 




Corral Draw, S. Dak 


2 7562 


9 


31.9 


18.5 


14.6 


7.3 


9. 5 


Old adult. 


Eutamias m. conflnis: 


















Bighorn Mountains, Wyo- 


168763 


& 


32 


18 


15.6 


7 


10.5 




Do 


168764 


9 


31. 1 


18. 1 


15.8 


6.8 


9.5 


Do. 


Eutamias m. consobrinus: 


















Uinta Forest, Utah 


226897 


& 


31 


17.5 


14.5 


6.8 


9.1 




Park City, Utah 


30067 


9 


30 


16.5 


14.4 


6.5 


9.2 




Eutamias m. operarius: 


















Gold Hill, Colo 


129808 


9 


32 


17.7 


14.8 


7.5 


9.7 


Type. 


Estes Park, Colo 


74106 


9 


32.7 


18 


16. 2 


8.3 


9.3 


Eutamias m. atristriatus: 


















Cloudcroft, N. Mex 


119028 


9 


33.9 


18.3 


14.7 


7 


10.3 


Do. 


Do.- 


118823 


9 


33.5 


18.9 


15.9 


7.3 


11.1 


Old adult. 


Eutamias m. arizonensis: 


















Prieto Plateau, Ariz 


205869 


(? 


32.6 


18 


14.2 


7.3 


10.3 


Type. 


Do 


205872 


9 


33.1 


18.5 


14.3 


7.2 


10.4 


Eutamias m. oreocetes: 


















Summit, Mont 


72468 


9 


32.1 


18 


14.8 


6.7 


10.6 


Do. 


Indian Pass, Mont_ 


244535 


9 


32.3 


18.9 


16.4 


7.8 


10.1 


Eutamias m. borealis: 


















Fort Smith, Mackenzie.. _ 


115766 




32.5 


18 


14.5 


7 


10.1 




Slave River, Alberta 


115762 


9 


33. 2 


18.5 


14.4 


7 


10.5 




Eutamias m. caniceps: 


















Lake Lebarge, Yukon 


99200 


9 


33.5 


18.2 


14.3 


6.9 


10.7 


Do. 


Do 


99204 


& 


33 


18.3 


14.4 


7 


10.2 




Eutamias m. jacksoni: 
















Crescent Lake, Wis 


227423 


cf 


32.9 


18.1 


14.5 


7.2 


9.8 


Do. 


Herbster, Wis. 


232137 


cf 


33.2 


18.1 


14.3 


7.3 


10.7 


Old adult 


Eutamias amcenus amoenus: 


















Fort Klamath, Oreg 


186460 


9 


32 


17.6 


14.4 


7.2 


9.6 


Type. 


Do.. 


193121 


& 


31.9 


17.8 


13.8 


7.4 


9.8 


Eutamias a. ochraceus: 












Siskiyou Mountains, Calif- 


161049 


cT 


33.5 


18.4 


14.5 


7.8 


9.6 


Do. 


Siskiyou, Oreg 


65693 


9 


33.2 


18.4 


14.5 


7.8 


10.5 


Eutamias a. monoensis: 


















Leevining Creek, Calif 


3 23380 




32.2 


17.8 


15 


7.5 


10. 1 


Do. 


Do _ _ 


3 23379 


9 


33 


17.9 


14.5 


8 


10.2 




Eutamias a. luteiventris: 














St. Marys Lake, Mont 


72471 




34.4 


19.2 


15 


7.6 


10.5 




Do 


72456 


9 


33.7 


18.9 


14.9 


7.6 


10.5 




Eutamias a. vallicola: 












Bitterroot Valley, Mont.. 


168027 


9 


33.6 


18.8 


15 


7.5 


11.3 


Do. 


Do 


168028 


& 


34.5 


19.1 


15.5 


7.5 


11.1 




Eutamias a. canicaudus: 










Spokane, Wash... 


34428 


9 


34.3 


19 


15.5 


7.4 


11 


Do. 


Do.-_ 


31373 


cT 


35.6 


18.6 


15 


7.8 


10. 7 




Eutamias a. afBnis: 












Ashcroft, British Colum- 


< 1500 


9 


34.3 


18.7 


14.9 


7.8 


10.9 


Do. 


bia. 












Do 


67017 


& 


35.3 


18.9 


14.9 


7 


n.3 




Eutamias a. ludibundus: 








YeUowhead Lake, British 


174225 


9 


33.6 


19.3 


15.1 


7.4 


11 


Do. 


Columbia. 














Moose River, British Co- 


174091 


cf 


34 


18.6 


15.2 


7.4 


U.6 




lumbia. 










Eutamias a. felix: 


















Mount Baker Range, 


87966 


d' 


34.5 


19.2 


15.1 


7.3 


10.7 




British Columbia. 










Do 


87963 


9 


34 


19.5 


14.8 


7.1 


10.5 





' Measured directly posterior to zygomata. 
' Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



' Mus. Vert. Zool. 

< Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



136 NORTH AMERICA FAUNA. [No. 62 

Table 2. — Cranial measurements of typical adults of Eutamias — Continued 



No. 


Sex 


Great- 
est 
length 


90036 


cT 


34.3 


»232 


9 


33.4 


39702 


& 


34. 7 


40555 


9 


34 


64140 




36.3 


47904 


cf 


35. 8 


67767 


& 


36.1 


66553 


9 


60 


3 27308 




35.3 


3 27296 


9 


36.5 


88662 


9 


36.1 


55773 


& 


34.8 


42799 


o 


36.8 


42164 




35.4 


180462 


& 


34.9 


yuuou 


V 


OO. / 


55967 


9 


36 


55987 


cf 


36. 4 


oo4oi 


c? 


35. 9 


208908 


9 


36.3 


158123 


9 


35.9 


158121 




34.6 


30032 


& 


33.4 


30033 


9 


34. 4 


72294 


9 


36.2 


72292 


c? 


36.2 


40691 


9 


35 


40592 


cf 


34.3 


24533 


9 


35.7 


24526 


cf 


36.3 


167029 


cf 


35.8 


107031 


9 


36.7 


109229 


9 


36.5 


109228 




36.8 


91967 


cf 


38.6 


91974 


9 


37.9 


* 21410 


9 


38.7 


' 21403 




38 


llo8o2 


9 


36. 6 


116887 




37.3 


142000 


9 


39.6 


141998 


cf 


38 


230527 


& 


36.8 


230516 


9 


1 38.7 



Cra- 
nial 
breadth ' 


Inter- 
orbital 
breadth 


Length 

of 
nasals 


14.8 


7.2 


10.7 


14.9 


7.6 


10.4 


16 


o 
o 


11. 2 


16 


7.7 


10.4 


15.7 


8.2 


11.6 


1 

lo. / 




11. 4 


15.2 


8.2 


11.5 


1 1 
10. 1 


7 Q 

/. is 


10. 4 


15.2 


8 


11.2 


15.9 


8.2 


11.9 


14.6 


7.8 


11.8 


14.8 


7.9 


10.7 


14.9 


8.2 


12.6 


16 


8.2 


11.8 


15 


7.9 


11.4 


15. 1 


/. o 




14.8 


8.5 


12.3 


14. 0 


C Q 
O. O 


11. y 


16. 4 


8. 6 


11 


15.4 


8.2 


10.7 


15.3 


8.8 


11.6 


16.7 


8.3 


10.5 


16.3 


7.8 


10.7 


14. 5 


/. y 


11. 1 


15.6 


7.6 


1L2 


14.7 


8.2 


U.3 


15.8 


7.8 


12.1 


16.3 


7.4 


n.2 


16 


7.9 


11.3 


16.2 


8.6 


10.9 


15.3 


7.8 


10.6 


15.4 


7.8 


11.6 


15.4 


8.1 


11.9 


14.9 


7.9 


12.3 


16.9 


8.6 


12.5 


16.1 


8.4 


12.6 


16 


9 


12.6 


10.3 


8.4 


12 


15. 8 


8. 3 


12. 1 


16.1 


8.7 


11.9 


17 


9 


12.4 


16.7 


8.2 


11.6 


16.7 


8.2 


11.4 


16.4 


8.6 


12. 1 



Species and locality 



Eutamias a. caurinus: 

Olympic Mountains, 
Wash. 

Do... 

Eutamias panamintinus: 
Panamint Mountains, 
Calif. 

Do... 

Eutamias quadrivittatus 
quadrivittatus: 

Canyon City, Colo 

Do 

Eutamias q. hopiensis: 

Eeam Canyon, Ariz. _ 

Do - 

Eutamias q. inyoensis: 

White Mountains, Calif... 

Do __ 

Eutamias q. frater: 

Dormer, Calif 

Do. _ 

Eutamias q. sequoiensis: 

Mineral King, Calif 

Sequoia National Park 

Eutamias q. speciosus: 

San Bernardino Moun- 
tains, Calif. 

Do 

Eutamias callipeplus: 

Mount Piiios, Calif 

Do 

Eutamias palmeri: 

Charleston Peak, Nev 

Do 

Eutamias adsitus: 

Beaver Mountains, Utah.. 

Do 

Eutamias umbrinus: 

Uinta Mountains, Utah... 

Do 

Eutamias rufioaudus ruficau- 
dus: 

St. Marys Lake, Mont 

Do 

Eutamias r. simulans: 

Cceur d'Alene, Idaho 

Do._ 

Eutamias cinereicollis cinerei- 
coUis: 

San Francisco Mountain, 
Ariz. 

Do 

Eutamias c. cinereus: 

Magdalena Mountains, 
N. Mei. 

Do 

Eutamias c. canipes: 

Guadalupe Mountains, 
Tex. 

Do 

Eutamias bulleri buUeri: 
Valparaiso Mountains, 
Zaeatecas, Me.\ico. 

Do _ 

Eutamias b. durangae: 

Arroyo de Bucy, Durango, 
Mexico. 

Do 

Eutamias b. solivagus: 

Sierra Guadalupe, Coa- 
huila, Mexico. 

Do 

Eutamias townsendii town- 
sendii: 

Portland, Oreg 

. Do._. 

Eutamias t. cooperi: 

Trout Lake, Wash 

Do 



Zygo- 
matic 
breadth 



19.4 
19.2 
18.9 
18.7 



19.9 
19.3 

19.7 
19.3 

19.4 
20.2 

20 
19.7 

19.4 
19.3 

19.1 

20 

19.3 
19 

19.7 
19.9 

19.6 
19 

19 

18.8 



19.6 
20 

19.3 
19.4 



20.2 

20 

19.6 

19.4 

19.4 

19.3 

20.7 

20.4 

21 

20.6 
19.5 
20.7 



21.8 
21.8 

20.9 
21.4 



Remarks 



Type. 



Do. 



Old adult. 

Type. 

. Do. 

Old adult. 
Type. 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Subadult (type). 

Do. 
Type. 
Subadult. 



Type. 
Do. 

Old adult. 
Do. 



Measured directly posterior to zygomata. 
3 Mus. Vert. Zool. 



* Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
» Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 



1929] REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 137 

Table 2. — Cranial measurements of typical adults of Eutamias — Continued 



Species and locality 



No. 



Sex 



Great- 
est 
length 



Zygo- 
matic 
breadth 



Cra- 
nial 
breadth i 



Inter- 
orbital 
breadth, 



Length 

of 
nasals 



Remarks 



Eutamias t. oehrogenys: 

Mendocino, Calif 

Do.. 

Eutamias t. siskiyou: 

Siskiyou Mountains, Calif. 

Do 

Eutamias t. senex: 

Dormer, Calif. 

Do.. 

Eutamias t. sonomae: 

GuernevLlle, Calif 

Cazadero, Calif— 

Eutamias aUeni: 

Nicasio, Calif 

Do._ - 

Eutamias quadrimaculatus: 

Michigan Bluff, Calif 

Do. 

Eutamias merriami merriami: 
San Bernardino Moun- 
tains, CaUf. 

Do 

Eutamias m. pricei: 

Portola, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Eutamias m. kernensis: 

Fay Creek, Calif 

Do 

Eutamias m. obscurus: 

San Pedro Martir Moun- 
tains, Lower California. 

Do.... 

Eutamias m. meridionalis: 
Aguaje de San Esteban, 
Lower California. 
Eutamias dorsalis dorsalis: 

Silver City, N. Mei 

Pinos Altos Mountains, 
N. Mei. 
Eutamias d. utahensis: 

Ogden, Utah 

Do.... 



67174 
96111 

161033 
91460 

186461 
55537 

3 20825 
3 20453 

68101 
68125 

93764 
93760 

56519 

127939 

* 9552 
63962 

' 15022 
3 15010 

« 10585 

» 10591 

139597 



66131 
51311 



186457 
55127 



40.8 
40 

38.5 
39.2 

37.3 
39.1 

38.3 
39.6 

36.8 
39.3 

38.5 
36.3 

40.1 

38.3 

38.3 
39.3 

38.1 
38.9 

37.8 

36.4 

35.5 



36.5 
38.7 



34.5 

36 



22.3 
22.2 

21.4 
21.4 

21.2 

22 

21 

21.3 

20.2 
20.6 

20 
20.4 

2L6 

20.6 

20.1 
20.3 

20.3 
20.6 

19.4 

19.9 

18.2 



20.1 
21.1 



19.2 
20.2 



17.2 
16.6 

16.4 
16.3 

16.6 
16.4 

15.4 
16.5 

15.4 
15.7 

15.8 
15.5 

16.1 

15.8 

15.3 
15.9 

15.3 
16.1 

15 

15.5 
15.1 



15.1 
16 



15.3 
15.7 



9 

8.4 

8.2 
8.4 



9.2 

8.5 
9 

9.5 
8.7 

9 

9.4 

8.4 
8.1 

8.7 

9 

7.6 
7.8 
8.4 



8.6 
8.7 



7.6 
8.2 



12.2 
12.9 

12.3 
12.8 

12.3 
12.7 

11.3 
12.7 

12.2 
12.3 

12.6 
11.3 

14 

12 

13.4 
13.7 

13.3 
12 

12.2 
12.1 
11.1 



11.5 
12.8 



10.8 
10.4 



Type. 



Old adult; type. 
Old adult. 

Type (old). 
Old adult. 



Do 



Type. 



Do. 
Old adult. 

Do. 



Type; old adult. 



Subadult. 



Type. 
Old adult. 



1 Measured directly posterior to zygomata. 
3 Mus. Vert. Zool. 



< Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 
' Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Following are the principal papers relating to American chipmunks; 
with these are included a number of faunal lists in which chipmunks 
are mentioned, preference being given to those treatiag of habits: 

Abbott, C. C. 

1884. A naturalist's rambles about home. p. 1-485. 
Contains notes on hibernation of Tamias striaius. 

Allen, J. A. 

1874. ON geographical variation in color among north AMERICAN 
squirrels; with a list of the species and VARIETIES OF THE 
AMERICAN SCIURIDJi; OCCURRING NORTH OF MEXICO. PrOC. Boston 

See. Nat. Hist. 16: 276-294, June. 

Contains original description of Tamias quadrhittatus var. pallidus [Evtamias mini- 
mus pallidus]. 

1877. MONOGRAPHS OF NORTH AMERICAN BODBNTIA. Rept. U. S. Geol. SuTV. 

Terr. 11: 779-810. 

Monographic revision of the American chipmunks, recognizing two species— TVimzas 
stnatus and Tamias [Eutamias] asiaiicm — the latter with five varieties; complete syn- 
onymy and lists of specimens, but now entirely out of date with regard to species. 

1889. NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF MAMMALS FROM SOUTHERN MEXICO, WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF THE GENERA SCIURUS, TAMIAS, 

AND sigmodon. Bul. Amcr. Mus. Nat. Hist. 2: 165-181, October 
21. 

Contains original descriptions of Tamais asiaticus bulkri [Eutamias buUeri] and Tamias 
asiaticus merriami [Eutamias msniami]. 

1890. A REVIEW OF SOME OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GROUND SQUIRRELS OF 

THE GENUS TAMIAS. Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 45-116, June. 

First revision of the genus Eutamias based on modern material; contains original 
descriptions of Tamias [Eutamias] obscurus, T. senex, T. speciosvs, T. frater, T. am(£nus, 
T. cinereicollis, T. umbrinus, T. guadrivittatus gracilis, T. q. luteiventris, T. q. affinis, T. g. 
neglectus, T. minimus consobrinus, and T. m. pictus. 

1895. DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AMERICAN MAMMALS. Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. 7: 327-340, November 8. 

Contains original description of Tamias [Eutamias] pried. 

1903. LIST OF MAMMALS COLLECTED BY MR. J. H. BATTY IN NEW MEXICO AND 

DURANGO, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES. 

Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 19: 587-612, November 12. 
Contains original description of Eutamias durangx. 

1904. FURTHER NOTES ON MAMMALS FROM NORTHWESTERN DURANGO. Bul. 

Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 20: 205-210, May 28. 
Contains original description of Evtamias caneseem. 

1905. MAMMALS FROM BEAVER COUNTY, UTAH, COLLECTED BY THE MUSEUM 

EXPEDITION OF 1904. Brooklyn Inst. Mus. Science Bul. 1: 117-122, 
March 31. 

Contains original descriptions of Eutamias Udvs and Eutamias adsitus. 

Allison, A. 

1907. NOTES on THE SPRING BIRDS OF TISHOMINGO COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI. 

The Auk 24: 12-25, January. 

Contains mention of Tamias striaius and other mammals. 

Anthony, A. W. 

1924. HIBERNATING CHIPMUNKS. Journ. Mamm. 5: 76, February. 

Account of finding several dormant individuals of Eutamias townscndii near Portland, 
Greg. 

138 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



139 



OREGON. Bul. Amer. 



3 vols. 



Bachman, 
1839. 



Anthony, H. E. 

1913. mammals of northern malheur county, 
Mus. Nat. Hist. 32: 1-27, March 7. 

Contains original description of Eutamias amanus propinquus. 

Audubon, J. J., and J. Bachman. 

1846-1854. THE VIVIPAROUS QUADRUPEDS OF NORTH AMERICA. 

p. 1-384; 1-334; 1-348; pis. 1-155. 

Contains (in vol. 1) extensive account of Tamias siriatus [under the name Tamias 
listeri] and brief accounts of Tamias [Eutamias] townsendii and Tamias guadrivittatus 
[Eutamias minimus subsp.]. 

J. 

DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES OF AMERICAN QUADRUPEDS. 

Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 57-74. 

Contains original descriptions of Tamias [Eutamias] townsendii and Tamias [Eutamias] 
minimus, with a hst of mammals collected by John K. Townsend on his transcontinental 
journey. 

Bailey, V. 

1902. SEVEN NEW MAMMALS FROM WESTERN TEXAS. PrOC. Biol. SoC. 

Washington 15: 117-120, June 2. 

Contains original description of Eutamias cinereicoUis canipes. 

1905. biological survey of texas. North Amer. Fauna No. 25, p. 1-222, 
October 24. 

Contains notes on habits of Eutamias cinereicoUis canipes. 

1913. TEN NEW mammals FROM NEW MEXICO. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 
26: 129-134, May 21. 

Contains original descriptions of Eutamias atristriatus and Eutamias cinereicoUis 



1918. A NEW SUBSPECIES OF CHIPMUNK FROM THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL 

PARK. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 31-32, May 16. 
Contains original description of Eutamias consobrinus clarus. 

1919. WILD ANIMALS OF GLACIER NATIONAL PARK. The mammals, with 

notes on physiography and life zones. Publication (not numbered) 

of National Park Service, U. S. Dept. of Int., 1918, p. 25-102. 

(Dated 1918 but issued January 10, 1919.) 

Contains accounts of habits of Eutamias amosnus luteiventris, E. ruficaudus (under 
the name E. umbrinas felix), and E. oreocetes. 

1926. A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF NORTH DAKOTA. North Amer. Fauna No. 

49, p. 1-226, December. 

Contains accounts of habits of Tamias striatus griseus, Eutamias minimus borealis 
, and E. m. pallidus. 

Baird, S. F. 

1855a. characteristics of some new species of mammalia, collected 
by the u. s. and mexican boundary survey, major w. h. emory 
u. s. A., COMMISSIONER. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: 
331-333, April. 

Contains original description of Tamias [Eutamias] dorsalis. 

1855b. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN MAM- 
MALIA, COLLECTED CHIEFLY IN CONNECTION WITH THE U. S. SUR- 
VEYS OF A RAILROAD ROUTE TO THE PACIFIC. ProC. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Philadelphia 7: 333-336, April. 

Contains original description of Tamias cooperi [Eutamias townsendii cooperi]. 

1857a. [report of the assistant secretary]. 11th Ann. Rept. Smith- 
sonian Inst, for 1856, p. 47-68. 

The Asiatic chipmunk shown to be distinct from the American and named Tamias 

pallasii. 

1857b. [mammals of north America]. Reports of explorations and surveys 
to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a 
railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean 8, pt. 1: 
i-xlviii; 1-757. 

Contains monographic treatment of Tamias striatus, T. [Eutamias] guadrivittatus ■ 
T. [Eutamias] townsendii, and T. [Eutamias] dorsalis. 



140 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



(No. 62 



Baird, S. F. — Continued. 

1859. MAMMALS OF THE BOUNDARY. U. S. and MexicEH Boundary Survey 
2, pt. 2: 1-62; pis. 1-27. 

Contains full account of Tamias [EiUamias] dorsalis. 

B.\NGS, 0. 

1896. SOME NEW MAMMALS FROM INDIAN TERRITORY AND MISSOURI. PrOC. 

Biol. Soc. Washington 10: 135-138, December 28. 
Contains original description of Tamias striatus venustus. 

Brooks, A. 

1902. MAMMALS of THE CHiLLiWACK DISTRICT, B. c. Ottawa Naturalist 15: 

239-244. 

Brief account of EiUamias towTisendii and E. guadnvittatus [aTTKeniLs] felix. 

Brown, C. E. 

1913. a pocket list of the mammals of eastern massachusetts, with 
ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO ESSEX COUNTY. Peabody Acad. Sci. 
(Salem, Mass.), p. 1-48. 

Contains brief notes on habits of Tamias striaius. 

Gary, M. 

1906. IDENTITY OF EUTAMIAS PALLIDUS (aLLEN), WITH A DESCRIPTION 
OF A RELATED FORM FROM THE SOUTH DAKOTA BAD LANDS. PrOC. 

Biol. See. Washington 19: 87-90, June 4. 

Eutamias pallidas revived; original description of E. pallidus cacodemus. 

1911. A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF COLORADO. North Amer. Fauna No. 33, 

p. 1-256, August 17. 

Contains full accounts flife histories and distribution) of Eutamias qmdrivittatus 
guadTiriltatus, E. giiadrivillatus hopicnsis, E. minimus opcrarius, E. minimus minimum, 
E. minimus caryi, E. minimus consobriniLS, and E. dorsalis utahensis. 

Catesby, M. 

1731, 1743. the natural history of carolina, florida, and the bahama 

ISLANDS, ETC. 1: 1-100, 1731; 2: i-xliv, 1-20, 1-100, 1743. 

Contains [vol. 2, p. 75] the first description and figure of the eastern chipmunk, 
under the name Sciurus slriatiis. 

Cory, C. B. 

1912. THE MAMMALS OF ILLINOIS AND WISCONSIN. Publ. Field MuS. Nat. 

Hist. (zool. ser.) 11: 1-505. 

Contains extensive notes on habits and distribution of Tamias striatus griseus and 
Eutamias borealis neglectus [E. minimus jacksoni]. 

DeKay, J. E. 

1842. ZOOLOGY OF NEW YORK, OR THE NEW YORK FAUNA. Part 1, Mammalia, 
p. i-xiii, 1-146; pis. 1-33. 

Contains account of the eastern chipmunk under the name Sciuriis striaius. 

Elliot, D. G. 

1903. descriptions of apparently new species and subspecies op 

mammals from california, oregon, the kenai peninsula, 
ALASKA, AND LOWER CALIFORNIA, MEXICO. Field Columbian Mus. 
Publ. Zool. 3: 153-173, April. 

Contains original description of Tamias [Eutamias] t. littoralis. 

1905. DESCRIPTIONS OF APPARENTLY NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF 

MAMMALS FROM MEXICO AND SAN DOMINGO. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington 18: 233-236, December 9. 

Contains original description of Tamias nexus [Eidamiaa buUeri durangx]. 

EvERMANN, B. W., and H. W. Clark. 

1911. NOTES ON THE MAMMALS OF THE LAKE MAXINKUCKEE REGION [INDI- 
ANA]. Proc. Washington Acad. Sci. 13 (no. 1): 1-34, February 15. 
Contains extended account of habits of Tamias striaius. 

FOEBUSH, E. H. 

1904. SPECIAL REPORT ON THE DECREASE OF CERTAIN BIRDS, AND ITS CAUSES, 

WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR BIRD PROTECTION. Fifty-sccond Ann. 
Rept. Mass. State Board Agr., p. 429-543. 

Contains mention of two instances of the eastern chipmunk attacking birds (p. 505- 
606). 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



141 



Gmelin, J. F. 

1788. SYSTEMA NATTTEAE 1: 1-500. 

The eastern chipmunk named Sciurus striatus americanus (p. 130). 

Gray, J. E. 

1842. DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW GENERA AND FIFTY UNRECORDED SPECIES 

OF MAMMALIA. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 10: 255-267, December. 

Contains original description of Tamias hindei (typographical error for hindsn) [ = Euta- 
mias townsendii]. 

1867. SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OF BURROWING SQUIRRELS (TAMIAS) IN THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (ser. 3) 20: 434-436, 
December. 

Original description of Tamias [Eutamias] quadrimaculatus; six species of American 
chipmunks recognized: Tamias [Eutamias] quadrivittatus, T. hindsii, T. townsendii, T. 
quadrimaculatus, T. americanus [=striatus], and T. dorsalis. 

Gkinnell, J. 

1908. THE BIOTA OF THE SAN BERNARDINO MOUNTAINS. Univ. Calif. Publ. 

Zool. 5 (no. 1): 134-160, Mammals, December 31. 
Contains notes on habits of Eutamias speciosus and E. merriami. 

1915. EUTAMIAS SONOMAE, A NEW CHIPMUNK FROM THE INNER NORTHERN 

COAST BELT OF CALIFORNIA. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 12 (no. 11) : 
321-325, January 20. 

Geinnell, J., and T. I. Storer. 

1916. DIAGNOSES OF SEVEN NEW MAMMALS FROM EAST-CENTRAL CALIFOENIA. 

Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 17 (no. 1) : 1-8, August 23. 

Contains original descriptions of Eutamias amcenus monoensis, E. merriami mariposx 
and E. merriami kernensis. 

1924. ANIMAL LIFE IN THE YOSEMiTE. An account of the mammals, birds, 
reptiles, and amphibians in a cross section of the Sierra Nevada, 
p. i-xviii, 1-752; pis. 1-62, Univ. Calif. Press. 

Contains extended accounts of habits of Eutamias speciosus frater, E. senex, E. mer- 
riami mariposx, E. quadrimaculatus, E. alpinus, E. amcenus monoensis, and E. pictus. 

Hahn, W. L. 

1909. the MAMMALS OF INDIANA. 33d Ann. Rept. Dept. Geol. and Natural 

Resources of Indiana, p. 41-663. 

Contains full account of habits of Tamias striatus. 

HOLLISTEE, N. 

1911. FOUR NEW MAMMALS FROM THE CANADIAN ROCKIES. SmithsOnian MisC. 

Coll. 56 (no. 26) : 1-4, December 5. 

Contains original description of Eutamias ludibundus. 
Howell, A. B. 

1924. the mammals of mammoth, mono county, California. Journ. 

Mamm. 5: 25-36, February. 

Contains notes on zonal ranges of 7 subspecies of Euiamiaa. 
Howell, A. H. 

1920. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW CHIPMUNK PROM GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, 

MONTANA. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 91-92, December 30. 
Original description of Eutamias ruficaudus. 

1921. A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ALABAMA. North Amer. Fauna No. 45, 

p. 1-88, October 24. 

Contains account of habits and distribution in Alabama of Tamias striattts venmlus. 

1922. DIAGNOSES OF SEVEN NEW CHIPMUNKS OP THE GENUS EUTAMIAS, 

WITH A LIST OF THE AMERICAN SPECIES. Journ. Mamm. 3: 178-185, 
August. 

Original descriptions of Eutamias minimus arizonensis, E. amcenus vallicola, E. rufi- 
caudus simulans, E. bulleri solivagus, E. speciosus sequoiensis, E. townsendii siskiyou, 
and E. townsendii alleni [ = E. alleni]. 

1925. PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTIONS OP FIVE NEW CHIPMUNKS PROM NORTH 

AMERICA. Journ. Mamm. 6: 51-54, February 15. 

Original descriptions of Tamias striatus fisheri, Eutamias minimum grisescens, E. mini- 
mus conftnis, E. minimus jacksoni, and E. amanus ochraceus. 

Illiger, J. K. W. 

1811. PRODROMUS SYST. MAM. ET AVIUM, p. i-XVlll, 1-302. 

First use of the generic name Tamias. 



142 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



Kennicott, R. 

1857. the quadrupeds op illinois injurious and beneficial to the 
FARMER. Rept. Commr. Patents for 1856, p. 52-110. 

Contains an account of Tamias striaim, with notes on its food and general habits. 

Klugh, a. B. 

1923. notes on the habits of the chipmunk tamias striatus lysteri. 
Journ. Mamm. 4: 29-32, February. 

LlNN^US, C. 

1754. MUS. ADOLPHI FRIDERICI REGIS. 

Contains original description of the American chipmunk under the name Sciurus 
striatus. 

1758. STSTEMA NATURE 1: 1-824. 

Contains description ot Sciurus striatus [= Tamias striatus] (previously described by 
him in 1754. 

Lyon, M. W., jr. 

1907. notes on mammals collected at mt. rainier, washington. smith- 
sonian Misc. Coll. 50: 89-92, June 27. 

Euiamias cooperi (Baird) revived and type locality designated. 

Mearns, E. A. 

1891. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBSPECIES OF "^HE EASTERN CHIPMUNK, 
FROM THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI REGION, WEST OF THE GREAT LAKES. 

Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 229-283, June 5. 
Contains original description of Tamias s. griseus. 

1898. A STUDY OF THE VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF THE HUDSON HIGHLANDS, WITH 
OBSERVATIONS ON THE MOLLUSCA, CRUSTACEA, LEPIDOPTERA, AND 

THE FLORA OF THE REGION. Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 10: 
303-352, September 9. 

Contains brief account of habits of Tamias striatus. 

1907. MAMMALS OF THE MEXICAN BOUNDARY OF THE UNITED STATES. Bul. 

56, U. S. Nat. Mus., p. 1-530. 

Contains extended life histories and technical descriptions of Euiamias cinereicoUis, 
E. dorsalis, and E. merriami. 

Merriam, C. H. 

1883. CHIPMUNKS AND RED SQUIRRELS. Forest and stream 21: 103, 
September 6. 

Account of a migration of chipmunks in Lewis County, N. Y., from June 30-Jaly 10, 
1883. 

1882, 1884. THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTHEASTERN 

NEW YORK. Trans. Linnsean Soc. New York 1: 1-106, 1882; 
2: 1-214, 1884. 

Contains extended account (v. 2, p. 135-141) of life history of Tamias striaius. 

1886a. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF CHIPMUNK FROM CALIFORNIA 

(tamias macrorhabdotes sp. NOV.). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton 3: 25-28, January 27. 

Original description of Tamias macrorhabdotes [Eutamias qtuidrimaculatus]. 

1886b. description of a new subspecies of chipmunk (tamias striatus 
LYSTERI). Amer. Nat. 20 (no. 2): 236-242, February. 

First division of the species Tamias striatus into two races; Richardson's name lysieri 
revived for the northern race. 

1890. DESCRIPTIONS OF FIVE NEW GROUND SQUIRRELS OF THE GENUS TAMIAS. 

North Amer. Fauna No. 4, p. 17-22, October 8. 

Contains original description of Tamias minimus melanurus [Euiamias m. pictus], 

1891. RESULTS OF A BIOLOGICAL RECONNOISSANCE OF SOUTH-CENTRAL 

IDAHO. North Amer. Fauna No. 5, p. 1-127, July 30. 

Contains accounts and detailed measurements of Tamias quadrimtlaius amoenus 
[Euiamias avmnus amcenus] and Tamias [Eutamias] mirmnus piclus. 

1893. DESCRIPTIONS OF EIGHT NEW GROUND SQUIRRELS OP THE GENERA 
SPERMOPHILU8 AND TAMIAS FROM CALIFORNIA, TEXAS, AND MEXICO. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 8: 129-138, December 28. 

Contains original descriptions of Tamias [Eutamias] pananintinus, T. [Euiamias] 
callipeplus, and T. [Euiamias] alpinus. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



143 



Mebriam, C. H. — Continued. 

1897. NOTES ON THE CHIPMUNKS OF THE GENUS EUTAMIAS OCCURRING 

WEST OF THE EAST BASE OF THE CASCADE-SIERRA SYSTEM, WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS OP NEW FORMS. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 11: 
189-212, July 1. 

Distribution; seasonal changes in pelage; list of species and subspecies; remarks on the 
townsendii and speciosus groups, and on Eutamias qiiadrimaculatus. Original descriptions 
of E. townsendii ochrogenys, E. oreocetes, E. speciosus inyoensis, E. palmeri, and E. dorsalis 
utaheTisis. 

1898. DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW RODENTS FROM THE OLYMPIC MOUN- 

TAINS, WASHINGTON. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1898: 
352-353, October 4. 

Contains original description of Eutamias caurinus. 

1899. RESULTS OF A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF MOUNT SHASTA, CALIFORNIA. 

North Amer. Fauna No. 16, p. 1-179, October 28. 
Contains accounts of habits of Eutamias am(Enus and E. senex. 

1903. EIGHT NEW MAMMALS FROM THE UNITED STATES. PrOC. Biol. SoC. 

Washington 16: 73-78, May 29. 

Contains original description of Eutamias canicaudus. 

1905. TWO NEW CHIPMUNKS FROM COLORADO AND ARIZONA. PrOC. Blol. 

Soc. Washington 18: 163-166, June 29. 

Contains original descriptions of Eutamias hopiensis and E. amoenua operarius. The 
name Eutamias quadrivittatus shown to apply to the larger of the two forms occurring in 
the mountains of eastern Colorado. 

1906. IS MUTATION A FACTOR IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE HIGHER VERTE- 

BRATES? Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Science 55: 383-408. 
Contains extended remarks on the distribution of chipmunks in California. 

1908. THREE NEW RODENTS FROM COLORADO. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 

21: 143-144, June 9. 

Contains original description of Eutamias minimus caryi. 

Miller, G. S., jr. 

1897. NOTES ON THE MAMMALS OP ONTARIO. PrOC. BostOH SoC. Nat. Hist. 

28: 1-44, April. 

Contains brief accounts of Tamias striaius lysteri and T. siriatus grisem; and a fuller 
account of habits of Tamias quadrivittatus neglectus [Eutamias minimus borealis]. 

Nelson, E. W. 

1918. SMALLER MAMMALS OF NORTH AMERICA. Natl. Geog. Mag. 33 (no. 5) : 
371-493, May. 

Contains accounts, with illustrations, of Tamias striatus, Eutamias townsendii, and 
Eutamias minimus pictus. 

Nelson, E. W., and E. A. Goldman. 

1909. ELEVEN NEW MAMMALS FROM LOWER CALIFORNIA. PrOC. Blol. SoC. 

Washington 22: 23-28, March 10. 

Contains original description of Eutamias merriami meridionalis. 

Osgood, W. H. 

1900. MAMMALS OF THE YUKON REGION. In North Amer. Fauna. No. 19, 

p. 21-100, October 6. 

Contains original description of Eutamias caniceps. 

Pallas, P. S. 

1778. i^ov^ SPECIES quadrupedum e glirium ordine, p. i-viii, 1-388. 

Contains first description of the Asiatic chipmunk, under the name Sciurus striatus, 

Preble, E. A. 

1908. A BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ATHAB ASKA-MACKENZIE REGION. 

North Amer. Fauna No. 27, p. 1-574, October 26. 

Contains detailed notes on habits and distribution of Eutamias borealis. 

Reed, H. D., and A. H. Wright. 

1909. THE vertebrates of the CAYUGA LAKE BASIN, NEW YORK. PrOC. 

Amer. Philos. Soc. 48 (no. 193) : 370-459. 
Contains brief note on habits of Tamias striatum. 

Rhoads, S. N. 

1895. additions to the mammal fauna of British Columbia. Amer. 
Nat. 29: 940-942, October. 

Contains original description of Tamias quadrivittatus felix [Eutamias amcenus felix]. 



144 



NORTH AMERICAN FAUNA 



No. 62] 



Rhoads, S. N. — Continued. 

1903. THE MAMMALS OF PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW JERSEY, p. 1-266, Phila- 
delphia (privately published). 

Contains extended notes on life history of Tamias striatus. 

Richardson, J. 

1829. fauna boreali-americana. Part First. Quadrupeds, p. i-xlvi, 
1-300, London. 

Contains original description of Sciuriu (Tamias) lysteri. 

Robinson, W. 

1923. WOODCHUCKS and chipmunks. Journ. Mamm. 4 (no. 4): 256-257, 
November. 

Account of a hibernating individual of Tamias striatus. 

Rowley, J. 

1902. THE MAMMALS OF WESTCHESTER COUNTY, NEW YORK. Abst. PrOC. 

Linnaean Soc. New York, nos. 13-14, p. 31-60. 
Contains notes on habits of Tamias striatus. 

Say, T. [in Edwin James]. 

1823. ACCOUNT OF an expedition from PITTSBURGH TO THE ROCKY MOUN- 
TAINS, PERFORMED IN THE YEARS 1819 AND 1820, UNDER THE COM- 
MAND OF MAJOR STEPHEN H. LONG. FROM THE NOTES OF MAJOR 
LONG, MR. T. SAY, AND OTHER GENTLEMEN OF THE EXPLORING PARTY. 

Compiled by Edwin James. Vol. 1, p. 1-503; vol. 2, p. 1-442 + 
appendix i-xcviii. 

Contains original description of Sciurus lEiUamias] quadrivittatus (vol. 2, p. 45). 

SCHREBER, J. C. D. 

1785. SAUGTHiERE 4: 790-802. 

Extended account of "das schwarz gestreifte Erd-Eichhorn" under the name Sciurus 
striatus: the American chipmunk first clearly separated from the Asiatic chipmunk. 

Seton, E. T. 

1909. LIFE HISTORIES OP NORTHERN ANIMALS. An account of the mammals 

of Manitoba. Vol. 1, Grass-eaters, p. i-xxx, 1-673, New York. 

Contains extended life histories of Tamias striatum griseus and Eutamias quadrivittatus 
neglectus [=E. minimus borealis]. 

1925-1928. LIVES of game animals. 4 vols.: p. 1-640; 1-746; 1-780; 

1-949; iUus. Garden City, N. Y. 

Contains (v. 4, p. 170-215) extended life histories of Eutamias minimus and Tamias 
striatus. 

Sherman, A. R. 

1926. PERIODICITY in THE CALLING OF A CHIPMUNK. Journ. Mamm. 7: 
p. 331-332, November. 

Notes on voice and feeding habits of Tamias striatus griseus. 

Shufeldt, R. W. 

1919. THE CHIPMUNK. Country Life 35 (no. 6) : 98 and 102, April. 

Notes on habits and partial hibernation of Tamias striatus. 

SOPER, J. D. 

1920. NOTES ON THE MAMMALS OF RIDOUT, DISTRICT OF SUDBURY, ONTARIO. 

Canadian Field-Naturalist 34 (no. 4) : 61-69, April. 

Contains notes on habits of Euiamias quadrivittatus neglectus [=E. minimus borealis] 
and Tamias striatus lysteri. 

Stephens, F. 

1906. CALIFORNIA MAMMALS, p. 1-351, San Diego. 

Contains descriptions and ranges of Eutamias alpinus, E. amrnnus, E. pictus, E. pana- 
minlinus, E. speciosus speciosus, E. s. calHpeplus, E. s. inyoensis, E. s. frater, E. qvAidri- 
maculatus, E. quadrimaculatus [towmendii] senex, E. hindsi [alleni], E. hindsi [merriami] 
pricei, E. merriami merriami, and E. townsendi ochrogenys. 

Stone, W. 

1908. THE MAMMALS OF NEW JERSEY. Ann. Rept. New Jersey State Mus., 
1907, p. 33-110. 

Contains account of habits of Tamias striatus. 

Stone, W., and W. E. Cram. 

1902. AMERICAN ANIMALS, p. 1-318, New York. 

Contains extensive account of habits of Tamias striatum. 



1929] 



EEVISION OF THE AMEKICAN CHIPMUNKS 



145 



SWARTH, H. S. 

1919. SOME siERRAN CHIPMUNKS. Sierra Club Bui. 10 (no. 4): 401-413, 
January. 

Habits of Eutamias merriami, E. guadrtvittatus frater, and E. alpinus; photographs of 
E. alpinus, E. frater, and E. quadrimaculatus. 

1922. BIRDS AND MAMMALS OF THE STIKINE RIVER REGION OF NORTHERN 

BRITISH COLUMBIA AND SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA. Uuiv. Calif. Publ. 

Zool. 24: 125-314, June 17. 

Habits of Eutamias borealis [minimum] caniceps as observed in the Telegraph Creek 
region, British Columbia. 

1924. BIRDS AND MAMMALS OF THE SKEENA RIVER REGION OF NORTHERN 

BRITISH COLUMBIA. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 24: 315-394, January 
24. 

Brief notes on habits of Eutamias amanus ludibundus as observed at Hazelton, British 
Columbia. 

Taylor, W. P. 

1911. MAMMALS OF THE ALEXANDER NEVADA EXPEDITION OF 1909. Uuiv. 

Calif. Publ. Zool. 7 (no. 7) : 205-307, June 24. 

Contains account of habits and distribution of Eutamias a. pictus.*^ 

Taylor, W. P., and W. T. Shaw. 

1927. MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK. Publica- 
tion (not numbered) of National Park Service, U. S. Dept. of Int., 
p. 1-249. 

Contains accounts of habits of Eutamias townsendii cooperi and E. amcenus caurinus. 
TOWNSEND, J. K. 

1839. NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY ACROSS THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, TO THE 

COLUMBIA RIVER, ETC., p. 1-352, Philadelphia. 

Contains description (p. 321) and habits of Tamias [Eutamias] townsendii. 

Walker, A. 

1923. A NOTE ON THE WINTER HABITS OF EUTAMIAS TOWNSENDII. Journ. 

Mamm. 4 (no. 4) : 257, November. 
Note on a hibernating individual. 

Warren, E. R. 

1909. A NEW CHIPMUNK PROM COLORADO. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 22: 

105-106, June 25. 

Contains original description of Eutamias quadrivittatiLS animosus. 

1910. THE MAMMALS OF COLORADO, p. 1-300, New York. 

Contains accounts of Eutamias dorsalis vtahensis, E. quadrivittatus quadrivittatus, E. 
q. animosus, E. q. hopiensis, E. amcenus [minimus] opernrius, E. minimus minimus. E. 
m. consobrinus, and E. m. caryi, with Ulustrations and distribution map. 

Wood, F. E. 

1910. a study of the mammals of champaign county, illinois. bul. 
Illinois state Laboratory of Natural History 8: 501-613. 
Contains extended notes on habits of Tamias striatus. 

" Part of the specimens recorded under this name are referable to E. amcenus monoensis. 
40279°— 29 10 



Plate 3 
(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. Tamias sMatus slnatus, S ad., Roan Mountain, N. C. (No. 54742, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). 

B. Tamias striatus lysteri, <? ad., Emsdale, Ontario (No. 75860, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). 

C. Tamias striatus grisetis, <? ad., Fort Snelling, Minn. (No. 122227, TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). 

T>. Tamias striaius venustus, 9 ad., Stilwell, Okla. (No. 87264, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection). 

E. Tamias striatus fisheri, S ad., Ossining, N. Y. (No. 135551, TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). 

E. Euiamias townseTidii townsendii, 9 ad., Portland, Oreg. (No. 142000, TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). 

G. Evtamias townsendii cooperi, 9 ad.. Mount Adams, Wash. (No. 226735, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). 

H. Euiamias townseTidii ochrogenys, 9 ad., Mendocino, Calif. (No. 91604, V. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). 

I. Euiamias townseTidii seriex, 9 ad., Donner, Calif. (No. 55203, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

J. Euiamias townsendii siskiyou, 9 ad., Siskiyou Mountains, Calif. (No. 91460, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection) . 

K. Euiamias alleni, 9 ad., Nicasio, Calif. (No. 68096, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

L. Euiamias townsendii sonomae, 9 ad.. Mount St. Helena, Calif. (No. 101287, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey coUection) . 

M. Eviamias qmdrimaculatv^, 9 ad., Michigan Bluff, Calif. (No. 43157, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey coUection). 

N. Euiamias merriami merriami, <? ad., San Bernardino Mountains, Calif. (No. 45004, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

O. Eviamias merriami pricei, 9 ad., Santa Cruz Mountains, Calif. (No. 107893, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey collection). 

P. Eviamias merriami kerneTisis, S ad., KemvUle, Calif. (No. 41479, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection). 

146 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



PLATE 3 




SKULLS OF TAMIAS AND EUTAMIAS 



North American Fauna No. 52. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



Plate 4 




SKUULS OF EUTAMIAS 



Plate 4 

(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. Eutamias merriami obscurus, 9 ad., San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California, Mexico (No. 

138617, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

B. Eutamias merriami meridionalis, 9 ad. (type), Aguaje de San Esteban, Lower California, Mexico 

(No. 139597, U. S, Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

C Eutamias dorsalis dorsalis, 9 ad., Head of Mimbres River, N. Mei. (No. 147257, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

D. Eutamias dorsalis vtahenm, 9 ad., Ogden, Utah (No. 55127, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey col- 

lection). 

E. Eutamias qwadrivittatus quadrivittatus, 9 ad., Canyon City, Colo. (No. 47905, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 

logical Survey collection). 

F. Eutamias quadrivittatus hopiensis, c? ad., Keam Canyon, Ariz. (No. 67766, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). 

G. Eutamias quadrivittatus frater, <? ad., Dormer, Calif. (No. 88662, TT. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

H. Eutamias quadrivittatus sequoiensis, 9 ad.. Sequoia National Park, Calif. (No. 42154, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

I. Eutamias quadrivittatus inyoemis, c? ad.. White Mountains, Calif. (No. 41469, V. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). 

J. Eutamias quadrivittatus speciosus, ^ ad., San Bernardino Mountains, CaJif. (No. 90042, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

K. Eutamias callipeplus, 9 ad.. Mount Pinos, Calif. (No. 55967, XJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection). 

L. Eutamias palmeri, ad., Charleston Peak, Nev. (No. 208904, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection). 

M. Eutamias ruficaudus ruficaudus, 9 ad., St. Mary Lake, Mont. (No. 72470, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

N. Eutamias ruficaudus simulans, 9 ad., Coeiu' d'Alene, Idaho (No. 40593, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

O. Eutamias umbrinus, 9 ad.. Lone Tree, Wyo. (No. 179210, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey col- 
lection). 

P. Eutamias adsitus, 9 ad., Beaver Mountains, Utah (No. 158131, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection). 

147 



Plate 5 

(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. Eidamias dnereicotlis cinerekolHs, 9 ad., San Francisco Mountain, Ariz. (No. 24531, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection) . 

B. Eviamias dnereicoUis dnereus, <? ad., Magdalena Mountains, N. Mex. (No. 167028, XJ. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

C. Eutamias dnereicoUis canipes, <? ad., Guadalupe Mountains, Tex. (No. 109228, U. S. Nat, Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

D. Eviamias bulleri solivagus, 9 ad.. Sierra Guadalupe, Coahuila, Mexico (No. 116881, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

E. Eviamias bulleri bulleri, c? ad., Valparaiso Mountains, Zacatecas, Mexico (No. 91967, IT. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection) . 

r. Eviamias bulleri durangae, 9 ad., Sierra Madre, near Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico (No. 
95333, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

G. Eviamias amoenus ainoenus, 9 ad., Fort Klamath, Oreg. (No. 90122, tJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

H Eviamias amoenus monoensis, <? ad., Pine City, near Mammoth, Calif. (No. 42100, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

I. Eviamias amoenus caurinus, c? ad. (type), Olympic Mountains, "Wash. (No. 90636, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

J. Eutamias amoenus afflnis, 9 ad., Ashcroft, British Columbia (No. 67015, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

K. Eviamias amoenus ocltraceus, <? ad., Siskiyou Mountains, Calif. (No. 161049, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey coUection) . 

L. Eutamias amoenus canicaxidm, d ad., Spoliane, Wash. (No. 31382, tJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
coUection) . 

M. Eutamias amoenus felix, 9 ad.. Mount Baker Range, British Columbia (No. 99732, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

N Eviamias amoenus Ivdibundus, 9 ad., Yellowhead Lake, British Columbia (No. 174107, TJ. S. Nat. 
Mus.). 

O. Eutamias amoenus vallicola, 9 ad., Bass Creek, Bitterroot Valley, Mont. (No. 168328, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

P. Eutamias amoenus luteiventris, 9 ad., St. Mary Lake, Mont. (No. 72291, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

148 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey PLATE 5 




Skulls of Eutamias 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



Plate 6 




SKULLS OF EUTAMIAS 



Plate 6 

(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. Eutamias minimus minimus, S ad., Green River, Wyo. (No. 55268, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). 

B. Eutamias minimus consobrinus, 9 ad.. Park City, Utah (No. 30038, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). 

C. Eutamias minimus operarius, 3 ad., Estes Park, Colo. (No. 74122, T7. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

D. Eutamias minimus caryi, <? ad., Medano Ranch, San Luis Valley, Colo. (No. 150741, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

E. Eutamias minimum pallidus, <? ad.. Billings, Mont. (No. 161352, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

F. Eutamias minimus cacodemus, adult, Cheyenne River, S. Dak. (No. 61444, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

G. Eviamias minimum oreocetes, 9 ad.. Summit Station, Mont. (No. 72468, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection) . 

H. Eutamias minimus atristriatus, 9 ad., Cloudcroft, N. Mei. (No. 118823, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). 

I. Eutamias minimus borealis, 9 ad.. Slave River, Alberta (No. 115758, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). 

J. Eutamias minimus caniceps, 9 ad.. Lake Marsh, Yukon (No. 99229, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection) . 

K. Eutamias minimus jacksoni, <? ad., Herbster, Wis. (No. 232137, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection) . 

L. Eutamias minimus arizonensis, <? ad.. White Movmtains, Ariz. (No. 209275, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection) . 

M. Eutamias minimus grisescens, <? subadult, (type). Farmer, Wash. (No. 89701, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey collection). 

N. Eutamias minimus pictus, 9 ad., Kelton, TJtah (No. 193198. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., B'ological Survey collec- 
tion) . 

O. Eviamias alpinus, 9 ad., Mormt Whitney, Calif. (No. 41212, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collec- 
tion). 

P. EuXamias panamintinus, 9 ad., Panamint Mountains, Calif. (No. 39756, TJ S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection) . 

149 



Plate 7 
(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. Tamiai striatua striatus, c? ad., Roan Mountain, N. C. CNo. 54742, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

B. Tamias striaius lysteri, t? ad., Emsdale, Ontario (No. 75860, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

C. Tamias striatus griseus, <? ad.. Fort SneUing, Minn. (No. 122227, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

D. Tamias striatus venuslus, <? ad., StilweU, Okla. (No. 87264, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

coDection) . 

E. Tamias striatus fisheri, S ad., Ossining, N. Y. (No. 135551, TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). 

F. Eutamias townscTidii towTisendii, 9 ad., Portland, Oreg. (No. 142000, U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

G. Eutamias townsendii cooperi, 9 ad.. Mount Adams, Wash. (No. 226735, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). 

H. Eutamias townsendii ochrogenys, 9 ad., Mendocino, Calif. (No. 91604, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection) . 

I. Eutamias townscTidii senex, 9 ad., Dormer, Calif. (No. 55203, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

J. Eutamias townsendii siskiyou, 9. ad., Siskiyou Mountains, CaL ^No. 91460, U. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey collection) . 

K. Etdamias alleni, 9 ad., Nicasio, Calif. (No. 68096, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Siirvey collection). 

L. Eutamias townsendii sonomae, 9 ad.. Mount St. Helena, Calif. (No. 101287, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey collection). 

M. Eutamias gtiadrimaculatus, 9 ad., Michigan Bluff,3 Calif. (No. 43157, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
coUection). 

N. Eutamias merriami merriami, <? ad., San Bernardino Moimtains, Calif. (No. 45004, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey coUection). 

O. Eutamias merriami pricei, 9 ad., Santa Cruz Mountains, Calif. (No. 107893, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey collection) . 

P. Eutamias merriami kernensis, <? ad., Kemville, Calif. (No. 41479, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection) . 

150 




SKULLS OF TAMIAS AND EUTAMIAS 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Survey PLATE 8 




SKULLS OF EUTAMIAS 



Plate 8 

(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. ' Eutamias merriami obscurus, 9 ad., San Pedro Martir Mountains, Lower California, Mexico (No. 

138617, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

B. Eutamias merriami meridionalis, 9 ad. (type), Aguaje de San Esteban, Lower California, Mexico 

(No. 139597, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

C. Eidamias dorsalis dorsalis, 9 ad.. Head of Mimbres River, N. Mex. (No. 147257, U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey coUeotion) . 

D. Eutamias dorsalis lUahensis, 9 ad., Ogden, Utah (No. 55127, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collec- 

tion) . 

E. Eutamias guadrivittatus quadrirnttatus, 9 ad.. Canyon City, Colo. (No. 47905, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biolog- 

ical Survey collection) . 

F. Eutamias guadrivittatus hopiensis, (? ad., Keam Canyon, Ariz. (No. 67766, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection) . 

G. Eutamias guadrivittatus frater, 9 ad.. Dormer, Cahf. (No. 88662, XT. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection) . 

H. Eutamias guadrivittatus seguoiensis, 9 ad., Sequoia National Park, Calif. (No. 42154, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey coDection) . 

I. Eutamias guadrivittatus inyoensis, S ad., White Mountains, Calif. (No. 41469, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biolog- 

ical Survey collection) . 

J. Eutamias guadrivittatus speciosus, S ad., San Bernardino Motmtains, Calif. (No. 90042, TJ. S. Nat. 
Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

K. Eutamias callipeplus, 9 ad.. Mount Pinos, Calif. (No. 55967, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey col- 
lection) . 

L. Eutamias palmeri, S ad., Charleston Peak, Nev. (No. 208904, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection) . 

M. Eutamias ruficaudus ruficaudus, 9 ad., St. Mary Lake, Mont. (No. 72470, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

N. Eutamias ruficaudus simulans, 9 ad., Coeur d'Alene, Idaho (No. 40593, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

O. Eutamias umbrinus, 9 ad.. Lone Tree, Wyo. (No. 179210, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collec- 
tion) . 

P. Eutamias adsitus, 9 ad., Beaver Mountains, TJtah (No. 158131, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection) . 

151 



Plate 9 
(Slightly less than natiual size) 

A. Eviamias dnereicoUis ciTureicollis, 9 ad., San Francisco Mountain, Ariz. (No. 24531, U. S. Nat. Mtis., 

Biological Survey collection). 

B. Evtamias cinereicoUis dnereus, <f a<L, Magdalena Mountains, N. Mex. (No. 167028, r. S. N'at. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

C. Ewtamias dnerekoUis canipes, <? ad., Guadalupe Mountains, Tex. (No. 109228, TJ. S. Xat. Mus., Bio- 

logical Survey collection). 

D. Eutamias bulleri solivagtis, 9 ad., Sierra Guadalupe, Coahuila, Mexico (No. 116881, V. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

E. Eutamias buUeri bulleri, i ad., Valparaiso Motmtains, Zacatecas, Mexico (No. 91967, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

F. Evlamioi bulUri durangae, 9 ad.. Sierra Madre, near Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico (No, 

95333, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

G. Eutamias amoenus amoenns, 9 ad., Fort Klamath, Greg. (No. 90122, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). 

H. Eviamias amoenus monoerms, c7 ad.. Pine City, near Mammoth, Calif. (No. 42100, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

I. Eutamias amoenus caurinus, <? ad. (type), Olympic Mountains, Wash. (So. 90636, TJ. S, Nat. Mus., 

Biological Survey collection). 

J. Eutamias oTnoenus affinis, 9 ad., Ashcroft, British Columbia (No. 67015, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

K. Eutamias amoenus ochraceus, <7 ad., Siskiyou Mountains, Calif. (No. 161049, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Bio- 
logical Survey collection). 

L. Eviamias amoenus canicau4us, S ad., Spokane, Wash. (No. 31382, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
collection). 

M. Evtamias amoenus felix, 9 ad.. Mount Baker Range, British Columbia (No. 99732. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. 
Biological Survey collection). 

N. Eutamias amoenus ludibundus, 9 ad., Yellowhead Lake, British Columbia (No. 174107, TJ. S. Nat. 
Mus., Biological Survey collection). 

O. Eutamias amoenus vallicola, 9 ad., Bass Creek, Bitterroot Valley, Mont. (No. 168328, TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 
Biological Survey collection). 

P. Eutamias amoenus lutdventris, 9 ad., St. Mary Lake, Mont. (No. 72291, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 
Survey collection). 

152 



r 



North American Fauna No. 5Z V. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Biological Sur\'ey 



Plate 9 




Skulls of Eutamias 



North American Fauna No. 52, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Biological Survey 



Plate 10 




SKULLS OF EUTAMIAS 



Plate lo 

(Slightly less than natural size) 

A. Eutamias minimus minimus, c? ad., Green River. Wyo. (No. 55268, U. S. Nat Mus . Bioloeioal 

Survey collection). > s • 

B. Eutamias minimum consobrinus, 9 ad., Park City, Utah (No. 30038, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Sur- 

vey collection). , & i^i^ 

C. Eutamias minimus operarius, S ad., Estes Park, Colo. (No. 74122, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

collection). ' 

D. Eutamias minimus caryi, 3 ad., Medano Ranch, San Luis Valley, Colo. (No. 150741, V. S Nat Mus . 

Biological Survey collection). 

^' ■^'ooUection)^"'™"^ pallidus, S ad., Billings, Mont. (No. 161352, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

F. Eutamias minimus cacodemus, adult, Cheyenne River, S. Dak. (No. 61444, TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). 

G. Eutamias minimus oreocetes, 9 ad.. Summit Station, Mont. (No. 72468, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection). > c • 

H. Eutamias minimus atristriatus, 9 ad., Cloudcroft, N. Mex. (No. 118823, V. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

Survey collection) . , e . 

I. Eutamias minimus borealis, 9 ad., Slave River, Alberta (No. 115768, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Sur- 

vGy coxicctiioii^ , 

J. Ewtamm^vnnimus caniceps, 9 ad.. Lake Marsh, Yukon (No. 99229, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 
^' ■^collectk)^'"''""* jacksoni, c? ad., Herbster, Wis. (No. 232137, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

L. Eutamias minimus arizonensis, ad.. White Mountains, Ariz. (No. 209275, U. S. Nat Mus Bio- 
logical burvey collection). 

M. Eutamias minimus grisescens, <? subadult (type). Farmer, Wash. (No. 89701, U. S Nat Mus Bioloe- 
ical bur vey collection). ■> a 

wU^ctioS'"'"'"* ^ ^^^^ 1^31^8' ^- Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

°' '^'cScUon)^""'' ^ Whitney, Calif. (No. 41212, V. S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey 

P. i^j^ajTOOi <? ad., Panamint Mountains, Calif. (No. 39766, U. S. Nat. Mus., Biological 

153 



INDEX 



[Synonyms in italics] 



Acknowledgments, 2. 
adsitus, Eutamias, 93. 
affinis, Eutamias amoenus, 71. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 71. 
alleni, Eutamias, 119. 
alpinus, Eutamias, 34. 

Tamias, 34. 
americana, Tamias, 14. 
americanus, Sciurus striatus, 14. 
amcenus, Eutamias amoenus, 61. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 61. 
animosus, Eutamias quadrivittatus, 80. 
arizonensis, Eutamias minimus, 52. 
asiaticus, Eutamias, 23. 
atristriatus, Eutamias minimus, 51. 

borealis, Eutamias minimus, 54. 

Eutamias quadrivittatus, 54. 

Tamias asiaticus, 54. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 54. 
Breeding, 8. 

bulleri, Eutamias buUeri, 102. 

Tamias asiaticus, 102. 
Burrows and nests, 4. 

cacodemus, Eutamias minimus, 44. 
callipeplus, Eutamias, 91. 

Tamias, 91. 
canescens, Eutamias, 131. 
canicaudus, Eutamias amoenus, 70. 
caniceps, Eutamias minimus, 58. 
canipes, Eutamias cinereicollis, 101. 
caryi, Eutamias minimus, 42. 
caurinus, Eutamias amcenus, 76. 
Chipmunk, alpine, 34. 

Badlands, 44. 

Beaver Mountain, 93. 

Bighorn, 45. 

Bitterroot VaUey, 69. 

black-striped, 51. 

buff-bellied, 66. 

Gary's, 42. 

clifE, 131. 

Coahuila, 105. 

Coeur d'Alene, 97. 

Columbian, 71. • 

Cooper's, 110. 

Coulee, 41. 

Durango, 104. 

Fisher's, 16. 

gray, 20. 

gray-collared, 99. 

gray-footed, 101. 

gray-tailed, 70. 
Great Basin, 39. 
HoUister's, 73, 



Chipmunk, Hopi, 83. 
Inyo, 84. 
Kern Basin, 127. 
Klamath, 61. 
Lake Superior, 59. 
large mountain, 114. 
larger Colorado, 79. 
least, 36. 

lesser Arizona, 52. 
lesser Colorado, 48. 
long-eared, 121. 
Magdalena, 100. 
Marin, 119. 
Merriam's, 123. 
Mono, 65. 
Mount Finos, 91. 
northeastern, 18. 
northern, 54. 
ochraceous, 64. 
Olympic, 76. 
Falmer's, 92. 
Fanamint, 78. 
peninsula, 130. 
plains, 42. 
redwood, 112. 
rufous-tailed, 96. 
San Bernardino, 89. 
San Fedro Martir, 129. 
Santa Cruz, 127. 
Sequoia, 88. 
Siberian, 23. 
Sierra Madre, 102. 
Siskiyou, 113. 
Sonoma, 117. 
southeastern, 14. 
southwestern, 21. 
Tahoe, 86. 
tawny, 75. 
timberline, 53. 
Townsend's, 106. 
"Uinta, 94. 
Utah cliff, 133. 
Wasatch, 46. 

Yukon, 58. . 
cinereicoUis, Eutamias cinereicollis, 99. 

Tamias, 99. 
cinereus, Eutamias cinereicollis, 100. 
clarus, Eutamias consohrinus, 46. 
Color pattern, Eutamias, 27. 

Tamias, 13. 
confinis, Eutamias minimus, 45. 
consobrinus, Eutamias minimus, 46. 

Tamias minimus, 46. 
cooperi, Eutamias townsendii, 110. 

Tamias, 110. 
Cranial measurements, 23, 135. 

155 



156 



NORTH 



AMERICAN FAUNA 



[No. 62 



Distribution maps: 

Eutamias (genus), 3. 

adsitus, 81. 

alleni, 107. 

alpinus, 34. 

amoenus, 62. 

buUeri, 81. 

callipeplus, 81. 

cinereicoUis, 81. 

dorsalis, 124. 

merriami, 124. 

minimus, 37. 

palmeri, 81. 

panamintinus, 62. 

quadrimaculatus, 121. 

quadrivittatus, 81. 

ruficaudus, 81. 

townsendii, 107. 

umbrinus, 81. 
Tamias (genus), 3. 

striatus, 15. 
dorsalis, Eutamias dorsalis, 131. 

Tamias, 131. 
durangse, Eutamias bulleri, 104. 

Economic status, 10. 
Eutamias (genus), 23. 

(subgenus), 26. 

adsitus, 93. 

affinis, 71. 

alleni, 119. 

alpinus, 34. 

amcenus, 61. 

animosus, 80. 

arizonensis, 52. 

asiaticus, 23. 

atristriatus, 48. 

borealis, 54. 

buUeri, 102. 

cacodemus, 44. 

callipeplus, 91. 

canescens, 131. 

canicaudus, 70. 

caniceps, 58. 

canipes, 101. 

caryi, 42. 

caurinus, 76. 

cinereicoUis, 99. 

cinereus, 100. 

clarus, 46. 

confinis, 45. 

consobrinus, 46. 

cooperi, 110. 

dorsalis, 131. 

durangae, 104. 

felix, 75, 96. 

frater, 86. 

frisescens, 41. 
indsi, 119. 
hopiensis, 83. 
inyoensis, 84. 
jacksoni, 59. 
kernensis, 127. 
leclus, 46. 
ludibundus, 73. 
luteiventris, 66. 
mariposse, 123, 



Eutamias, meridionalis, 130. 

merriami, 123. 

minimus, 36. 

monoensis, 65. 

neglectus, 59. 

obscurus, 129. 

ochraceus, 64. 

ochrogenys, 112. 

operarius, 48. 

oreocetes, 53. 

pallidus, 42. 

palmeri, 92. 

panamintinus, 78. 

pictus, 39. 

pricei, 127. 

propinquus, 61. 

quadrimaculatus, 121. 

quadrivittatus, 79. 

ruficaudus, 96. 

senex, 114. 

sequoiensis, 88. 

simulans, 97. 

Siskiyou, 113. 

soUvagus, 105. 

sonomse, 117. 

speciosus, 89. 

townsendii, 106. 

umbrinus, 94. 

utahensis, 133. 

vaUicola) 69. 
External characters, Eutamias, 27. 

Tamias, 12. 

felix, Eutamias amcEnus, 75. 

Eutamias quadrivittatus, 75. 

Eutamias umbrinus, 96. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 75. 
fisheri, Tamias striatus, 16. 
Food, 9. 

Forms, list of, Eutamias, 29. 

Tamias, 13. 
frater, Eutamias quadrivittatus, 86. 

Tamias, 86. 

Generic characters, Eutamias, 26. 

Tamias, 12. 
Geographic distribution, 2. 
gracilis, Tamias quadrivittatus, 80. 
grisescens, Eutamias minimus, 41. 
griseus, Tamias striatus, 20. 

Habitat, 2. 
Hibernation, 5. 
hindei, Tamias, 106. 
hindsi, Eutamias, 119. 
hindsii, Tamias, 106. 

Tamias townsendii, 119. 
History and nomenclature, Eutamias, 
23. 

Tamias, 11. 
hopiensis, Eutamias quadrivittatus, 83. 

inyoensis, Eutamias quadrivittatus, 84. 
Tamias callipeplus, 84. 

jacksoni, Eutamias minimus, 59. 



1929] 



REVISION OF THE AMERICAN CHIPMUNKS 



157 



]£ernensis, Eutamias merriami, 127. 
Key, genera and subgenera, 11. 

species and subspecies, Eutamias, 
30. 

Tamias, 14. 

lectus, Eutamias, 46. 
Life history, 2. 

littoralis, Tamias townsendi, 106. 
ludibundus, Eutamias amoenus, 73. 
luteiventris, Eutamias amoenus, 66. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 66. 
lysteri, Sciurus {Tamias), 18. 

Tamias striatus, 18. 

macrorhabdotes, Tamias, 121. 
Maps (see Distribution). 
mariposas, Eutamias merriami, 123. 
melanurus, Tamias minimus, 39. 
meridionalis, Eutamias merriami, 130. 
merriami, Eutamias merriami, 123. 

Tamias asiaticus, 123. 
minimus, Eutamias minimus, 36. 

Tamias, 36. 
monoensis, Eutamias amcsnus, 65. 

neglectus, Eutamias borealis, 59. 

Eutamias quadrivittatus, 59. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 54, 59. 
Neotamias (subgenus), 26. 
nexus, Tamias, 104. 

obscurus, Eutamias merriami, 129. 

Tamias, 129. 
ochraceus, Eutamias amoenus, 64. 
ochrogenys, Eutamias townsendii, 112. 

Tamias townsendi, 112. 
operarius, Eutamias amoenus, 48. 

Eutamias minimus, 48. 
oreocetes, Eutamias minimus, 53. 

pallidus, Eutamias minimus, 42. 

Tamias asiaticus, 42. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 42. 
palmeri, Eutamias, 92. 
panamintinus, Eutamias, 78. 

Tamias, 78. 
Pelage and molt, Eutamias, 28. 

Tamias, 13. 
pictus, Eutamias minimus, 39. 

Tamias minimus, 39. 
pricei, Eutamias merriami, 127. 

Tamias, 127. 
propinquus, Eutamias amcenus, 61. 

quadrimaculatus, Eutamias, 121. 

Tamias, 121. 
quadrivittatus, Eutamias quadrivitta- 
tus, 79. 

Sciurus, 79. 

Spermophilus, 79. 

Tamias, 48, 79, 80. 

ruficaudus, Eutamias ruficaudus, 96. 



senex, Eutamias townsendii, 114. 

Tamias, 114. 
sequoiensis, Eutamias quadrivittatus, 
88. 

simulans, Eutamias ruficaudus, 97. 
Siskiyou, Eutamias townsendii, 113. 
solivagus, Eutamias bulleri, 105. 
sonomae, Eutamias townsendii, 117. 
speciosus, Eutamias quadrivittatus, 89. 

Tamias, 89. 
Storage of food, 4. 
striatus, Myoxus, 14. 

Sciurus, 14. 

Tamias striatus, 14. 

Tamias (genus), 11. 

afflnis, 71. 

amoenus, 61. 

borealis, 54. 

bulleri, 102. 

callipeplus, 91. 

cinereicollis, 99. 

consobrinus, 46. 

cooperi, 110. 

dorsalis, 131. 

felix, 75. 

fisheri, 16. 

f rater, 86. 

gracilis, 80. 

griseus, 20. 

hindei, 106. 

hindsii, 106, 119. 

inyoensis, 84. 

littoralis, 106. 

luteiventris, 66. 

lysteri, 18. 

macrorhabdotes, 121. 

melanurus, 39. 

merriami, 123. 

neglectus, 54, 59. 

nexus, 104. 

obscurus, 129. 

ochrogenys, 112. 

pallidus, 42. 

pricei, 127. 

quadrimaculatus, 121. 

quadrivittatus, 48, 79. 

senex, 114. 

speciosus, 89. 

striatus, 14 

townsendii, 106. 

umbrinus, 94. 

venustus, 21. 
townsendii, Eutamias townsendii, 106. 

Tamias, 106. 

Type localities, list of, Eutamias, 29. 
Tamias, 13. 

umbrinus, Eutamias, 94. 

Tamias, 94. 
utahensis, Eutamias dorsalis, 133. 

vallicola, Eutamias amoenus, 69. 
venustus, Tamias striatus, 21. 
Voice, 8, 



o